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iipi    —  il.lHIUM>i 







Cwentkri)  Centurp  Impressions 

Bonflkonfl,  SbangDait  and  otDer  Creatp 

Ports  of  Cbina: 


Editor-in-Chief:    ARNOLD   WRIGHT    (London). 
Assistant  Editor  :    H.  A.  CARTWRIGHT    (Hongkong  and  Shanghai). 

London,    Durban,    Perth  (W.A.),  Colombo,    Singapore,    Hongkong, 
Shanghai,   Bangkoli  (Siam),    Batavia  (Netherlands  India),  and  Cairo  : 






(Governor  of  Hongkong,  Comm»nder-ln-Chlef,  and  Vice- Admiral) ,  and 


^H  Hry^^H 

^^K       k     ^1 

^^^^^^^^HpF   \  '^"i^^i^-  fvH^^        ^^1 



i ^ 


(British  Minister  at  Peking) 


IHIS  xvorh  is  the  outcome  of  an  enter-prise  designed  to  give  in  an  attractive  form  full  and 
rcliatile  information  with  reference  to  the  outlying  parts  of  the  Empire.  The  value  of  a  fuller 
knowledge  of  the  " Britains  beyond  the  Sea"  and  the  great  dependencies  of  the  Crown  as 
a  means  of  tightening  the  bonds  which  unite  the  component  parts  of  the  King's  dominions 
was  insisted  upon  by  Mr.  Chamberlain  in  a  memorable  speech,  and  the  same  note  ran 
through  the  Prince  of  Wales's  impressive  Mansion  House  address  in  which  His  Royal  Highness  summed 
up  the  lessons  of  his  tour  through  the  Empire,  from  which  he  had  then  just  returned.  In  some  instances, 
notably  the  case  of  Canada,  the  local  Governments  have  done  much  to  diffuse  in  a  popular  form  infor- 
mation relative  to  the  territory  which  they  administer.  But  there  are  other  centres  in  which  official 
enterprise  in  this  direction  has  not  been  possible,  or,  at  all  events,  in  which  action  has  not  been  taken, 
and  it  is  in  this  prolific  field  that  the  publishers  are  working.  So  far  they  have  found  ample  justificalion 
for  their  labours  in  the  widespread  public  interest  taken  in  their  operations  in  the  colonies  which  have 
been  the  scene  of  their  work,  and  in  the  extremely  cordial  reception  given  by  the  Press,  both  home  and 
colonial,  to  the  completed  results. 

Briefly,  the  aim  which  the  publishers  keep  steadily  before  them  is  to  give  a  perfect  microcosm  of  the 
colony  or  dependency  treated.  As  old  Stow,  with  patient  application  and  scrupulous  regard  for  accuracy, 
set  himself  to  survey  the  London  of  his  day,  so  the  workers  employed  in  the  production  of  this  series 
endeavour  to  give  a  picture,  complete  in  every  particular,  of  the  distant  possessions  of  the  Crown.  But 
topography  is  only  one  of  the  features  treated.  Responding  to  modern  needs  and  tastes,  the  literary  investi- 
gators devote  their  attention  to  every  important  phase  of  life,  bringing  to  the  elucidation  of  the  subjects 
treated  the  powerful  aid  of  the  latest  and  best  methods  of  pictorial  illustration.  Thus  a  work  is  compiled 
which  is  not  only  of  solid  and  enduring  value  for  purposes  of  reference  and  for  practical  business  objects, 
but  is  of  unique  interest  to  all  who  are  interested  in  the  development  of  the  Empire. 

In  all  essential  features  the  present  volume  follows  closely  upon  the  lines  of  the  earlier  works  on  Western 
Australia,  Natal,  Ceylon,  and  British  Malaya,  and  deals  fully  with  the  history,  administration,  population, 
commerce,  industries,  and  potentialities  of  the  territories  to  which  it  relates.  In  one  respect,  however,  it 
differs  from  its  predecessors,  for,  while  they  have  been  devoted  exclusively  to  British  Colonies,  this  book,  as 
its  title  indicates,  deals  also  with  settlements  which  are  only  partially  British.  But  there  is  ample  excuse,  if 
excuse  he  needed,  for  this  departure  from  precedent.  More  than  one  half  the  imports  and  exports  of  China 
passes  through  the  various  Treaty  Ports,  and  it  would  have  been  a  negation  of  one  of  the  avowed  objects 
of  these  publications  if  no  attempt  had  been  made  to  show  the  present-day  tendency  of  this  trade  and 
how  the  proportion  borne  by  the  British  Empire  compares  with  that  of  its  competitors.  Nor  must  it  be 
forgotten  thai  Canton,  Amoy,  Foochow,  Ningpo,  and  Shanghai,  the  first  five  ports  in  China  to  which 
foreign  merchandise  was  admitted  without  hindrance  or  interference,  were  thrown  open  in  1842  as  the 
direct   result   of   British   influence,   which   was   also   responsible   in    i8_=;8  for  the   extension   of  this  privilege 





to  N*trckmamg,  Ckefoo,  Tatwan  (Fonuosa),  Svalow,  Hainan,  and  three  ports  on  the  Yangtsze-k'iang.  Tliough 
the  British  Consuls  have  long  ceased  to  be  the  only  mediums  of  communication  between  foreigners  and  the 
local  Chinese  authorities,  British  interests  are  still  very  powerful,  and  in  some  cases  the  British  communities 
are   self-governing. 

Although  tkt  whole  of  the  Treaty  Ports,  numbering  upwards  of  forty,  hare  not  been  dealt  with 
separately,  the  most  important  have  been  selected,  and  they  are  sufficient  for  our  purpose  since  tliey  receive 
the  kulh  <^  the  trade  of  the  minor  ports.  This  is  especially  true  of  Canton  in  its  relation  to  the  other 
Treaty  Ports  on  the  West  River,  and  of  Shanghai  in  relation  to  some  of  the  smaller  ports  lying  along 
tkt  banks  of  the  Yangtsze-Kiang. 

The  wide  distances  which  divide  the  ports,  and  the  peculiar  conditions  zcliich  prevail  in  them  have 
rendered  Ike  task  of  the  compilers  one  of  no  little  difficulty.  The  foreign  settlements  are  occupied  by 
representatives  of  different  nationalities  answerable  to  their  own  Consuls,  subject  to  the  laws  of  their  own 
countries,  and,  in  many  instances,  organised  into  independent  local  governing  communities,  so  that,  though 
tkty  form  collectively  one  homogeneous  whole,  they  are,  in  actual  fact,  a  congeries  of  separate  and  distinct 
units.  But  neitker  trouble  nor  expense  has  been  spared  in  the  attempt  to  cover  the  ground  adequately 
and  secure  full  and  tiustworihy  information  in  a'crx  direction.  As  in  previous  works,  the  services  of 
acknowledged  experts  have  been  enlisted  wherever  possible.  The  historical  sections  have  been  written  from 
original  materials  preserved  at  the  India  Office,  the  British  Museum,  and  other  national  institutions.  In 
Hongkong  much  valued  assistance  has  been  freely  rendered  by  the  heads  of  the  various  Government  depart- 
ments, and  the  Editor  is  especially  indebted  to  H.E.  Sir  F.  J.  D.  Lugard,  K.C.M.G.,  C.B..  D.S.O.,  the 
Goremor,  and  Ike  Hon.  Mr.  F.  H.  May,  C.M.G.,  the  Colonial  Secretary,  who  have  given  all  the  encourage- 
ment that  lay  in  their  power  to  the  enterprise.  In  Shanghai  the  Municipal  Aiithorilics  have  shown  every 
courtesy,  and  in  the  various  Treaty  Ports  the  British  Consular  Officers,  the  Customs  Officers,  and  the 
Municipal  Secretaries,  have  placed  the  compilers  under  an  obligation  which   is  gratefully  acknowledged. 

Otrviously  a  work  of  this  magnitude  cannot  be  produced  except  at  very  considerable  cost.  As  the 
publisliers  do  not  ask  for  any  Government  subsidy,  because  of  the  restrictions  which  it  might  impose 
uptm  them,  this  cost  has  to  be  met  in  part  by  receipts  from  the  sale  of  copies  and  in  part  by  revenue 
from  Ike  insertion  of  commercial  photographs.  The  publishers  venture  to  think  that  this  fact  furnishes 
no  ground  for  adverse  criticism.  The  piinciple  is  that  adopted  by  the  highest  class  of  newspapers  and 
magazines  all  oi'er  the  world.  Moreover,  it  is  claimed  that  these  photographs  add  to,  rather  than 
detract  from,  the  value  of  the  book.  They  serve  to  show  the  manifold  interests  of  the  country,  and, 
u-ilk  Ike  accompanying  descriptive  letterpress,  which  is  independently  written  by  members  of  the  staff  from 
personal  observation,  they  constitute  a  picturesque  and  useful  feature  that  is  not  without  interest  to  the 
general  reader  and  student  of  economics,  while  it  is  of  undoubted  value  to  business  men  throughout 
the  British    Empire. 

AUCL'ST,  1908. 




Early  History  and  Uevklopme.nt.     By  Arnold  Wright 13 


The  Local  Legislature 99 

The  Courts loi 

The  Laws.     By  C.  D.  Wilkinson 102 


Finance.     By  The  Hon.  Mr.  A.  M.  Thomson,  Coloiiinl  Treasurer 113 

Education.     By  G.  H.  B.ateson  Wright,  D.D.  (Oxon.),  Headmaster  of  Queen's  College, 

Hongkoiif^ 121 

Public  Works.     By  The  Hon.  Mr.  W.  Chatham,  C.M.G.,  Director  of  Public  Works    .  129 

Posts,  Cables,  and  Telephones '33 

Flora.     By  S.  T.  DuxN,  B.A.,  F.L.S.,  J. P.,  Snperinteiidcut  of  the  Botaiiicnl  and  Forestry 

Department,  Hoiiiikong 135 

Fauna — 

General.     By  J.  C.  Kershaw,  Autlior  of  "  Butterflies  of  Hongkong"       ...  138 

Butterflies.     By  J.  C.  Kershaw i39 

Birds.    By  Staff-Surgeon  Kenneth  H.  Jones,  K.\ 141 

Hongkong  (Descriptive).     By  H.  A.  Cartwright i45 

The  Sanitary  Board.     By  A.  Shelton  Hooper     .......  157 

Harbour  and  Shipping.     By  Commander  Basil  Taylor,  R.X.,  Harbour  Master  .         .  188 

Hongkong  Industries 235 

Sport,     By  J.  W.  Bains,  Sports  Editor  of  the  "  China  Mail " 250 

Health  and  Hospitals.      By  The  Hon.  Dr.  J.  M.  Atkinson,  Principal   Civil   Medical 

Officer 262 

Police.    Prisons,    and    Fire    Brigade.      By    Captain    F.  W.    Lyons,  Acting   Captain- 
Superintendent  of  Police,  Hongkong 266 

Navy,,  and  Volunteers 272 

The  Hongkong  Volunteer  Corps.     By  Major  Chapman,  Commandant      .        .  274 

The  Foreign  Trade  of  China 278 

The  Chinese  Imperial  Maritime 282 

The  Currency  of  China 288 

The  Silk  Industry 290 

Tea.     By  H.  T.  Wade •      .        .        .        .  294 

Cotton.     By  James  Kerfoot,  M.I.M.E 302 

The  Flora  of  China 304 

Ceremonies  and  Customs  of  the  Chinese.     By  S.  W.  Tso 307 

Chinese  Characters.     By  James  B.  Wong,  B.A 319 

Ecclesiastical — 

The  Roman  Catholic  Church.     By  Father  J.  de  Moidrey,  S.J.        ...  321 

The  Anglican  Communion.     By  The  Ven.  Archdeacon  Banister       .        .        .  326 

Protestant  Missions  in  China.     By  The  Rev.  J.  Steele,  B.A 332 

The  Ancient  Faiths  of  the  Chinese.     By  The  Rev.  T.  W.  Pearce         .        .  337 






Thk  Pkkss.     By  W.  H.  Doxai.k.  Editor  of  the  "China  Mail  "  . 


Local  Goverxsiknt  and  Law.     By  H.  A.  Cartwright 
Police.    By  K.  J.  McEiKX.  Deputy  Superintendent  of  Police 


Shanc-.mai  Fire  Bri<;adk 

PiBi.ic  Works.    Supplied  by  the  Pihlic  Works  Department 
Health  axd  Hosi"Itaij>.    By  Arthur  Stanley,  M.D..  B.S.Lond.,  D.P.H 

KiSASCK  axii  Baxkim; 

Shippixu.  Commerce,  and  Ci'stoms 


Posts,  Cable.s.  and  Telephones 

Sport.    By  W.  R.  Parkin 

Meteorology — 

HoNOKoNu.    By  K.  G.  Figg,  Director  of  the  Hongkong  Observatory 

,  Health  Officer 


Chinese  WEKiHTs,  Measures,  and  Money. 

CoxcLfDiNG  Note 



Shanghai.    By  The  Rev.  Father  Froc,  Director  of  Siccawei 

Leading  Re,sidents  of  Shanghai 

Prominent  Residents 


The  Foreign  Commercial  Community 

The  Oriental  Commercial  Community 

The  Railways  of  China 

Mixes  axd  Mixkraus  in  Manchuria.    By  Reginald  Bate,  K.K.G.S 






Xkwchwaxg.     By  Regixai.d  Bate,  K.R.G.S 





Canton.    By  H.  A.  Cartwright 

Macau.    By  Pedro  Nolasco  da 

The  Lappa  Customs.    By  A.  H.  Wilzer,  Commissioner  of  Customs 


Amov.     By  Cecil  A.  V.  Bowra,  Commissioner  of  Customs 














CiDcntletD  Ccnturp  Impressions  or  1>oiidkoiid, 
SbangDai,  and  otber  Creatp  Ports : 


By  Arnold  Wright. 


Early  European  Trade  with  China — The  Portuguese  at  Macao — Efforts  of  EngHsh  to  Open  Trade- 
EstabHshment  of  Enghsh   Factory  in  Japan — The  English  and  the   Dutch  in  China. 

JN  the  history  of  European  Com- 
merce there  is  no  more 
interesting,  and,  in  its  influ- 
ence on  international  events, 
no  more  important  chapter 
than  that  which  relates  to 
the  opening  of  the  Chinese 
Empire  to  British  trade.  The  long  drawn 
out  struggle  which  in  its  earliest  stage  culmi- 
nated in  the  Treaty  of  Nanking  was  something 
more  than  a  contest  for  the  right  to  barter. 
It  was  a  fight  between  two  opposite,  and  to 
a  very  large  extent  antagonistic,  systems  of 
civilisation.  On  the  one  hand  was  the  East, 
self-contained,  self-absorbed,  living  its  narrow 
life  in  beatific  indifference  to,  if  not  positive 
ignorance  of,  the  remainder  of  the  world. 
What  it  did  not  know  was  not  knowledge  ; 
those  who  were  outside  its  pale  were  bar- 
barians ;  its  rulers  were  the  rulers  of  all 
things  mundane  and  of  some  things  celestial. 
On  the  other  side  was  the  West,  bustling, 
aggressive,  sometimes  arrogant,  confident  in 
itself  and  conscious  of  its  power,  infused 
with  a  spirit  of  progress  which  gained  ad- 
ditional impetus  as  every  new  discovery  of 
science  furnished  it  with  fresh  weapons  to 
use  to  batter  down  the  wall  which  racial 
prejudice  and  exclusiveness  had  reared  up 
against  it.  That  one  misunderstood  the  other 
— was  indeed  profoundly  ignorant  of  the 
motives  which  were  the  mainsprings  of  the 
otiier's  action — added  intensity  to  the  battle. 
To  the  official  Chinese  the  efforts  of  the  Euro- 
pean to  make  his  foothold  good  on  the  soil 

of  China  were  an  unwarrantable  intrusion  on 
the  part  of  a  visitor  with  many  objectionable 
characteristics.  As  for  the  European,  and 
especially  the  Britisher,  he  could  see  in  the 
determined  measures  to  keep  him  at  arm's 
length — a  suppliant  and  humble  guest  without 
the  gate — only  the  bigoted  manifestations  of 
a  diseased  egotism  added  to  a  crass  and  viru- 
lent congenital  dislike  of  the  foreigner.  And 
so  the  conflict  went  on  until  the  door  was 
violently  forced  from  without  and  the  breath 
of  a  new  life  was  breathed  into 
China.  Then  the  giant  stirred,  but  it  was 
only  the  stretching  of  the  sleeper  before  the 
full  awakening.  Another  half-century  or 
more  was  to  pass  and  China  was  to  see  in 
blacker  outline  the  shadow  of  irretrievable 
disaster  before  the  lessons  of  the  West  were 
received,  and  even  then  her  acceptance  was 
only  partial  and  hesitating.  It  remained  for 
the  cataclysm  of  the  Russo-Japanese  War  to 
drive  home  at  last  the  moral  taught,  if  China 
could  only  have  realised  it  by  the  first  European 
ship  that  visited  her  shores,  that  China  was  not 
the  world  and  that  if  she  would  preserve  her 
independence  and  her  self-respect  she  must 
avail  herself  of  the  advantages  of  Western 
civilisation,  not  the  least  of  which  are  those 
which  pertain  to  an  uninterrupted  commerce. 
When  Albuquerque  and  his  men  descended, 
as  Sir  George  Birdwood  picluresquely  puts 
it,  "like  a  pack  of  hungry  wolves"  upon  an 
astonished  Eastern  world,  tliey  found  trade 
flowing  in  tranquil  fashion  in  channels  which 
had    been    used    for    ages.     Vessels    hugging 

the  shore  made  their  way  from  the  Chinese 
coast  to  Singhapura  or  to  some  other  port  in 
the  straits,  from  whence  their  cargoes  were 
carried  by  Arab  craft  to  India  and  Persia. 
Overland  the  rich  fabrics  and  spices  of  the 
East  were  transmitted  to  the  Levant  for  dis- 
tribution to  the  more  populous  centres  of 
Europe.  The  trade  was  a  strictly  Oriental 
one.  An  occasional  European  traveller,  like 
Marco  Polo,  found  his  way  into  the  interior 
of  China  and  even  over  portions  of  the  sea 
route ;  but  it  had  not  entered  into  the  calcu- 
lations of  the  most  imaginative  that  from 
beyond  the  sea  would  come  in  great  ships 
bodies  of  men  of  this  strange  white  race  whose 
existence  was  a  mere  shadowy  myth  to  the 
great  mass  of  the  population.  With  wonder, 
therefore,  not  unmingled  with  awe,  the  stran- 
gers were  received  at  the  places  at  which 
they  touched.  In  the  case  of  the  Chinese  a 
feeling  of  superstitious  dread  tinged  the  lively 
apprehensions  which  the  appeaiance  of  the 
Portuguese  barques  in  the  China  Sea  excited. 
From  immemorial  times  had  come  down  a 
tradition  that  the  Chinese  Empire  would  one 
day  be  conquered  by  a  fair-haired  grey-eyed 
race.  The  legend  pointed  to  the  advent  of 
the  conquerors  in  the  north,  but  there  was 
suflicient  identity  between  the  story  and  the 
actual  facts  of  the  mysterious  appearance 
of  the  strangers  from  the  beyond  to  give 
potency  to  fears  which,  perhaps,  were  never 
absent  from  the  minds  of  the  ruling  classes 
of  China  owing  to  the  enormous  stretch  of 
frontier    and   the   difficulties    of    maintaining 


(Fraai  a  pciDi  ia  Or  Goj-tf-  and  De  Keyicr't  account  of  the  Dutch  Embassy  to  China  in  1655.) 

onier  inberent  in  the  vastness  of  the  empire. 
It  is  a  motA  point  whether  it  was  not  the 
faiBuencc  of  this  natiiMial  myth  which  dictated 
the  policy  of  etcluson  so  stubtxtrnly  enfor- 
ced ajtiinst  Kuropcaiis  (or  three  and  a  half 
ccntnncs.  Old  writers,  tike  the  authors  of 
tbe  actxmnl  of  the  Dutch  Embassy  to  China 
in  1655,  are  inclined  to  adopt  this  view,  and 
it  is  one  which  is  in  complete  harmony  with 
tbe  altitude  conxixtetitly  a^sumed  from  the 
nwaicnt  that  European  ship*  wire  seen  in 
Cbincae  waters.  Ihe  first  reception  of  the 
Portogoese  when  they  appeared  off  the  Canton 
River  in  1516  wa<,  however,  not  entirely 
Dafnendly.  The  fleet  was  one  despatched 
from  Malacca  by  Albuquerque  and  com- 
manded by  a  l»ld  and  adventurous  sailor 
named  Pcreiirclto.  The  ships  returned  to 
Malacca  witboid  entering  the  Canton  Kiver, 

but  Perestrello  had  seen  enough  to  enable  him 
to  report  very  favourably  on  tlie  prospects  of 
trade.  Stimulated  by  the  prospect  of  obtain- 
inj;  entrance  to  a  new  and  pro<luctive  market 
the  Portuguese  Viceroy  the  next  year  sent  a 
squadron  of  eight  vessels  under  the  command 
of  Perez  de  Andrade.  In  due  course  the 
ships  reached  the  Chinese  coast,  and  without 
hesitation  de  Andrade  directed  a  course  past 
the  islands  and  up  the  river.  Great  was  the 
alarm  of  the  Chinese  at  the  appearance  of 
these  strange  ships,  so  strikingly  different 
in  form  from  those  with  which  they  were 
familiar.  Fearing  an  invasion  the  authorities 
promptly  surrounded  the  intruding  ships  by 
war  junks.  De  Andrade  protested  his  peaceful 
intentions,  and  eventually,  after  considerable 
argument,  persuaded  the  authorities  to  allow 
him  to  take  two  of  his  ships  up  the  river  to 

Canton.     At     Canton    de    Andrade    had    an 
audience  with  the  Viceroy,  and  was  successful 
in  extracting  from    him  permission    to  Uade. 
His    satisfaction    at    this    excellent    stroke    of 
business  was  somewhat  moditied  when  news 
reached  him,  as  it  did  at  about  the  time  that 
the    negotiations    were    completed,    that    the 
vessels  he  had  left  at  the  mouth  of  the  river 
had   been   heavily  attacked   by  piiates.     The 
damage,  however,  does  not  appear  to    have  . 
been   fatal  to    the    objects    of    de   Andradc's 
mission.     Several  of  his  vessels   returned   to 
Malacca    witli    cargoes,   and    tlie    remainder 
sailed  wilh  some  junks  belonging  to  tlie  Loo 
Choo  Islands  for  Ningyio,  on  the  east  coast  of 
China,  and  there  established  a  colony.     The 
//i</  II  Uric  thus  secured  was  turned  to  good 
advantage   in   succeeding  years,  and   a   most 
prolitable  trade  was  built  up.     But  the  gieed 
and  cruelty  of   the  Portuguese  here  as  else- 
where  raised  up  a  violent  prejudice   against 
them.     So  it  happened  tliat  when  an  embassy 
was   despatched   by  the   Portuguese   Govern- 
ment to  Peking  in  1520,  the  Ambassador,  one 
Perez,  was  treated  very  contumelioiisly.     He 
was  sent  back  practically  a  prisoner  to  Canton, 
and  was  there  robbed  of  his  property,  thrust 
into  prison,  and  finally,  it  is  supposed,  put  to 
death,   for   his   real   (ate   was   never    actually 
known.     Meanwhile  the  Portuguese  had  been 
expelled  by  imperial  decree  from  Ningpo,  and 
they  were  prohibited  from  all  trade.     Their 
star  seemed  to  have  set  as  rapidly  as  it  had 
risen.     'Ihe  early  Portuguese  explorers  were, 
however,  not  men  to  be  easily  rebuffed.    In  the 
succeeding  years  they  maintained   resolutely 
their  efforts  to  secure  a  lodgment  in   China. 
At   length  fortune    once    more    smiled    upon 
them.     A    service    rendered    to    the   Chinese 
Government  by  the  extirpation  of  a  formidable 
pirate  fleet  secured  for  them  as  a  reward  rights 
of  occupation  at  Macao,  one  of  the  group  of 
islands   lying   off  the   mouth   of   the   Canton 
River.     Their  earliest  settlement  there  dates 
back   to   1537.     It  was  a   mere  collection   nf 
Imts  for  drying  goods  which  were  introduced 
under  the  name  of  tribute,  but  by  the  middle 
of   the   sixteenth  century   out   of   tliese   small 
beginnings  a  town   of  considerable  size   had 
developed.     The  trade  of   the  port  flourished 
apace  under  the  interested  patronage   of   the 
Mandarins,  who  found  in  the  commerce  of  tlie 
adventurers   a   new   and   lucrative   source   of 
income.      Imperishably    associated    with    the 
history  of  Macao  at  this  period  is  the  name 
of  Camoens,  the  great  national  writer  of  the 
Portuguese.     It  was  here  that  the  poet  com- 
posed the  greater  part  of  "  The  Lusiad  "  the 
famous    Portuguese   epic   which    has   stirred 
the  hearts   and   fired  the  imaginations  of   so 
many  generations  of  Portuguese.      Camoens' 
period  of  residence  at  Macao  extended  from 
1553   to    1569.     On   his  returning  to   Europe 
from  China  he  was  wrecked  off  the  coast  of 
Cambodia,  and  escaped  to  shore  on  a  plank, 
tradition  says,  with   the  MS.  of   his   precious 
poem   carried   in   his   hand.      Macao,   though 
long  since  sunk  into  a  condition  of  commercial 
decrepitude  and  moral  decay,  will  ever  enjoy 
the  reflected  lustre  of  Camoens'  great  name. 

The  Spaniards,  following  in  the  track  of 
the  Portuguese,  established  themselves  in  the 
Manilas  and  at  various  other  points  in  the 
Chinese  seas.  For  the  best  part  of  a  century 
the  two  races  had  a  monopoly  of  the  trade 
of  the  Far  East.  The  defeat  of  the  Spanish 
Armada  gave  Europe  its  first  great  lesson  in 
the  value  of  sea  power,  for  with  the  destruc- 
tion of  many  of  the  great  Spanish  galleons 
in  the  English  Channel  and  the  wrecking  of 
others  off  the  Scotch  and  Irish  coasts,  the  way 
was  opened  to  the  Far  East  for  other  nations. 
The  Dutch  were  the  first  to  take  advantage  of 
the  opportunity  presented.    Towards  the  close 


(From  an  old  manuscript  of  the  date  lOoy,  preserved  in  the  Manuscript  Room  at  the  British  Museum.) 


ot  Ibe  aiitecuth  cenlurv  Ihey  sent  out  several 
fleet*  «rilh  the  object  m  csiaMi-hing  a  trade 
with  the  Far  Eart.  The  initial  English  ven- 
torc  was  maiie  in  I5</'.  when  Sir  K.  Dudley 
and  ottiert   fitted   out   three   ships   with    the 

the  Chcneses  to  bringe  thereof  thither,  both 
while  soweiiig  silke,  twisted  of  all  sorts  and 
sizes,  as  also  rawe  and  sleave  silke  ;  of  all 
which  we  have  gcven  Mr.  Heeling  examples  : 
the   which    silke   yf    you    can    p'cure    to    be 

V  ,•  '■.:^:^^m 

(Krocn  %  nuui»cnpt  in  the  SIo;inc  Collcctiini  :it  the  llritish  Museum.) 

intention  of  trading  to  China.  'Wood,  the  com- 
inandcr,  tMxe  with  him  a  letter  from  Queen 
Elizabeth  to  the  Emperor  of  China.  With 
the  expedition  also  went  the  warm  wishes  of 
the  commercial  community  whose  hopes  of 
calaMishing  a  trade  had  been  raised  to  a  high 
level  in  consequence  of  the  reports  which 
bad  come  in  of  the  riches  of  the  Eastern 
world.  The  enterprise,  however,  ended  in 
diaatter.  Not  a  soul  of  the  company  which 
embarked  ever  relumed  to  i^ngland  to  give 
an  account  of  the  rest.  Nothing  fuiiher  was 
attempted  in  the  direction  of  opening  up  the 
China  trade  until  Sir  James  Lancaster's  suc- 
oesiful  voyages  to  the  Straits  of  Malacca,  and 
tbe  sotMcqucnt  establishment  there  of  factories 
of  llic  newly  constituted  East  India  Company 
turned  the  thoughts  of  Ixmdon  merchants 
once  more  towards  those  rich  markets  of 
the  Far  East  which  the  Portuguese  and  the 
Spaniards  had  hitherto  monopolised  and 
which  the  Dutch  were  now  seriously  attack- 
ing. The  first  direct  reference  to  the  China 
trade  in  the  records  of  the  East  India  Com- 
pany is  to  be  found  in  the  year  1606.  On 
Ibe  occanon  of  sending  out  three  ships  to 
tbe  Eastern  factories  Ihe  Court  issued  instruc- 
tions to  "General"  Heeling,  Ihe  commander 
ol  the  little  squadron,  directing  him  to  culti- 
vate a  trade  with  the  Chinese.  "  It  is  to  be 
remembered,"  sai<l  the  direclorate,  "  thai  uui 
Factors  alt  Bantam  doe  their  best  endevors 
10  p'core  the  Chineses  lo  bring  from  Cheney 
ticave  and  sowing  silks,  that  we  may  fall 
into  some  trade  with  Ihem  ;  and  see  yf  they 
can  sell  any  r>f  our  English  cloth  to  them 
that  they  may  be  hroaghl  lo  the  use  thereof." 
At  the  same  lime  Ihe  Court  wrote  lo  the 
/acton  at  Bantam  desiring  them  to  send 
home  particular  accounts  of  all  goods  ven- 
dible, or  to  be  procured,  and  directed  that 
•yf  Cheney  silks  are  ihA  llicare  (in  Bantam) 
presentKe  to  be  had,  that    then   you  advise 

brought  thither  att  reasonable  prices  we  sup- 
pose some  good  profiitt  inay  be  had  thereby  : 
of  all  which  you  have  hitherto  left  us  ignorant ; 
whereby  we  must  conceive  you  to  be  either 
unskillful    in   merchandising   or   unwilling  to 

gress  in  the  Eastern  trade  and  were  reaping 
rich  profits  at  home  from  the  products 
brought  by  their  ships  from  the  Far  East. 
However  that  may  be,  that  the  niamifacturos 
of  China  met  with  great  favour  in  the  Eng- 
lish markets  at  this  period  is  very  evident 
from  these  additional  instructions  given  in 
160Q  to  the  Bantam  factors  :  "The  silk  called 
I-ankin  (N.inking)  is  here  (in  London)  well 
requested  :  therefore,  we  pray  you  use  yonr 
best  endeavours  to  put  off  our  English  cloth 
lor  that  commodity,  whereto  as  it  stenieth 
by  Robert  Brown's  (second  at  Bantam)  letters, 
the  Chineses  were  willing  and  desirous,  if 
you  had  been  furnished  with  any  ;  which 
givelh  us  good  hope  that  these  people  will 
tall  to  wear  our  cloth,  so  as  we  shall  find 
good  bent  for  the  same  hereafter  ;  and  have 
better  means  to  maintain  an  ample  trade 
there  ;  lor  the  better  procuring  whereof  we 
have  now  and  will  hereafter  send  such  cloth 
as  shall  be  true  both  in  substance  and  colour, 
and  so  you  may  assure  them."  In  1613-14 
we  lind  the  Court  in  despatching  four  sliips 
to  Sural  issuing  instructions  to  the  Company's 
agent  at  Agra  to  "  discover  the  trade  of 
Tartary."  He  was  told  to  find  out  "  what 
English  cloth  may  be  there  vended  ;  at  what 
distance  the  Towns  of  Trade  are  situate  ; 
how  the  passages  thither  lie,  and  whether 
secure  or  dangerous."  The  writer  added, 
"The  Court  conceive  that  much  good  might 
be  done  in  vending  our  cloth  in  that  cold 
country  Tartary,  were  it  well  discovered." 
In  this  year  the  several  transactions  of  the 
Company  were  united  in  one  joint  stock,  and 
it  was  intimated  that  on  this  basis  the  Com- 
pany intended  to  build  an  enlarged  system 
of  commercial  enterprise.  Bantam  factors  on 
being  informed  of  the  change  were  enjoined 
to  make  vigorous  efforts  to  extend  the  Com- 
pany's trade,  particularly  to  Japan  and  China. 
Meanwhile,  the  Court  asked  the  assistance  of 
their  agents  in  a  matter  of  some  importance 
affecting  the  silk  trade.  Difficulty  was  found 
in    unwinding   the    Canton    cross-reeled    silk. 


(From  :u) 

p'forni  thai  for  which  we  keepe  you  theare." 
The  asperity  of  the  last  remark  is  probably 
lo  be  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  the  Dutch 
at  this  time  were   making  considerable  pro- 


and  it  was  suggested  that  one  or  two  of  the 
Chinese  or  Japanese  should  be  induced  to  visit 
England  to  give  instruction  in  the  matter 
"in    order    to    bring    the    Canton    silk    into 


esteem  and  piice  at  home."  What  was  the 
outcome  of  this  suggestion  does  not  appear, 
but  it  may  be  assumed  from  an  entry  in  tlie 
Court  minutes  which  we  find  a  little  later 
that  the  early  enthusiasm  for  the  silk  trade 
was  somewhat  damped  by  the  discovery  that 
there  were  tricks  of  the  trade  in  China.  "On 
account  of  the  deceit  that  is  used  by  the 
Chinese  in  their  silks,"  the  minutes  recorded, 
"  it  is  proposed  in  Court  to  advise  Bantam 
that  no  more  be  brought  except  only  raw 
silks,  and  such  other  as  be  ascertained  to  be 
very  good  ;  also  to  forbear  the  buying  of 
sundry  drugs,  which  prove  rotten  and  naught, 
especially  China  roots  and  rhubarb."  The 
instructions  actually  given  to  the  factor  at 
Bantam,  who  was  proceeding  eastward  from 
thence  to  trade,  were  :  "  Buy  no  blacks  of 
any  kind  of  damasks  or  taffaties  but  only 
coloured :  the  colours  to  be  grass  green, 
vvatchet,  blue,  crimson,  and  carnation.  Take 
also  white,  especially  satins.  As  to  raw  silk 
it  is  not  good  to  bring  the  Canton  cross- 
reeled  sort.  But  if  you  could  obtain  any 
ready  thrown  according  to  the  sample,  so  as 
to  afford  it  to  be  sold  in  England  at  a  mark 
or  14s.  per  lb.  souie  good  may  be  done. 
Give  orders  that  it  be  first  spun  single  and 
then  twisted  two  threads  together.  Let  such 
as  be  made  up  in  skains  be  but  one  thread 

At  about  this  period  a  development  of  the 
Company's  enterprise  in  the  Far  East  resulted 
in  the  forging  of  the  tirst  link  which  connected 
Great  Britain  with  Japan.  The  association 
was  brought  about  in  a  somewhat  romantic 
fashion.  William  Adams,  a  Kent  man,  who 
in  early  life  was  apprenticed  to  a  Limehouse 
pilot,  inflamed  by  stories  of  the  wealth  of 
the  Indies,  in  1598  took  service  in  a  Dutch 
vessel,  one  of  a  fleet  bound  for  the  Far  East. 
Arrived  off  the  coast  of  Japan  after  an  adven- 
turous voyage  the  ship  in  which  Adams  was 
employed  was  boarded  by  Japanese,  and  he 
and  the  other  members  of  the  crew  were 
virtually  made  prisoners.  They  were,  how- 
ever, kindly  treated,  and  Adams  subsequently 
found  great  favour  with  the  Emperor,  who 
took  him  into  his  service  and  liestowed  a 
manor  upon  him  for  his  maintenance.  In 
161 1  Adams  heard  accidentally  from  the 
Dutch,  who  had  by  this  time  established  a  good 
trade  with  Japan,  that  the  English  had  formed 
an  establishment  at  Bantam.  Overjoyed  at 
the  discovery  of  the  comparative  proximity 
of  his  countrymen,  Adams  addressed  a  long 
letter  to  the  Company's  agent  in  the  Straits 
strongly  urging  him  to  send  ships  to  open 
up  a  commercial  connection  with  Japan.  In 
his  communication  he  furnished  valuable  de- 
tails as  to  the  character  of  the  Japanese  and 
the  prospects  of  trade  with  their  country.  He 
added  :  "  Could  our  English  merchants,  after 
settling  in  Japan,  procure  trade  with  the 
Chinese,  then  shall  our  country  make  great 
profit  here,  and  the  Company  will  not  need  to 
have  to  send  money  out  of  England  ;  for  in 
Japan  there  are  gold  and  silver  in  abundance, 
and  therefore  by  the  traffic  here  they  will  take 
in  exchange  money  enough  for  their  invest- 
ments in  the  Indies."  The  hint  conveyed  in 
this  historic  epistle  did  not  fall  on  deaf  ears. 
The  Company,  eager  to  extend  their  field  of 
enterprise  in  so  promising  a  direction,  in  1613 
sent  out  Captain  Saris  with  the  title  of 
"  Company's  General "  to  open  up  a  trade 
with  Japan.  Captain  Saris  was  met  on  his 
arrival  at  Firando  on  June  12th  in  that  year 
by  Adams.  Almost  immediately  the  two 
repaired  to  the  capital  where  they  delivered 
to  the  i^mperor  a  letter  from  James  I.  which 
Captain  Saris  had  brought  with  him.  The 
monarch,  influenced  by  his  regard  for  Adams, 
lent  a  favourable  ear  to  the  proposals  made  by 

the  Company's  agent,  and  formal  permission 
was  accorded  to  the  establishment  of  English 
factories  at  Firando  and  other  places,  Adams 
in  his  letter  to  Bantam  expressed  a  decided 
opinion  against  Firando  and  a  preference 
for  some  port  on  the  east  coast  nearer  the 
capital.  But  for  some  reason  or  other,  pro- 
bably because  objections  were  raised  to  an 
establishment  in  this  locality,  the  English 
headquarters  were  fixed  at  Firando.  For 
several  years  a  trade  was  prosecuted  from 
this  point  by  the  Company's  factors  with 
Adams  as  a  valuable  supernumerary.  But  the 
enterprise  never  realised  the  high  expecta- 
tions entertained  of  it.  Commercially  the 
times  were  somewhat  out  of  joint ;  the  Dutch 
opposition  and  rivalry  also  were  very  for- 
midable. Moreover,  as  was  explained  in  a 
letter  of  the  year  1615,  profits  were  "eaten 
up  by  great  presents  and  charges  which 
the  country  of  Japan  requires,  although  there 
are  no  customs  to  be  paid."  Adams'  death, 
which  occurred  on  May  16,  1620,  put  the 
final  seal  on  the  Company's  failure.  The 
factory  lingered  on  until  1623  and  the  estab- 


lishment  viras  then  withdrawn.  Nor,  in  spite 
of  persistent  and  repeated  efforts  was  a 
direct  connection  again  formed  until  the 
lapse  of  more   than  two  centuries. 

While  the  Company  was  prosecuting  the 
operations  in  Japan  an  opportunity  offered 
and  was  availed  of  to  attempt  to  open  a  trade 
with  China.  The  inteimediaries  in  the  busi- 
ness were  three  influential  Chinese  merchants 
with  whom  business  had  been  done  at 
Nagasaki.  In  a  letter  from  Robert  Cock,  the 
factor  at  Firando,  to  the  Company  written 
on  November  25,  1614,  we  have  an  outline 
of  the  proposals.  Keterring  to  the  negotia- 
tors he  writes:  "The  spot  which  they  point 
out  as  desirable  for  the  seat  of  a  factory 
is  an  island  near  to  the  City  of  Languin  ;  to 
which  place  we  sale  from  Firando,  if  the 
wind  be  fair,  in  three  or  four  days.  Our 
demand  is  for  three  or  four  ships  to  come 
and  go  and  to  leave  only  factors  sufficient  to 
do  the  business.  If  we  can  procure  this  I 
doubt  not  but  in  a  short  time  we  may  get 
into  the  mainland  itself  ;  for  as  the  Chinese 
tell  me  their  Emperor  is  come  to  the  know- 
ledge how  the  Emperor  of  Japan  has  received 

us  and  what  huge  privileges  he  has  granted 
us.  But  the  Hollanders  are  ill  spoken  of  on 
each  part  by  means  of  their  continual  robbing 
and  pilfering  the  junks  of  China  :  the  odium 
of  which  they  at  first  put  upon  Englishmen, 
but  now  it  is  known  to  the  contrary."  In 
another  letter  of  a  somewhat  later  date  to  the 
Company's  agent  at  Bantam  some  additional 
details  are  given  with  an  injunction  to  "use  all 
Chynas  kindly,"  and  to  ask  other  Englishmen 
to  do  the  like,  "for,"  says  the  sanguine 
factor,  "my  hope  is  great  since  the  Chynas 
doe  complain  much  of  the  Hollanders  for 
robinge  or  pilferinge  of  their  junckes."  In 
subsequent  correspondence  we  catch  vivid 
glimpses  of  the  progress  of  the  negotiations. 
Now  we  find  an  entry  recording  a  payment 
for  two  girdles  of  silk  as  a  present  to  the 
"  China  Captain's  daughter."  Next  is  a  letter 
from  Andreas  Dittis,  "  the  China  Captain," 
reporting  that  he  had  great  hopes  of  a  suc- 
cessful issue  to  his  mission  "for  that  the 
greate  men  had  taken  3,000  pezes  (pieces  of 
eight  dollars)  presented  to  them  to  make 
way"  and  warning  his  English  friends  not  to 
let  it  be  known  that  they  came  from  Japan 
"  because  the  Chinese  were  more  averse  to 
the  Japanese  than  any  other  nation."  Again, 
we  have  this  quaint  extract  from  Robert 
Cock's  diary  throwing  some  interesting  side 
lights  on  the  business  ;  "  I  gave  my  peare 
(pair  of)  knives  to  the  China  Captain  to  send 
to  his  brother  (or  rather  kinsman)  in  China 
upon  hope  (of)  trade.  As  also  he  had  4 
Looking  Glasses  for  same  purpose  bought  of 
Dutch,  and  4  pss.  (pieces)  Chowders  of  20  Rs. 
p.  corg  with  Knyves  ;  and  is  thought  fit  to 
geve  50  Rs.  8  to  the  man  which  carrieth 
the  letter  to  pay  his  charge  per  way,  and  to 
sende  a  greate  gould  ring  of  myne  with  a 
whyte  amatist  in  it,  cost  me  5  lb.  str.  in 
France  ;  this  ring  to  be  sent  to  one  of  these 
two  men  named  Titcham  Shofno,  an 
euenecke.  God  grant  all  may  com  to  good 
effect  !     Amen,  Amen." 

The  piously  expressed  wishes  of  Ihe  good 
factor  were  not  destined  to  be  realised.  Civil 
disturbances  i[i  China,  forerunners  of  the 
downfall  of  the  Ming  dynasty,  delayed  the 
business.  The  high-handed  action  of  the 
Dutch  in  slopping  and  robbing  Chinese  junks 
also,  and  probably  to  a  larger  extent,  inter- 
posed obstacles,  for  the  authorities  were 
naturally  irate  at  the  outrages,  and  owing  to 
the  lying  stories  put  about  by  the  Dutch  were 
disposed  to  associate  the  English  with  them. 
The  Company's  agents  in  the  matter,  however, 
continued  to  push  the  request  for  facilities 
for  trade  vigorously.  In  1616-17  the  factor 
at  Firando  reported  home  that  the  affair  was 
pursued  so  hotly  that  "  the  Emperor  of  China 
has  sent  spies  into  all  ports  where  the 
Spaniards,  Portuguese,  Hollanders,  and  we 
have  trade,  to  observe  how  the  Europeans 
behave  one  toward  the  other,  and  also  how 
we  (the  English)  behave  towards  strangers, 
especially  towards  the  Chinese."  "  Some  of 
these  investigators,"  he  added,  "  have  been  in 
this  place  (Firando)  and  were  brought  by  our 
Chinese  friends  to  the  English  House,  where 
I  used  them  in  the  best  manner  I  could,  as 
I  have  recommended  to  Bantam,  Patania,  and 
Syam  to  do  the  like  to  all  Chinese."  The 
factor  was  very  anxious  that  suitable  presents 
should  be  sent  to  the  Emperor  of  China,  and 
particularly  indicated  a  coral  tree  as  a  gift 
which  would  be  acceptable,  a  similar  souvenir 
presented  many  years  before  by  the  Portuguese 
being  esteemed  by  the  Emperor  "one  of  his 
most  precious  jewels."  Before  this  the  Com- 
pany had  thoughtfully  sent  out  for  use  in  the 
negotiation  two  letters  from  James  I.  to  the 
Emperor.  One  was  amicable  in  tone,  but  the 
other  was  somewhat  "  stricter  "  in  terms,  and 


it  was  giTcn  by  the  autlK>rities  at 
Bantam  to  Iheir  "  linguists  "  to  interpret  they 
intuiuUed  that  they  dare  not  for  their  lives 
mmftate  ibe  bold  nn^^ive.  Dittis  and  his 
brother  iiegoliator<,  when  the  con)nmnicati<ins 
were  f«rt  before  ihein,  undertook  to  translate 
ihcin  and  also  forward  them  by  a  certain 
agency.  But  they  suggested  that  the  one 
ooMched  in  a  threatening  tone  should  not  be 
teal  "for  that  xiolence  would  avail  nothing." 
They  further  urged  that  they  should  "  proceed 
in  Ibe  negotiation  in  a  pacilic  manner  and  trust 
Id  the  character  which  the  English  had  of  late 
aoqnired  o(  being  a '  peaceable  |>eoplc.' "  How 
br  this  shrewd  advice  was  entertained  we 
I  DO  means  of  knowing,  but  there  is  little 
to  think  that  James'  peppery  periods 
'  oAendcd  the  august  imperial  eye.  What- 
may  have  ticen  done  in  that  m.itter  the 
xc  against  the  success  of  the  nego- 
Tbe  a0air  dragged  on  for  several 
yean  and  was  only  brought  to  a  close  when 
the  Firando  factory  was  vacated  in  1623. 
From  first  to  last  the  negotiations  cost  the 
Company  a  great  deal  of  money.  Dittis  alone 
is  represented  to  have  disbursed  13,000  taels. 

As  has  been  iitdicated  the  unjust  implication 
of  the  English  in  the  piratical  transactions  of 
tlie  Dutch  had  a  very  injurious  influence  on 
the  coarse  ol  the  negotLitions  for  a  trade  with 
China.    That  prejudiced  feeling  was  intensified 
wlicn.  as  happened  in   1619,  the  English  en- 
tered into  a  treaty  of  defence  and  alliance  with 
the  Dutch.     This  arrangement  was  ostensibly 
designed    to    further    the    interests    of    both 
ooanlries,  their  forces  being  joined  in  a  "  joint 
endeaTonr,"  to  use  the  words  of  a  clause  of 
the  treaty,  "  to  open  and  establish  free  com- 
merce in  China  and  other  places  of  the  Indies 
by  soch   ways  and   means  as   the   Common 
Council  shall  find  expedient."     But  in  practice 
the   Hollanders    turned    the    arrangement   to 
their    exclusive    advantage.    They    used    the 
English  when  it  suited  them  to  do  so,  dragging 
the  English  ships  into  a  blockade  which  they 
instituted  against  the  Chinese  junks  proceeding 
to  the   Manilas,    and    in    other     ways    com- 
promising the  English  name  with  the  Chinese. 
Hut  when  equal  tacilitics  were  claimed  at  the 
ports    occupied    by  the    Dutch   the    demand 
was  emphatically  declined.     Ultimalcly  the  ill- 
anorted  union  came  to  an  end  as  it  was  bound 
to  do.   A  tragic  outcome  of  it  was  the  massacre 
of  Amiioyna,  an  epis<ide   which   left   a  deep 
itain    on    the    English    name    until    it    was 
wiped    out    by    Cromwell.    Another    consc- 
quciKx   which   flowed    from    the    connection 
was  the  creation  in  the  minds  of  the  Chinese 
and    the    Japanese    authorities    of    a    strong 
diatmst  of  the  English.     It  is  difficult  to  say 
to  what  extent    this    leeling    influenced    the 
coarse  of  events,  but  there  is  little  room  for 
qoestion  that  it  militated  very  seriously  against 
English  interests  for  a  long  series  of  years. 
We  may  gather  some  notion  of  the  prejudice 
eieited  from  the  successive  despatches  of  the 
Company's   agents   whose    writings    became 
iacreuingly  doleful  as  the  time  went  on  and 
Ibe  comequenccs  of  the  alliance  were  more 
dearly  revealed.     Thus,    Richard   Cfxrk,    the 
(actor    at    Kirando,    in    162 1    wrote    to    the 
Company's  agents  at  Batavia  in  these  terms : 
"  Goorockdono,  the  Governor  of  Nangasaque 
(Hagasaki),  with  all   the    merchants   of   that 
place,  Meaco  and  Kddo,  taketh  the  Spaniards' 
and    Portugals'   parts  against   us,   giving  the 
Emperor  to  understand  that  Ivjth  we  and  the 
HoUanders  are  pirates  and  thieves  and   live 
upon  nothing   but   the   tpoil  of   the  Chinese 
and  others  ;  which  is  the  utter  overthrow  of 
Ibe  trade  with  Japan,  no  one  daring  to  come 
bilber  for  fear  (A  us.    By  which  reports  the 
finpcrar  and  his  Council   are  much   moved 
a.    The  King  of   Kirando,  who  has 

married  the  Emperor's  kinswoman,  is  now 
our  only  slay."  He  added  :  "  The  Hollanders 
arc  generally  hated  throughout  all  the  Indies, 
and  we  much  the  worse  thought  of  since  we 
joined  them." 

After  the  rupture  with  the  Dutch  the  Eng- 
lish for  some  years  confined  their  operations 
largely  to  the  Indian  trade.  But  tlicy  con- 
tinued to  cast  longing  eyes  in  the  direction 
of  China  and  Japan.  The  Dutch,  who  had 
early  in  the  struggle  with  the  Chinese  seized 
and  fortified  a  position  in  the  Pescadores, 
were  able  to  establish  in  course  of  time  an 
indirect  trade  with  China  by  way  of  Tywan 
in  Formosa.  This  did  not  escape  the  notice 
of  the  English  factors  at  Batavia.  Writing 
home  they  furnished  particulars  of  the 
Hollanders'  operations,  and  at  the  same  time 
painted  a  glowing  picture  of  the  prospects 
offered  in  this  direction.  "  The  trade  of 
China  now  likely  to  settle  at  Tywan,"  they 
stated  with  a  curious  mixture  of  metaphors, 
"is  as  an  ixean  to  devour  more  than  all 
Europe  can  minister  ;    wrought  and  raw  silk 

"  Those  clothes  which  now  they  wear  is 
silk,  in  Summer  seasons  passable,  but  in  the 
Winter  are  enforced  to  bombast  or  to  wear 
ten  coats  one  over  the  otlier,  and  that  is 
useful.  Silk  being  thus  their  clothing  and  all 
growing  in  China,  a  stop  of  that  intercourse 
were  so  material  that  silk  in  China  in  one 
year  would  be  as  dust  or  dung  and  Japan 
beggard  for  want  of  clothing." 

"  iiut  such  stop  of  intercourse  and  devised 
extremity  needeth  not ;  for  the  natural  enmity 
between  those  two  nations  hath  so  framed 
all  for  our  purpose,  that  could  Japan  be 
furnished  with  any  other  clothing,  not  one 
Chinese  durst  peep  into  their  country  ;  which 
the  Chinese  well  know  ;  therefore,  though 
tolerated  by  Japan,  yet  none  conieth  but  by 
stealth,  which  would  cost  their  lives  if  known 
to  their  governors  in  China." 

The  Dutch  at  this  time  were  sharply 
antagonistic  to  the  English  at  all  points  where 
their  interests  touched.  They  resented  the 
action  of  their  rivals  in  witlulrawing  from  the 
treaty  of  defence,  professing  to  look  upon  it 

(From  ail  ancieiU  map  in  the  Slnaiu*  Collection  at  the  IJritish  Mnscum.) 

in  abundance  and  many  necessary  com- 
modities that  all  parts  of  India  must  have. 
These  arc  to  be  purchased  with  the  pepper, 
spice,  and  sandal  wood  of  these  paits  at 
prices  as  we  please  ;  also  with  the  silver  of 
Japan  springing  from  the  said  silk  of  China, 
and  by  all  probability  with  every  sort  of 
European  commodities,  especially  woollen 
cloth,  for  the  greatest  part  of  the  Chinese 
Empire  stretcheth  into  the  cold  climate  and 
is  defended  with  infinite  troops  of  soldiers 
whose  necessities  do  require  more  than  we 
can  guess  at  until  experimented."  In  another 
communication  the  advantages  of  Far  Eastern 
trade  were  further  expounded.  "  For  these 
mighty  monarchies  Japan  and  China  abound- 
ing with  riches  and  also  civilised  peaceably 
to  res|x>nd  with  all  ;  but  in  a  climate  requir- 
ing that  which  neither  themselves  nor  their 
neighbours  enjoy  or  can  be  supplied  but  by 
the  English  which  is  clothings  answerablc 
to  the  magnificence  of  these  nations,  defen- 
sible against  the  cold  and  convenient  for  their 
employments  in  travel,  wars  and  weather." 

as  a  gross  breach  of  faith  towards  themselves. 
Their  dominant  feeling,  however,  was  one  of 
jealous  apprehension  lest  the  English  should 
sectire  a  foothold  in  a  domain  which  they 
had  marked  out  for  their  own  special  exploi- 
tation. This  policy  of  excUisiveness  was 
pursued  with  a  persistency  which  could  not 
fail  to  leave  its  marks  on  English  trade  at 
a  period  when  the  country's  influence  was 
not  at  a  particularly  high  level  in  Europe. 
Still,  the  English  factors  at  Batavia  weie  by 
no  means  disposed  to  leave  the  Dutch  with 
a  free  hand  in  the  Var  East.  In  1627  the 
Presidency  at  Batavia  sent  home  a  long 
despatch  strongly  urging  the  desirability  of 
making  another  attempt  to  open  up  trade 
with   China.     They  wrote  : — 

"  Concerning  the  trade  of  China  three 
things  are  especially  made  known  to  the 

"  The  one  is  the  abundant  trade  it  affordeth  ; 
the  second  is  that  they  admit  no  stranger 
into  their  country  ;  the  third  is  that  trade  is 
as   life    unto    the    vulgar,    which    in    remote 


parts  they  will  seek  and  accommodate  with 
hazard  of  all  they  have." 

"  In  these  three  considerations  it  is  easily 
conceived  how  and  where  intercourse  with 
that  nation  is  to  he  expected  ;  for  it  requireth 
no  more  care  than  to  plant  in  some  convenient 
place  whither  they  may  come  and  then  to 
give  them  knowledge  that  you  are  planted." 

"  This  condemneth  the  Dutch  their  long- 
continued  roaniings  upon  the  coast  of  China  ; 
where,  after  much  cliarge  and  trouble,  they 
saw  their  folly,  and  planted  upon  P'ormosa  ;  a 
place  not  inconvenient  in  respect  of  nearness, 
but  a  barred  harbour,  an  open  road  and 
inconvenient  for  shipping.  Yet  should  we 
shew  ourselves  to  trade  there  with  the  Dutch 
it  shall  be  guarded  with  those  difticulties  and 
infinite  charges  as  if  it  were  a  diamond  mine." 

"  This  hath  occasioned  us  to  be  inquisitive 
concerning  that  commerce,   how  with    most 

conveniency  it  may  be  accomplished  ;  and 
so  by  conference  with  chiefs  of  those  ports, 
especially  with  Naukadas  (captains  of  native 
craft)  lately  come  from  China,  we  under- 
stand that  none  of  their  nation  is  publicly 
tolerated  for  foreign  trade — only  some  pro- 
portioned to  trade  with  the  King  of  Siam  ; 
but  for  Cochin  China  he  that  will,  and 
with  what  they  please.  All  other  trades  are 
unlawful  ;  and  whosoever  attempteth,  doth 
it  with  the  danger  of  his  life,  be  it  for 
the  Manillas,  Japan,  Formosa,  Java,  or  where- 

The  Presidency  then  go  on  to  observe  that 
if  hereafter  they  might  have  free  trade  with 
the  Dutch  at  Formosa  they  would  deliberate 
whether  to  use  it  or  not  ;  "  for  the  aforesaid 
Naukadas  persuade  them  rather  to  .settle  upon 
Cochin  China,  which  is  connected  with  the 
main  of  China,  but  seven  days'  journey  from 

Chin-Chew  ;  and  there  is  free  intercourse 
both  by  sea  and  land  between  these  nations, 
as  they  are  indeed  both  one  ;  for  Cochin 
China  was  a  kind  of  tributary  to  the  great 
Emperor,  but  of  late  is  free." 

"The  said  Naukadas  rejoicing  at  our  motion 
profess  that  if  we  will  settle  in  these  parts 
Ihey  will  beat  their  gongs  in  China  when 
they  hear  of  our  coming  and  we  shall  want 
no  trade,  nor  whatsoever  we  can  desire. 
Further  they  importuned  the  President's  kins- 
man to  go  with  them  to  see  all  the  accom- 
modation of  China  (Cochin  China),  promising 
to  return  him  in  safety,  and  to  leave  as  a 
pledge  for  his  return  his  own  brother  and 

The  Presidency  of  Batavia  adds  that  on 
their  own  parts  they  would  willingly  embrace 
this  motion,  did  they  know  the  inclination  of 
the  Court  to  coincide. 


The  English  Ship   "  London  "  visits  China — Captain  Weddell's  Voyage  to  Canton — The  Tartar  Invasion  of  China  and 
its  Effect  on  Foreign  Trade — Opening  of   Factories  at  Formosa  and  Tonkin — Trade  Relations  with  Amoy. 

No  direct  steps  appear  to  have  been  taken 
at  the  time  to  carry  out  the  recoinmendations 
of  the  Batavia  Presidency,  set  out  in  the 
foregoing  chapter.  The  next  important  move 
was  deferred  until  1635  when,  following  upon 
the  conclusion  of  peace  with  the  Portuguese, 
the  Company's  agents  at  Surat,  at  the  invita- 
tion of  the  Viceroy  of  Goa,  despatched  the 
ship  London  to  China.  The  venture  was 
avowedly  an  experiment,  and  it  does  not 
appear  to  have  been  a  brilliant  success. 
Macao  was  visited,  and  the  vessel  remained 
some  time  there  to  the  dissatisfaction  of  the 
Portuguese,  who,  apart  from  a  feeling  of 
trade  jealousy,  were  influenced  by  a  fear  of 
the  displeasure  of  the  Chinese.  They  after- 
wards represented  that  they  were  made  to 
pay  a  smart  fine  for  opening  their  port  to 
the  London,  and  very  possibly  it  was  so  for 
the  Chinese  oft'icialdom  was  not  likely  to  let 
slip  so  favourable  an  opportunity  of  making 
money.  The  year  following  the  London's 
voyage  witnessed  a  far  more  ambitious  attempt 
to  establish  commercial  relations  with  China. 
The  enterprise  was  fathered,  not  by  the  East 
India  Company,  but  by  a  private  organisa- 
tion known  as  Courten's  Association.  A  fleet 
consisting  of  three  small  but  well  equipped 
ships — the  Driiflon,  the  Sun,  and  the  Kcithcrinc 
— and  the  pinnace  Ann,  were  sent  out  under 
the  command  of  Captain  Weddell,  an  experi- 
enced navigator.  Sailing  from  the  Downs  on 
April  14,  1636,  the  little  squadron  anchored 
of^  Macao  on  the  27th  of  June  in  the  follow- 
ing year.  The  journal  of  the  voyage  slates 
that  immediately  after  his  arrival  Weddell 
sent  a  boat  ashore  witli  a  letter  he  had  in 
his  possession  from  King  Charles  to  the 
Portuguese  Governor.  The  boat  was  met  by 
the  Captain  General,  "a  mulatta  of  a  most 
perverse  and  pevish  condition,  reported  to 
have  bin  a  tinker."  The  letter  was  duly 
delivered  to  the  Governor  and  his  Council, 
and  the  deputation  was  dismissed  with  the 
statement  that  a  reply  would  be  sent  the 
next  day.  Afterwards  the  procurator  of  the 
city  came  on  board  and  "  began  to  unfould 
a  tedious,  lamentable  discourse  (as  false  as 
prolix)   of   their   miserable   subjection   to  the 

Chinese,  which  would  be  now  (as  he  preten- 
ded) be  much  more  by  other  4  shipps  arrivall, 
they  haveing  had  experience  by  the  shipp 
London's  only  being  there  which  cost  them 
a  great  fyne.  Hee  said  wee  knew  not  the 
good  they  intended  us  (wee  believed  yt)  but 
there  were  two  main  obstacles  w^h  hin- 
dered them  from  expressing  yt,  viz.,  the 
non  consent  of  the  Chinese  (w':h  vvas  meerely 
false),  and  the  slender  quantite  of  goods 
wth  they  might  expect  ys  yeare  from  Can- 
ton for  Japan,  .  .  .  but  the  mayne  excuse 
was  that  wee  brought  noe  letters  recomen- 
datory  from  the  Old  Vice  Roye  of  Goa 
(w'h  would  have  done  us  as  much  good  as 
nothing).  In  conclusion  he  told  us  that  for 
matter    of    refreshinge    yf    we    came    neerer 

(wch  wee  did)  he  would  p'vide  for  us.  And 
this  he  verry  worshipfully  and  like  a  true 
Hebrew  indeed  p'formed  :  att  2  or  3  tymes 
the  vallew  on  shore  ;  and  to  the  end  that 
none  might  cheate  us  but  himselfe,  there  was 
a  stride  watch  of  boates  placed  about  each 
shipp,  not  p'mitting  so  much  as  a  poore 
fiisherman  to  supply  us  with  the  vallew 
of   6d." 

Captain  Weddell  determined  to  see  for  him- 
self what  the  prospects  of  trade  were,  and 
accordingly  despatched  the  pinnace  Ann  on 
a  reconnoitring  expedition  to  the  Canton 
River.  After  two  days'  sailing  they  came  in 
sight  of  the  mouth  of  the  river  "  being  a 
verry  orderlie  inlet  and  utterly  prohibited  to 
the  Portugalls  by  the  Chineses,  who  doe  not 

(From  a  print  .^t  the   Britisli   Museum. J 


villinely  admitt  any  strangers  to  the  view 
ot  vt,  tKuis  >-c  passage  and  secure  harbour 
for  their  best  jounckes  h»th  of  warr  and 
■odiaaduc.  So  that  the  t'ortugall's  trailick 
to  Canton  is  only  in  small  vessclls  through 

them  as  the  inhabitants  of  Maccaw  to  exer- 
cise a  free  commerce  tliere  payinge  duties  as 
the  others."  Vy<on  this  the  admiral  became 
more  affable  and  offered  a  small  junk  to  take 
the  parly  up   the  river,  on  the  understanding 

(Krom  AUom  &  Wrinhfs  "Cliina.") 

diver*  narrow  shuald  streiglites  amongst 
many  broken  islands  adjoyning  to  the  mayne. 
To  whom  y'  was  noe  small  wonder  that 
w'k  out  any  pilolt  or  any  the  least  hcipe  of 
an  intcrprctor  our  people  should  penetrate  soe 
(far.  And,  indeed,  yi  hath  caused  dyvers  of 
the  best  uiiderstandinge  amongst  them  to 
make  publique  confession  of  their  own 
erriHir  in  refuseinge  to  afford  us  reasonable 
libcrtic  of  trade  at  our  first  cominge  to 
Maccaw,  whereby  wee  were  enforced  to  this 
attempt  »•'••  they  prognostically  (prognos- 
licate)  and  wee  hope  truly  will  in  a  few 
>-cares  bee  the  mine  of  their  vain  glorious 
pride  and  ostentacion  ;  yet  hereby  the  honest 
dealing  off  our  nacon  contrary  to  their 
slanderous  rep<jrts  is  apparently  manifested 
and  made  knowne,  as  well  to  the  principall 
GoTcrnours  of  y'  Province  as  to  the  principall 
Merchants  and  all  gortes  of   people." 

On  the  I5lh  the  party  in  the  pinnace  (which 
included  Messrs.  Mouiiteney  and  Robinson, 
supercargoes)  got  a  Chinese' boatman  to  con- 
duct them  to  Canton.  Un  the  l6th  Mounleney 
and  Robinson  went  ashore  with  a  flag  of  truce, 
were  carried  overland  a  league  to  the  harbour 
ot  Lampton  "w«^t>  is  a  station  for  their  prime 
men  of  warr  of  the  Kings  armada  as  Chaltom 
is  in  England  for  his  .Maii«->  shipps."  On  the 
ll«h,  as  they  were  going  up  the  river,  they 
•net  the  Chinese  fleet  coming  down  and  were 
requested  to  anchor.  This  they  did.  At  first 
the  Chinese  admiral  "began  somewhat  roughly 
to  czpoMolate,"  and  demanded  to  know  what 
had  induced  the  English  "  to  come  thither  and 
dlMOVCjed  p'hibited  and  concealed  pts.  and 
pMnges  of  so  great  Prince's  dominions.'" 
To  Uiis  Robinson  replied  "that  they  were 
oooie  from  a  potent  prince  of  Europe,  who 
being  in  amitye  wU"  all  his  neighbours, 
desir'd  likewise  the  friendshipp  of  ye  greate 
King  of  China,  and  to  that  end  had  his 
order  to  treate  of  such  capitulacons  as  might 
""''h'ce  to  the  good  of  both  princes  and 
•■b|eds  bopeingc  that  it  might  be  lawfull  for 

that  the  pinnace  proceeded  no  further.  The 
offer  was  accepted,  and  Messrs.  Mounteney 
and  Kobinson  and  Captain  Carter,  of  the  Ann, 
started  the  same  night  on  their  jouiiiey. 
When  within  live  leagues  of  Canton  they  were 
met  by  a  message  from  the  authorities  entreat- 

acquiescence  in  this  request  the  party  returned 
in  the  Ann  to  Macao.  Shortly  afterwards  a 
reply  was  received  from  the  Portuguese  Hatly 
declining  to  accord  permission  to  trade. 
Upon  this  Captain  Weddell  summoned  a  coun- 
cil, and  the  matter  having  been  "well  pon- 
dered," and  "the  notorious  treacheries  of  ye 
p'fidious  Portugall's  now  plainly  appeal  inge" 
it  was  agreed  that  the  whole  Meet  should,  with 
all  convenient  speed,  depart  for  Lampton.  On 
July  31st  the  vessels  set  sail  and  arrived  off  the 
mouth  of  the  river  on  August  6th.  The  Man- 
darins came  on  boaid  and  these  promised  to 
solicit  for  them  at  Canton  the  grant  of  a  right 
to  trade.  For  eight  days  the  Hect  waited  for 
the  permit, and  then  an  incident  occurred  which 
precipitated  matters.  As  one  of  the  fleet's 
boats  was  endeavouring  to  find  a  watering 
place  it  was  tired  on  from  a  "desolate  castle" 
which  had  been  hastily  fortified  by  the  Chinese 
owing  to  the  slanders  of  the  Portuguese. 
Weddell  was  not  the  man  to  sit  quietly  under 
an  act  of  treachery  of  this  description. 
Calling  his  ships  to  arms  he  ranged  them  in 
position  near  the  castle  and  poured  in  a 
succession  of  broadsides.  At  the  end  of  two 
hours  boats  were  landed  with  a  hundred  men 
and  the  English  flag  was  planted  on  the 
ramparts  of  the  now  abandoned  position. 
The  ordnance  was  brought  on  board,  and 
the  Council  House,  which  formed  a  part  of 
the  port,  was  tired.  Further  retaliation  was 
later  resorted  to  in  the  capture  of  two  junks, 
one  laden  with  timber  and  the  other  with 
salt.  After  this  overtures  for  peace  were 
made  by  the  Chinese.  Ultimately  Messrs. 
Mounteney  and  Kobinson  proceeded  to  Can- 
ton, and  on  the  l8th  attended  at  the 
Viceroy's  palace  to  present  their  petition 
to  trade.  They  were  received  with  great 
honours  and  their  request  was  granted,  the 
Mandarin  blaming  the  treachery  of  the 
Portuguese  for  all  the  troubles  that  had 
arisen.  The  party  returned  from  Canton 
"  bringinge  with  them  a  ffirma  or  pattent  for 

(From  a  print  in  the 

ing  them  to  proceed  no  further  and  promising 
that  influence  should  be  used  with  the  "subor- 
dinate Viceroy  for  Trade"  to  obtain  permission 
to  trade  if  they  returned  to  Macao.  Deeming 
that   they   would    Ijcst   serve    their   ends   by 


IJritish  .Museum.) 

ffree  trade  and  liberty  to  fortifie  upon  any 
convenient  (place)  without  the  mouth  of  ye 
river."  The  Chinese  ordnance  was  landed 
from  the  fleet  and  restored  to  them,  and  the 
pinnace   was    sent   to   discover   some    island 


without  the  river  which  would  be  suitable 
for  a  settlement.  On  the  24th  of  August 
Messrs.  MouiUeney  and  Hobinson  went  up 
the  river  with  stock  and  presents,  and  after  a 
delay  of  two  days,  attired  in  Chinese  habits, 
were  conveyed  to  lodgings  in  the  suburbs 
of  Canton.  After  paying  10,000  "  rialls  of 
eight "  agreed  upon  for  duties,  they  bought 
eighty  tons  of  sugar  besides  bargaining  for 
ginger,  stuffs  and  other  merchandise  and 
provisions.  The  trade  assumed  such  a  pro- 
mising complexion  that  Mr.  Robinson  was 
despatched  to  the  fleet  for  six  additional 
chests  of  money,  and  twenty  Chinese  carpen- 
ters were  employed  in  making  chests  to 
contain  the  sugar  and  sugar  candy,  which 
we  are  told  by  the  diarist  "costs  lid.  p.  lb. 
and  is  as  white  as  snow."  Meanwhile,  "  the 
malicious  treachery  and  base  designes  of  the 
Portugalls  slept  not."  They  insidiously  poi- 
soned the  minds  of  the  authorities  against 
the  English  traders,  and  followed  up  their 
secret  machinations  with  an  open  protest 
against  any  concession  to  the  intruders. 
The  outcome  of  these  plottings  was  that 
Robinson  and  two  other  Englishmen  who 
were  accompanying  him  were  arrested  in 
the  river  on  returning  to  Canton  with  the 
additional  specie  and  stock.  At  about  the 
same  time  an  attack  was  made  on  the  fleet 
by  sending  against  it  a  number  of  lire  junks. 
Fortunately  this  manoeuvre  was  detected  in 
time  and  the  junks  were  avoided. 

The  party  at  Canton  were  left  in  close 
confinement  in  their  houses  for  several  days. 
Eventually,  on  their  threatening  to  fire  the 
town,  their  guard  was  withdrawn.  Meanwhile, 
Weddell,  not  hearing  from  the  merchants, 
cruised  with  his  vessels  about  the  mouth  of 
the  river  pillaging  and  burning.  At  last  licence 
was  given  to  the  merchants  to  write,  and  they 
did  so  asking  Weddell  to  forbear. 

On  the  61h  of  October  the  Cliumpein  at 
Canton  expressed  a  desire  to  Mounteney  to 
taste  some  meat  dressed  after  the  English 
fashion,  "  whereupon  they  played  the  cookes 
and  roasted  certain  henns  &c.  which  together 
sent  unto  him,  together  with  some  bisquett, 
a  bottle  of  Sacke,  and  some  other  things 
they  sent  unto  him,  wherewith  he  seemed 
much  content,  and  returned  them  many 
thanckes  assureing  them  of  his  friendshipp  ; 
nor  did  he  fayle  them  therein  to  his  uttmost. 
And  at  their  departure  told  them  he  was 
sorry  he  could  doe  noe  more  for  them, 
beinge  the  plaine  truth  that  the  Portugalls 
had  outbribed  tlieni,  and  had  so  far  p'vayled 
wlh  ye  great  ones,  that  he  alone  was  not 
able  to  oppose  soe  many."  He  was,  how- 
ever, he  added,  soliciting  the  new  Viceroy 
on   their   belialf. 

Then  followed  a  course  of  trading  marked 
by  repeated  intrigues  on  the  part  of  the 
Portuguese  to  nullify  the  efforts  of  the  English. 
Finally,  the  Chumpein  caused  two  "  inter- 
changeable writings,"  to  be  subscribed  by 
either  party,  and  so  dismissed  them  on  equal 
terms.  The  conditions  of  the  agreement 
arrived  at  were  that  the  Englishmen  should 
pay  a  tribute  of  20,000  "  rialls  of  eight "  yearly, 
together  with  four  pieces  of  ordnance  and  fifty 
muskets.  On  their  part  the  Chinese  authorities 
agreed  that  the  English  should  make  a  selection 
of  any  island  near  Macao,  for  the  purposes  of 
a  settlement,  that  they  should  have  liberty 
to  fortify  it,  and  that  they  should  have  the 
same  freedom  of  trade  with  Canton  as  the 
Portuguese  enjoyed.  If  Weddell's  enterprise 
had  been  vigorously  followed  up  there  is 
little  reason  to  doubt  that  the  English  might 
have  anticipated  the  founding  of  Hongkong 
by  two  centuries.  But  the  times  were  not 
propitious  for  colonial  adventures  of  any 
kind,   and    least    of    all   for   one    in    such    a 

remote  region  as  the  China  Sea.  Torn  with 
internecine  strife,  and  with  the  national 
finances  in  a  state  of  great  confusion,  Eng- 
land turned  her  face  from  the  path  by  which 
later  she  was  to  travel  to  a  dazzling  position 
of  eminence  as  a  world  power. 

The  next  few  years  were  years  of  humilia- 
tion for  the  English  in  the  Far  East.  The 
Dutch  strove,  and  with  considerable  success, 
to  drive  English  trade  from  the  China  seas. 
How  low  the  national  prestige  had  sunk  may 
be  gathered  from  the  reply  made  in  1645  by 
the  Surat  Council  to  a  proposition  emanating 
from  the  Spanish  Governor  of  the  Manilas 
that  a  commerce  should  be  opened  between 
those  islands  and  Surat.  The  Surat  factors 
confessed  their  inability  to  supply  the  Spanish 
with  the  articles  they  required  because  of  the 
vigilant  eye  the  Dutch  had  over  their  actions. 
They  went  on  to  say  that  although  they 
might  "effect  the  business  through  the  Straits 
of  Sunda,  yet  without  the  Coinpany's  positive 
order,"  they  must  decline  hazarding  the 
Company's  shipping,  but  "  rather  propound 
unto  the  Court  the  obtaining  from  the  King 
of  Spain  his  consent  and  license  for  an  open 
and  free  commerce  between  us."     Apparently 

himself  for  fear  of  falling  into  his  hands  ; 
which  disturbances  with  the  Portuguese's 
poverty  had  left  Macao  destitute  of  all  sorts 
of  commodities,  there  not  being  to  be  bought 
in  the  city  either  silks  raw  or  wrought,  (nor) 
China  roots  other  than  what  were  old  and 
rotten  ;  nor,  indeed,  anything  but  China 
ware,  which  is  the  bulk  of  the  Hindi's 
lading,  the  rest  being  brought  in  gold  ;  nor 
could  anything  at  all  during  the  ship's  stay 
there  be  procured  from  Canton."  The  dis- 
turbed state  of  China  continued  for  some 
time  to  interrupt  the  course  of  trade.  Three 
years  after  the  Hiiidc  visited  Macao  the 
Company's  agent  at  Bantam  supplied  a  very 
doleful  account  of  the  position  of  affairs  to 
his  employers  at  home.  "  The  experiment 
which  you  desire  we  should  make  with  one 
of  our  small  vessels  for  trade  into  China,"  he 
wrote,  "  we  are  certainly  informed  by  those 
that  know  the  present  state  and  condition  of 
that  country  very  well  cannot  be  undertaken 
witliout  the  inevitable  loss  both  of  ship,  men 
and  goods  ;  for  as  the  Tartars  overrun  and 
waste  all  the  inland  country  without  settling 
any  government  in  the  places  which  they 
overcome  ;  so  some   of   their   great    men   in 

MACAO,    FROM    THE    SEA. 
(From  Uorget's  "Slietches  of  Cliina.") 

the  risks  were  eventually  faced,  for  at  the 
close  of  the  year  two  of  the  Company's  ships, 
the  Hiiidc  and  the  Sea  Horse,  are  mentioned 
as  having  been  one  at  Macao  and  the  other 
at  the  Manilas.  The  voyages  were  not 
particularly  successful,  largely  owing  to  the 
anarchical  conditions  which  prevailed  in 
China  at  this  period.  The  Hiiuie,  the 
chronicler  says,  might  have  done  better  but 
for  "  the  extreme  poverty  of  the  place,  it  not 
appearing  the  saine  as  it  was  at  the  Loiulon's 
being  there."  Its  condition  was  due  "  to  the 
loss  of  their  (the  Portuguese's)  former  trades 
to  Japan  and  the  Manilas,  the  former  of 
which  they  lately  atteinpted  to  recover  by 
sending  a  pinnace  into  those  ports,  but  (they) 
had  their  people  that  voyaged  thither  all  cut 
off,  which  makes  them  more  miserable."  As 
for  China  it  was  represented  in  the  factor's 
report  on  tlie  H/iidc's  voyage  as  being 
"  wholly  embroiled  in  wars."  "  One  of  the 
chief  Mandarins  being  risen  in  rebellion  is 
grown  so  powerful  that  he  possesseth  a  great 
part  of  the  kingdom  and  is  likely  to  be 
owner  of  it,  the  king,  after  he  had  slain  his 
wife  and  two  of  his  children,  having  hanged 

China  with  a  mighty  fleet  at  sea  of  upwards 
of  1,000  sail  of  great  ships  (as  is  conlidenlly 
reported)  rob  and  spoil  all  the  sea  coasts  and 
whatsoever  vessels  they  can  meet  with  ;  and 
how  one  of  our  feeble  vessels  would  be  able 
to  defend  themselves  against  such  forces  is 
easy  to  be  supposed.  As  for  the  Portugalls 
in  Macao,  they  are  little  better  than  mere 
rebels  against  their  Vice  Roy  in  Goa  having 
lately  murdered  tlieir  Captain  General  sent 
thither  to  them  ;  and  Macao  itself  so  distracted 
amongst  themselves  that  tliey  are  daily  spill- 
ing one  another's  blood.  But  put  the  case, 
all  these  things  were  otherwise,  we  must 
needs  say  we  are  in  a  very  poor  condition  to 
seek  out  new  discoveries  ;  while  you  will  not 
allow  us  either  factors,  shipping  or  sailors, 
scarce  hall  sufficient  to  maintain  the  trade 
already  you  have  on  foot  ;  and  therefore  the 
Dutch  but  laugh  at  us  to  see  us  meddle  with 
new  undertakings,  being  hardly  able  to 
support  the  old." 

The  Tartar  invasion  of  China,  Dutch  hos- 
tility, civil  war  at  home,  and  a  general  lack 
of  means,  were  circumstances  which  com- 
bined to   circumscribe  the  operations  of  the 


Cdmpany  for  a  consklerabic  period  after  the 
inditing  of  this  gloomy  report.  In  1654  the 
Dutch  appear  to  have  sent  two  ships  to 
Canton  from  the  Pescadores  at  the  invitation 
of  the  authorities  there,  I'lut  tlie  new  Knif>eror 
who  was  greatly  incensed  against  the  Hol- 
landers and  strongly  prejudiced  against  all 
foreigners,  hearing  of  their  presence  at  the 
port  sent  orders  that  they  should  be  cut  off, 
and  cot  off  they  would  have  been  had  not 
the  friendly  Viceroy  given  thenj  a  timely 
hint  to  cut  their  cables  and  depart — advice 
which  they  promptly  acccpte<l.  About  the 
same  period  two  private  English  ships,  the 
King  Feniimimi  and  the  Richanl  ami  Altirtlia 
appear  also  to  have  visited  Canton.  They, 
too,  had  to  leave  precipitately,  and  they  de- 
parted in  anything  but  the  odour  of  sanctity 
with  the  Chinese,  for  they  omitted  to  dis- 
charge their  measureage  dues  before  leaving, 
a  circumstance  which  was  unpleasantly  re- 
called live  years  later  when  the  next  English 
ship  appeared  in  the  Canton  Kivcr.  This 
vessel  was  the  Company's  ship  Sural,  which 
in  1664  sailed  from  Bantam  with  a  cargo  of 
pepper,  indigo,  a  quantity  of  lead,  and  other 
produce,  amounting  in  value  to  Rs.  9,573. 
They  had  difficulties  as  usual  with  the  Portu- 
guese at  Macao :  "  They  are  low  and  proud," 
was  the  Company's  supercargoes'  verdict 
upon  them.  They  found  pirates  infesting 
the  mouth  of  the  Canton  River  and  exacting 
blackmail  from  all  whom  they  could  intimi- 
date ;  and,  most  discouraging  of  all,  they 
discovered  that  there  was  "  no  certainty  of 
trade  in  any  part  of  China  under  the  Tartar 

Foiled  in  their  endeavours  to  create  a 
direct  tnide  with  China,  the  Company  sought 
to  achieve  their  end  by  indirect  means.  Their 
new  plan  was  to  establish  factories  somewhere 
in  the  vicinity  of  China  where  they  could  get 
into  touch  with  Chinese  traders.  What  seemed 
at  the  time  to  be  a  favourable  opportunity 
offered  in  consequence  of  the  capture  of  Tywan, 

Formosa,  from  the  Dutch  in  1664  by  a  venture- 
some Chinese  chief  Mandarin,  who  followed 
up  his  occupation  of  the  island  by  establishing 
something  like  a  regal  authority  over  its 
inhabitants.  This  chief  was  reported  to  be 
friendly  to  traders.  It  subsequently  appeared 
that  his  friendliness  only  consisted  in  a  desire 
to  have  in  the  foreigners'  ships  a  convenient 
milch  cow  to  supply  his  warlike  necessities. 
But  the  Company  were  too  eager  at  the  time 
to  get  a  foothold  in  the  China  seas  to  examine 
very  closely  into  the  motives  which  prompted 
the  indirect  overture  which  was  made  to  them. 
In  1670  they  despatched  two  small  ships 
to  Tywan  to  reconnoitre  the  position.  A 
friendly  reception  was  given  to  the  Company's 
representatives,  who  finally  left  with  a  signed 
permit  from  the  King  for  the  establishment 
of  a  factory.  The  next  year  two  ships, 
the  Bantam  Merchant  and  the  Crown,  were 
sent  out  to  Tywan,  but  the  results  of  the 
voyage  were  only  partially  successful  because, 
s:»ys  a  naive  coinmunication  sent  home  by 
the  factors,  "  of  some  perfidious  Chinese 
and  our  yett  inexperience  in  those  parts." 
After  this  an  effort  was  made  to  open  up  a 
trade  with  Japan  by  vessels  sent  direct  from 
England  ;  but  the  venture  was  a  complete 
failure.  One  of  the  ships  was  captured  by 
the  Dutch,  and  the  other,  after  a  circuitous 
and  protracted  voyage,  arrived  lionie  with 
little  to  its  account,  but  a  heavy  bill  of  costs. 
The  Bantam  agency  was  anxious  to  resort  to 
the  old  Dutch  method  of  capturing  junks  to 
compel  Japan  to  open  her  ports.  But  the 
Court  with  great  good  sense  wrote,  "  We 
like  not  what  ye  wrote  to  become  robbers 
or  to  attempt  to  p'cure  our  trade  with  force, 
although  they  (the  Japanese)  have  dealt  un- 
kindly with  us."  The  Court  at  the  same 
time  thought  that  much  good  might  be  done 
by  cultivating  the  friendship  of  the  King  of 
Tywan,  for  they  accounted  the  establishment 
at  Tywan  to  be  of  great  importance.  Mean- 
while,   in    opposition    to    this    view,    it    was 

(From  a  print,  o(  the  date  165$,  in  De  Goyer  and  De  Keyser's  "Embassy  to  China.'^ 

reported  from  Tywan  that  no  great  progress 
was  being  made.  The  junks  proceeding  to 
Japan  refused  to  have  anything  to  do  with 
the  English  cloths,  and  there  were  few  open- 
ings in  other  directions  for  lucrative  business. 

Simultaneously  with  the  opening  of  a  trade 
with  Formosa  the  Company  took  measures 
to  establish  a  factory  in  Tonkin.  The  Dutch 
had  long  maintained  an  agency  there,  and 
it  was  thought  tliat  the  Company  could  not 
do  better  than  follow  their  rivals'  example, 
more  especially  in  view  of  the  determination 
come  to  to  promote  a  circuitous  trade  with 
China.  To  further  the  enterprise  the  Zanl 
frigate  was  sent  out  in  1672  with  a  full 
cargo  and  a  capable  crew  commanded  by 
W.  Gyfford,  one  of  the  Company's  trusted 
servants.  'The  ship  reached  the  Tonkin 
River  on  June  25th,  and  on  the  following 
day  passed  up  the  tideway  some  14  miles. 
Then  the  frigate  was  ordered  to  stop  until 
permission  had  been  procured  for  it  to 
proceed  to  Hien,  the  capital.  A  Mandarin — 
one  Ung-ja-Thay — came  on  board  while  the 
vessel  was  lying-to,  and  the  Company's  repre- 
sentatives in  order  to  get  on  good  terms  with 
him  made  hitn  a  pi  esent  of  "  6  yards  of 
scarlet,  2  sword  blades  and  2  silver  hafted 
knives."  These  gifts  apparently  had  not  the 
desired  effect,  for  when  the  ship  was  pro- 
ceeding up  the  river  on  July  6th,  "the  Man- 
darin being  this  day  aboard,  pinioned  the 
captain  and  threatened  to  cut  off  the  chief 
mate's  head,  because  they  would  not  tow  the 
ship  against  a  violent  stream."  However,  "at 
last  they  were  forced  to  try  but  as  soon  as 
the  anchor  was  up  the  tide  or  current  carried 
down  the  ship  in  spite  of  all  help  ;  soe  he 
was  something  appeased." 

"  Were  it  not  that  we  have  respect  for  the 
Company's  affairs,"  observe  the  factors  in 
their  curious  chronicle  of  the  voyage,  "  we 
should  have  resisted  any  such  affront,  though 
we  saw  but  little  hopes  of  escaping,  being 
so  far  up  the  river  and  our  ship  so  full  of 

Mr.  Gyfford  told  the  Mandarin  that  putting 
such  dishonour  upon  them  as  to  pinion  the 
captain  seemed  very  strange  to  them,  and 
therefore  they  desired  no  other  favour  from 
him  but  leave  to  go  back  again,  for  they  be- 
lieved their  honourable  employers  would  not 
trade  there  upon  such  terms.  The  Mandarin 
answered  "  that  while  we  were  out  we  might 
have  kept  out  ;  the  King  was  King  of  Tonquin 
before  we  came  there  and  would  be  after  we 
departed  ;  and  that  this  country  had  no  need 
of  any  foreign  thing  ;  but  now  we  are  within 
his  power  we  must  be  obedient  thereto  ;  com- 
paring it  to  the  condition  of  a  married  woman, 
who  can  blame  no  one  but  herself  for  being 
brought  into  bondage."  The  Mandarin,  mean- 
while, made  free  of  the  ship's  stores.  "  He 
calls  for  wine  at  his  pleasure  and  gives  it 
amongst  his  soldiers  and  secretaries,  forcing 
them  and  our  seamen  to  drink  full  cups  only 
to  devour  it."  Afterwards  the  Mandarin 
plundered  the  ship  shamelessly,  and  later 
some  of  the  Royal  house  and  leading  officials 
joined  in  the  business.  In  the  absence  of 
the  King  of  Tonkin,  who  was  away  fighting 
the  Cochin  Chinese,  letters  were  delivered  to 
his  son   asking  permission  to  build  a  factory. 

In  a  summary  of  the  proceedings  Gyfford 
stales  the  Mandarin  "  ransacked  our  ship  at 
his  pleasure  carrying  away  all  our  English 
cloth,  stuffs,  lead  and  guns  and  anything 
else  that  we  hoped  to  make  profit  by,  and 
told  us  that  the  King  would  buy  them — which 
is  true,  but  it  will  be  at  his  own  rates.  .  .  . 
With  all  our  industry  we  have  not  been  able 
to  do  more  than  to  unload  the  ship  and 
procure  a  chop  for  settling  at  Hien  and  send 
of  I  our  goods  during  the  King's  absence." 


In  another  report  dated,  August  7,  1672, 
the  factors  further  dilate  upon  their  troubles  : 
"  Two  voyages  were  made  up  to  the  city 
Catcliao,  first  to  procure  the  prince's  chop  to 
land  goods  and  second  to  make  prices  of  our 
goods  they  took  from  us  for  the  King's  use, 
which  was  all  we  hoped  to  gain  by  ;  but 
they  made  us  such  prices  as  the  Company 
would  lose  by,  except  the  cloth  stuff  and 
guns  ;  and  would  have  forced  upon  us  silk 
at  40  p.c.  dearer  than  might  be  procured 
abroad.  ...  It  would  be  ot  ill  conse- 
quence to  the  Company's  affairs  to  allow 
such  an  imposition,  they  at  their  own  rates 
abating  ours  and  raising  their  own  goods  ; 
and  measuring  our  cloth  by  a  false  measure 
contrary  to  custom,  which  is  barely  the  Dutch 
ell  to  which  they  added  nearly  a  2oth  part. 
They  are  the  most  deceitful,  craving  and 
thievish  people  that  ever  we  came  among. 
But  we  are  encouraged  to  hope  that  the  King 
will  hear  our  complaints  and  remedy  all  these 
things  for  us  at  his  return."  On  the  12th  of 
August  the  Zaiif  dropped  down  the  river  and 
left  on  her  return  voyage.  Afterwards  Gyfford 
occupied  himself  in  establishing  the  factory 
at  Hien.  In  letters  to  Bantam  and  the 
Court,  Gyfford,  James  and  Waite,  the  factors, 
enumerated  the  goods  that  were  likely  to  be 
most  profitable.  They  concluded  ;  "'Tis  not 
convenient  to  send  much  goods  hither.  Prin- 
cipally send  what  pieces  of  eight  you  can  ; 
for  the  life  of  this  trade  is  money,  and  unless 
the  most  part  of  the  Company's  stock  sent 
hither  be  in  money  this  factory  cannot  yield 

"  It  had  been  far  better  to  have  seen  a 
trade  opened  northward,  before  we  engaged 
in  this  expense,  as  we  declared  at  Bantam." 

"  It  is  difficult  to  recover  money  from  the 
prince  ;  yet  he  must  not  be  denied  more 
goods  whenever  he  sends  for  them  ;  we 
understand  the  King  pays  well,  but  his  son 
conceives  it  sufficient  that  he  intends  to  do 
the  same  when  he  succeeds  to  the  throne. 
.  .  .  The  usual  way  with  the  mandarins  is 
to  take  goods  agreeing  to  pay  at  the  same 
time  and  in  the  same  manner  as  the  King  ; 
so  that  being  interested,  they  prevent  us 
paying  him  so  well  as  he  is  disposed  to  do. 
He  this  year  gave  order  to  pay  us  in  Plate  ; 
but  the  mandarins  refused  to  obey  and  would 
pay  us  only  in  bad  silk  at  a  high  price.  The 
Dutch  upon  a  like  abuse  being  unable  to  get 
their  petition  presented  to  the  King,  brought 
their  trumpet  to  the  King's  gate  and  obtained 
immediate  access  and  redress.  If  your 
Honours  continue  here  it  must  be  upon  such 
hazardous  terms  as  we  have  related ;  and 
you  cannot  blame  your  servants  who  are  in 
reality  no  better  than  slaves." 

"  It  is  the  policy  of  the  King  to  repress 
trade  lest  the  people  grow  rich  and  rebel ; 
of  which  he  is  very  fearful  by  reason  of  the 
great  population  of  the  kingdom.  He  also 
receives  four-fifths  of  the  profits  of  the  land 
and  is  very  rich  in  gold  and  silver.  The 
people  if  they  have  anything  bury  it  and 
are  afraid  of  making  any  unusual  appear- 
ance in  their  houses  or  apparel  lest  they 
should  be  thought  to  have  money  ;  therefore 
it  is  impossible  to  induce  them  to  wear 
anything  but  what  they  are  accustomed  to  ; 
neither  would  the  King  permit  it,  for  all  are 
habited  alike  according  to  their  rank,  in  the 
distinction  of  which  they  are  very  exact,  for 
not  only  a  different  title  but  also  a  different 
language  is  used  according  to  the  rank  of 
the  person  addressed.  .  .  .  The  Dutch  have 
been  settled  in  Tonquin  forty  years — for  the 
first  four  years  they  suffered  great  affronts  ; 
but  they  bore  all  and  in  all  things  endea- 
voured to  oblige  the  King  and  still  continue 
to  do  so  on  account  of  the  great  profit  they 

make  on  silk  in  Japan.  The  Dutch  bring 
very  little  goods  except  for  presents,  and 
small  quantities  of  such  gruff  goods  as  the 
King  will  not  meddle  with  ;  their  chief  profit 
is  on  what  they  buy.  Rich  curiosities, 
instruments,  or  materials  of  war,  never  escape 
the  King.  Indeed,  he  lakes  whatever  he 
fancies  at  his  own  rates.  The  Dutch  take 
care  to  supply  him  with  things  of  this 
description,  but  only  with  such  as  turn  to 
profit  ;  .  .  .  We  must  do  the  same  and 
forbear  to  furnish  him  with  lead,  for  which 
he  has  only  allowed  one-fourth  the  cost  and 

The  factors  experienced  great  difficulty  in 
securing  payment  for  the  goods  they  sold, 
but  in  the  end  by  sheer  pertinacity  they 
obtained  some  sort  of  an  adjustment.  Des- 
pite the  discouraging  results  achieved,  the 
Court  in  1676-77  sent  out  another  ship  to 
trade  in  Tonkin.  It  was  received  in  much 
the  same  manner  as  the  Zaiit  had  been  four 
years  previously.  The  factors'  old  friend, 
Ung-ja-Thay,  was  early  on  the  scene  making 
himself  pleasant  in  his  peculiar  way.  He 
first  of  all  wanted  to  beach  the  ship  in  oider 
to  inspect  the  cargo,  but  on  receiving  a  sola- 
tium of  no  dollars  he  agreed  "to  let  the 
ship  alone  and  to  proceed  no  further  in  his 
ruinous  intent."  The  usual  presents  were 
made  to  the  King,  but  His  Majesty  proved 
fastidious  and  returned  some  of  them  as  not 
to  his  liking.  The  incident  led  to  the  des- 
patch of  a  letter  to  the  Bantam  authorities 
advising  them  how  to  proceed  in  future  in 
this  important  matter.  "  We  would  request 
you,"  says  the  communication,  "to  write  them 
(the  King  and  his  son)  letters  in  China  char- 
acters' and  English  or  Portuguese  sewed  up 
in  a  piece  of  China  gold  stuff,  and  sealed 
each  apart  ;  and  insert  (specify  ?)  your  present 
to  them  in  your  letter,  which  must  not  be 
toys,  but  substantial  things  ;  as  great  guns, 
broad  cloth,  serges,  large  pieces  rough  amber 
— the  deeper  coloured  the  better,  or  large 
pieces  of  well-polished  coral.  The  present 
of  the  Dutch  to  the  King  this  year  was  four 
pieces  of  cloth,  two  sacker  guns,  a  corge  of 
fine  cloth,  and  a  chest  of  rosewater.  So  in 
proportion  you  may  order  your  presents  there, 
and  get  them  up  handsomely  as  those  of  the 
Dutch  are."  That  these  instructions  were 
not  superfluous  was  shown  a  few  months 
after  the  letter  was  written.  About  that  time 
the  factors  were  endeavouring  to  obtain  the 
grant  of  a  site  for  a  factory  and,  in  order  to 
secure  his  goodwill,  had  made  a  present 
of  amber  to  the  King's  eldest  son.  The 
prince,  not  finding  the  tint  of  the  amber 
exactly  to  his  taste,  returned  the  presents 
without  ceremony.  He  took  care  to  let  it  be 
known  that  the  only  amber  which  would 
please  him  must  be  "as  red  as  fire."  Soon 
after  this  incident  a  mysterious  message  from 
the  King  reached  the  ship,  demanding  the 
attendance  of  the  commander,  the  gunner, 
and  the  carpenter.  The  trio  went  wonder- 
ingly,  and  on  arrival  at  the  palace  found 
that  His  Majesty  wanted  to  show  them  a 
great  gun  which  his  subjects  had  cast  to  fit 
some  shot  which  the  Company's  ships  had 
brought  out.  The  weapon  was  duly  inspected 
and  discreetly  commended.  But  it  seemed 
that  the  King  had  not  sunnnoned  them 
merely  to  survey  and  admire  his  subjects' 
handiwork.  Clever  as  the  Tonkinese  were 
they  had  not  been  able  to  devise  a  contri- 
vance for  moving  the  gun,  so  the  Englishmen 
were  commanded  to  manufacture  a  crane  for 
the  purpose,  on  the  lines  of  contrivances 
used  on  their  vessels.  The  direction  was 
obeyed  and  the  crane  duly  supplied.  "  Yet," 
as  the  factors  plaintively  remark  in  one  of 
their  reports,  "  we  had  not  so  much  as  thanks 

though  a  man  was  ordered  to  oversee  the 
work  and  did  nothing  else  for  near  three 
months  together."  The  King,  in  fact,  took 
all  that  he  could  get  and  gave  little  in  return. 
His  subjects  faithfully  copied  his  example,  in 
many  cases  indeed  improving  upon  it.  Under 
the  strain  of  an  intolerable  situation  the 
Company's  agents  became  very  despondent. 
Writing  to  Bantam  about  a  month  after  the 
delivery  of  the  crane  they  say  :  "  As  to  the 
state  of  the  Company's  affairs  here  we  know 
not  what  to  advise,  having  to  do  with  an 
unreasonable  and  untruthful  people  ;  for  the 
more  we  endeavour  to  oblige  them  the 
greater  disappointments  we  find  from  them." 
Notwithstanding  the  discouraging  conditions, 
the  negotiations  for  a  site  for  a  factory  were 
continued  until  August,  1678,  when,  by  dint 
of  bribery,  a  licence  was  obtained  from  the 
King  for  the  establishment  of  a  factory  on 
a  site  below  the  Dutch  factory.  The  plot  of 
ground  given,  the  agent  reported,  "  is  not  so 
large  as  we  desire,  but  need  hath  no  law." 
The  consideration  for  the  site  was  a  brass 
and  an  iron  gun  and  shot.  The  former  was 
returned  as  defective,  and  the  Tonkinese 
"  would  not  hear  anything  alledged  in  proof 
of  the  goodness  of  the  gun,  for  having  once 
refused  it,  no  replications  avail,  though  they 
see  the  gun  fired  a  hundred  times."  Appar- 
ently this  allegation  of  the  defectiveness  of 
the  gun  was  only  a  subterfuge  to  cover  a 
repudiation  of  the  bargain  that  had  been 
come  to.  At  all  events,  in  October  of  the 
same  year  the  report  was  made  to  Bantam 
that  the  King  would  not  grant  the  ground 
this  year  "  being  his  climacterical  year, 
wherein  he  is  so  ceremoniously  observant, 
that  no  kind  of  public  affairs  has  been  com- 
menced." The  affair  of  the  site  dragged  on 
for  some  years,  until  after  the  death  of  the 
King.  A  grant  was  ultimately  made  by  his 
successor  and  a  regular  establishment  formed 
subordinate  to  Bantam,  until  the  factory  was 
captured  by  the  Dutch  when  the  control  was 
vested  in  Surat. 

At  the  station  a  certain  amount  of  trade 
was  done  under  restrictions  peculiar  to  the 
place.  One  custom  which  proved  very 
irksome  and  expensive  was  for  the  great 
men  of  the  country  to  repair  at  odd  times 
to  the  factory  for  purposes  of  entertainment. 
They  did  not  wait  for  an  invitation,  but  with 
their  women  folk  dropped  in  just  when  the 
fancy  took  them.  Gratuities  had  to  be  given 
to  the  women  for  the  exercise  of  their  vocal 
powers,  and  there  were  other  charges  which 
had  to  be  defrayed  out  of  the  Company's 
exchequer.  We  have  an  account  of  one  of 
these  entertainments  in  the  following  entry 
in  the  factor's  journal  under  date  October  18, 
1694:  "The  Duch  Ung  came  to  ye  factory 
a  little  after  noone,  bringing  with  him  abun- 
dance of  women,  his  mother  and  severall  of 
his  wives  ;  and  presently  after  he  had  drank 
a  cupp  of  Tea  came  about  20  Bandigaes  of 
Tonqueen  fashioned  victualls  of  his  own,  he 
treating  with  them  all  ye  factory  and  his 
own  people.  A  little  before  night  wee  pre- 
sented our  entertainment  likewise.  He  ate 
not  himself,  but  ye  women  and  his  attendants 
all  participated.  They  danced  and  sung  all 
ye  afternoone,  and  ye  evening  at  their  depar- 
ture wee  gave  them  20,000  cassies."  The 
factory  lingered  on  for  some  little  time  after 
this  episode,  and  then  in  consequence  of 
heavy  defalcations  on  the  part  of  the  leading 
factor  and  the  general  unprofitableness  of  the 
business  the  establishment  was  withdrawn. 

All  the  time  that  the  Company  was  carrying 
through  this  costly  experiment  in  Tonkin 
it  was  endeavouring  by  other  means  to  ex- 
tend its  trade  in  the  China  seas.  The  capture 
of  Amoy  by  the  King  of   Formosa   in   1675 


supplied  what  al  the  first  Mush  appeared  to 
be  a  most  promisinj;  openiiiK  lor  direct 
business  rcbtions  with  Chiiu.  The  King 
wa»  not  "Illy  willing,  but  anxious  for  foreign 
mrrcfaants  to  trade,  and   as   an    inducement 

all  expect  the  like  or  think  themselves 
slighted."  "  Wee  .is  merchants,"  Ihe  Court's 
letter  proceeded,  "  have  hitherto  only  treated 
with  them  by  our  (actors  upon  the  respective 
places,  and    shall    continue    so   to    doc    until 


(From  .in  engraving.) 

he  held  out  an  offer  of  exemption  from 
customs  and  other  duties  for  three  years. 
The  concession  in  the  end  proved  illusory, 
but  it  served  the  intended  purpose  of  attract- 
ing traders  to  this  new  centre.  In  1676-77, 
the  Company's  (rigalc  Tyicati,  as  an  experi- 
ment, was  orclered  lo  go  to  Amoy  and  there 
take  on  hoard  a  cargo  of  silk,  and  shortly 
afterwards  a  faiiory  was  established.  In 
October,  1677,  the  head-quarters  of  the  Com- 
pany in  China  was  transferred  from  Tywan 
to  this  new  centre,  the  pros|x;cts  of  which 
seemed  at  the  time  to  he  encouraging  enough 
lo  justify  a  special  effort  on  the  part  of  the 
Oimpany.  'The  Aiik)V  establishment  thus 
organised  consisted  of  Mr.  lienjainln  Delaune 
as  chief  factor,  on  a  salary  of  £Ho  per  annum, 
a  second  factor  on  a  salary  of  £'50,  a  third 
on  one  of  £40,  and  four  writers  at  ;^lo  each 
per  annum.  'These  emoluments  appear  ridicu- 
lously small,  but  it  has  lo  be  remembered 
that  the  Company's  servants  were  allowed 
to  engage  in  private  trade,  and  there  is 
ample  evidence  that  they  freely  availed  them- 
selves of  the  privilege,  sometimes  to  the 
marked  disadvantage  of  the  Company.  The 
liopcs  entertained  of  Amoy  were  doomed  to 
speedy  disappointment.  When  the  King  of 
Tjrwan  had  got  the  factors  completely  in  his 
power  he  calmly  rescinded  the  concession 
relative  lo  exemption  from  customs'  duties. 
In  vain  Ihe  Company's  agents  protested 
ag/utat  what  they  properly  regarded  as  a 
KToas  breach  of  faith.  The  King's  officials 
blandly  made  llieir  demands  and  would 
accept  no  compromise.  It  was  suggested 
at  the  time  by  the  Company's  agent  at 
Amoy  that  g<M>d  might  t>e  done  by  the 
despatch  of  a  special  envoy  from  the  Com- 
pany to  the  King.  But  the  Court  very 
emphatically  rejected  the  proposal.  While 
they  did  not  think  that  the  least  advantage 
would  accrue  from  sending  such  a  personage, 
a  mission  they  considered  would  be  expen- 
sive and  would  "  hegett  a  greater  expcciation 
fr<i«n  the  princes   in   those  parts  who  would 

their  be  just  ground  to  make  an  alteration." 
Bantam  was  instrucled  to  expostulate  against 
the  unreasonable  terms  imposed,  but  matters 
were  "to  be  carried  fair  at  Tywan  till  a  sure 
settlement  is  formed  at  Amoy  or  some  other 
place  in  China,  where  we  design  the  chiefe  of 
our  trade."  At  about  this  period  the  Com- 
pany's operations  were  greatly  hampered   by 

advantage  of  all  the  opportunities  that  offered 
for  commercial  intercourse  with  Cliina. 
Eventually  the  Dutch  captured  the  Bantam 
factory,  and  the  direction  of  the  Company's 
interests  was,  as  has  been  stated,  transferred 
to  Sural,  a  far  too  distant  point  for  really 
effective  control.  Before  this  event  occurred, 
in  May,  i(>79,  an  invitation  was  forwarded 
home  from  the  Viceroy  of  Canton  for  a  ship 
or  ships  to  go  to  that  port.  The  Court,  in 
acknowledging  the  communication,  expressed 
thi-mselves  doubtful  as  to  the  possibilities  of 
lucrative  trade  in  view  of  the  disturbed  condi- 
tion of  Cliina.  They  added,  "  Yet  forasmuch 
as  China  may  introduce  a  very  considerable 
trade  and  sent  for  English  manufactures, 
we  hope  in  time  when  the  wars  shall 
be  ended  and  peace  restored  y'  upon  our 
application  to  the  Eniperor,  wee  may  be 
admitted  to  a  Freedome  of  Commerce 
in  that  country."  Afterwards  the  Court  re- 
considered the  determination  expressed  in 
this  letter  to  allow  matters  to  rest.  In  a 
conimunication  dated  August  12,  1681,  they 
wrote  :  "  Wee  have  had  many  conferences 
concerning  the  commencement  of  a  trade 
for  Canton,  upon  which  wee  have  thus  far 
agreed,  viz.,  that  it  is  a  very  desirable  and 
profitable  trade — that  the  China  silk  comodi- 
tyes  from  thence  are  generally  better  than 
from  Amoy — as  also  that  it  might  be  a  place 
in  lime  to  sent  a  considerable  quantity  of  our 
English  manufacture,  in  soe  much  that  wee 
should  now  have  sent  you  a  ship  and  cargo 
proper  and  purposely  for  that  trade  ;  but  wee 
are  in  doubt  of  two  things  :  First,  we  are 
not  satisfied  either  by  our  owne  letters  or 
by  discourse  with  Mr.  Marshall,  English 
Dacres,  and  Captaine  Nicholson,  or  any  other 
that  you  have  a  sul'licient  Chop  or  Phynnand, 
from  the  Vice  King  or  supream  person  in 
autiiority  at  Canton  for  the  security  of  our 
ships  estate  and  servants,  which  wee  may 
send  thither.  Our  2nd  doubt  is  lest  if  wee 
should  send  a  ship  thither  the  Chiiieeses  at 
Amoy,  being  at  a  kind   of  enmity   with   the 

(From  Allom  &  VVriglils  "Cliina.") 

the  inefficiency  of  the  Bantam  establishment. 
The  officials  there  sf>  gravely  mismanaged 
affairs  that  the  Company's  interests  in  the 
Straits  were  imperilled  for  Ihe  time  being, 
and   meanwhile   the   Dutch   were   taking   full 

Tartars  and  people  at  Canton  and  being 
themselves  a  jealous,  suspitious  people  should 
take  such  offence  at  the  news  thereof,  as 
might  in  the  consequence  turne  to  tlie  great 
prejudice,    hazard,    or    loss    of    our    alTaiics, 


estate  and  servants  at  Amoy  ;  wtiere  you 
will  see  our  concerns  are  very  considerable 
this  year  and  like  in  our  opinion  (if  not 
interrupted)  greatly  to   increase  in   the  next." 

The  Court  nevertheless  gave  a  discretionary 
power  to  Bantam  to  send  one  of  the  Com- 
pany's ships  already  with  them  to  Canton 
with  ;^3,ooo  or  ;^'4,ooo  of  stock  to  make  a 
trial  of  trade  there.  They  further  intimated 
that  they  would  ne.xt  year  consign  a  ship 
direct  to  Canton  with  liberty  to  Bantam  to 
divert  her  to  Amoy  if  her  proceeding  to  the 
former  should  be  deemed  dangerous.  Finally 
the  Court  directed  that  if  Bantam  had  dis- 
posed of  the  ships  for  the  season  they  might 
hire  one  to  send  to  Canton. 

Before  the  instructions  could  be  carried  out 
Amoy  had  been  recaptured  from  the  King 
of  Tywan  by  the  Tartars,  and  the  Company 
temporarily  cut  off  from  its  principal  base  in 
the  Eastern  seas.  In  the  circumstances  the 
Court  proposed  that  four  vessels  which  were 
being  sent  out  to  Amoy  should  proceed  in 
company  to  Macao  and  that  a  fifth  vessel 
should  voyage  to  the  Lampeco  Islands,  where 
the  Court  were  informed  the  Dutch  had  in 
one  year  "  laden  twenty  vessels  with  goods 
of  those  parts,  especially  from  Canton,  and 
rode  there  in  safety  and  out  of  command." 
Although  the  arrangements  here  do  not  appear 
to  have  been  carried  out  in  their  integrity 
there  is  a  record  of  the  visit  of  two  of  the 
Company's  ships,  the  China  Merchant  and 
the  Tywan,  to  the  mouth  of  the  Canton  River 
in  1682.  On  their  arrival  becoming  known 
at  Canton  war  junks  came  out  to  impede 
commerce  and  they  weie  unable  to  do  more 
than  a  trifling  trade.  The  supercargoes  le- 
ported  home  the  reasons  for  their  failure  : 
'■That  which  formerly  made  the  trade  of  this 
place  to  flourish,"  they  said,  "  was  the  King 
of  Canton  hiniselfe  being  a  promoter  of  it 
and  interested  therein,"  but  being  suspected 
of  holding  a  correspondence  with  the  King 
of  Tywan  he  was  put  to  death  by  the  Em- 
peror's orders  in  1680,  and  the  most  eminent 
merchants  of  the  place  were  treated  with 
"  much  severity."  Since  then  Canton  had 
been  governed  "by  divers  great  Manderins," 
who  by  their  vast  extortions  practised  on  the 
merchants  whom  they  privately  permitted  to 
trade  to  the  Macao  Islands  had  "  much  de- 
pressed commerce  and  discouraged  merchants 
from  undertaking  great  matters." 

The  Tartar  admiral,  acting,  it  was  stated, 
at  the  instigation  of  the  Portuguese,  ordered 
the  two  ships  to  leave  their  anchorage  in 
the  river.  Subsequently  they  proceeded  to 
Lampton  or  Twa,  but  finding  a  Tartar  fleet 
there  returned  to  their  previous  anchoring 
ground  at  Tempa  Hebreda,  near  Macao. 
Here  they  landed  what  cargo  they  could  and 
left  early  in  1682-83,  fof  Batavia.  In  October 
of  the  same  year  the  ship  Carolina  was  des- 
patched from  England  with  orders  to  go  to 
Macao  and  if  they  were  not  admitted  there 
to  proceed  to  Tempa  Cabrado  "  where  ye 
merchants  of  Canton,"  the  instructions  said, 
"  will  come  over  and  deal  with  you  for  ye 
whole  ship's  loading."  The  supercargoes 
were  cautioned  to  be  very  wise  and  circum- 
spect in  negotiating  "they  (the  Canton  mer- 
chants) being  a  very  cunning,  deceitfull 
people."  "  In  standing  with  them  to  draw 
them  to  the  most  advantageous  terms,"  pro- 
ceeded the  letter  of  advice,  "pretend  that 
you  must  speedily  go  to  Amoy  or  Hock- 
shew,  and  what  other  arguments  you  can 
think  on,  to  cause  them  to  mend  their  last 
rates  on  both  sides  of  ye  account.  If  you 
cannot  do  all  your  business  to  your  content 
at  Tempa  Cabiijdo,  yet  if  it  be  possible  get 
admission  to  settle  yourselves  a  factory  at 
Canton    and    to    have    constant    residence    in 

ye  citty  upon  ye  best  terms  you  can.  The 
more  to  induce  them  to  grant  you  a  settle- 
ment in  Canton  upon  good  terms,  you  may 
propound  our  sending  them  four  or  six 
ships  of  war,  to  serve  them  in  their  wars 
against  any  but  European  nations  at  ye 
rate  of  I2d.  per  ton  p.  diem  for  twelve 
mos.  They  paying  half  of  ye  ship's  freight 
or  hire  to  you  in  hand  upon  the  ship's  first 
arrival  at  Canton.  .  .  .  The  Court  would 
rather  send  eight  ships  of  war  than  two,  as 
they  would  be  the  better  able  to  cope  with 
the  Dutch  or  any  other  that  might  obstruct 
them."  If  they  failed  at  Canton  they  were 
to  attempt  to  found  a  settlement  at  Hock- 
chew  or  Amoy. 

The  Carolina,  in  spite  of  the  obslructive- 
ness  of  the  Portuguese,  contrived,  by  bribing 
the  Mandarins  with  the  war  boats  sent  out  to 
shepherd  her,  to  do  some  business.  It  does 
not  appear  from  the  records  that  any  arrange- 

home  the  ship  China  Merchant  was  des- 
patched to  Amoy  to  prosecute  the  trade 
which  it  was  sanguinely  hoped  the  Delight 
had  opened  up.  On  arrival  at  Amoy  the 
supercargoes  were  well  received  by  the 
Mandarins,  who  doubtless  regarded  the  ship 
as  another  pigeon  to  pluck.  A  letter  left 
for  the  newcomers  by  the  supercargo  of 
the  Delight,  however,  allowed  no  room  for 
misconception  as  to  the  character  of  the 
Mandarins — "  these  rogues,"  as  the  writer 
styled  them.  "  Gentlemen,"  the  communi- 
cation said,  "  these  are  a  people  of  noe 
courtesy  ;  they  will  promise  you  mountains 
but  not  perform  a  molehill.  .  .  They  may 
chance  to  wheedle  you  to  give  a  present  to 
ye  Poke  of  HoccheAT  and  ye  Booeh  and 
likewise  ye  Chungisun  who  is  general!  of 
ye  military  affaires  here  ;  he  may  tell  ye  a 
faire  story  but  take  this  from  me,  he  has 
nothing   to   do   but   give    ye   Booeh   an   ace' 


(From  Caron's  "Jappati  aiul  Syani,"  published  1663.) 

ment  was  made  with  the  Chinese  to  afford 
them  help  in  their  warlike  operations,  or 
that  the  question  was  even  seriously  mooted. 
The  obstinate  determination  of  the  Chinese 
Government  to  have  nothing  to  do  with  the 
foreigner  apparently  was  proof  against  all 
representations  however  attractively  presen- 
ted. At  Amoy  in  1682  it  seemed  for  a  time 
that  the  old  conditions  of  trade  enjoyed 
under  the  rule  of  the  King  of  Tywan  might 
be  restored.  A  ship,  the  Delight,  sent  out 
by  the  Company  two  months  later  than  the 
Carolina,  put  into  the  port,  and  after  a 
lavish  distribution  of  presents  amongst  tlie 
ruling  Mandarins  obtained  permission  to 
trade.  But  before  the  loading  was  far  ad- 
vanced peiemptory  orders  were  issued  for 
the  vessel  to  leave,  and  the  captain  had  no 
alternative  but  to  obey,  although  to  do  so 
meant  heavy  loss  to  the  Company.  Before 
the    news   of    their   contretemps   could   reach 

from  whence  your  ship  is  and  j'e  like." 
After  giving  details  of  the  tortuous  dealings 
of  the  Amoy  Mandarins  the  writer  wound 
up  with  a  general  caution  telling  them  to  be 
careful  to  prevent  disputes  between  the 
sailors  and  the  natives,  not  to  sell  any  goods 
to  the  great  men  without  the  cash  in  hand  ; 
to  open  every  bundle  of  silk  before  they  paid 
for  it  and  never  to  pay  for  any  connnodity 
until  the  seller  had  settled  the  custom  dues 

Tlie  China  Merchant  appears  to  have  pro- 
fited by  this  good  advice.  It  got  on  passably 
well  witli  the  Mandarins,  was  actively 
patronised  by  the  merchants,  and  finally  left 
"  chock  full."  The  reason  for  the  contra- 
dictions manifested  in  the  policy  pursued 
towards  different  vessels  of  the  Company  at 
this  period  was  explained  by  "  the  great 
Padre  " — a  French  Jesuit — to  the  supercargoes 
of  a  ship  sent  out  to  Macao  in  1684.     "  He 


told  them  that  the  best  port  for  trade  was 
IJankin.  from  whence  the  finest  wrought  and 
raw  silk  came.  To  inquiries  whether  it  was 
poesihlc  to  procure  the  Emperor's  permission 
to  settle  at  Anwy,  Hockchew,  Fochin,  or 
Nankin,  he  replied  that  he  believed  that  it 
might  be  obtained  but  that  the  best  mode  of 
trade  was  by  ships  '  lo  and  again,'  for  there 
was  a  constant  change  of  Governors  and 
nothing  could  be  done  without  making  tliem 

presents,  which  retarded  the  conclusion  of 
liusiness.  The  Emperor  was  desirous  of 
ena)uraging  the  ingress  of  foreigners  to  his 
ports,  for  which  purpose  he  had  thrown  open 
the  trade  for  three  years,  half  of  whicli  was 
expired,  and  if  all  things  went  on  well  this 
freedom  was  likely  to  be  continued  ;  but  tlie 
Chinese  were  very  jealous  of  strangers  and 
did  not  like  factories  or  settlements.  The 
Padre  cautioned  the  captain  not  to  enter  any 

river  or  any  way  to  put  himself  into  the 
power  of  tlie  Chinese ;  and  instanced  their 
conduct  to  the  Dutch  last  year  at  Anioy,  who 
were  impiisoned  till  half  their  goods  were 
taken  for  nothing  and  were  then  obliged  to 
make  large  presents  lo  be  allowed  to  depart. 
The  Emperor  did  not  permit  and  was  ignorant 
of  such  conduct,  but  the  officers  knowing  their 
time  was  short  '  make  liay  while  the  sun 
shines.'  " 


Efort*  lo  open  a  Trade  with  Canton — Troubles  of  the  East  India  Company  with  "  Interlopers " — A  Mission  to 
Cochin  China — First  Elnglish  E!stablishment  at  Canton — Formation  of  a  Permanent  China  Council  by  the  East 
India  Company — An    Elstablishment   formed  in  Chusan — Abandonment   of  Chusan  Factory  and  Foundation   of   an 

Establishment  at  Pulo  Condore — Affairs  at  Canton. 

Ekcodragbd  by  the  qualified 
success  of  the  Amoy  enterprises,  and  stimu- 
lated also  by  the  activity  of  the  Dutch,  who 
after  their  occupation  of  Bantam  made  great 
efforts  to  capture  the  China  trade,  the  East 
India  Comp.iny,  in  1687,  sent  out  several 
ships.  Two  of  them,  the  Loudon  and  the 
Worcester,  were  despatched  lo  Amoy,  and 
there,  in  August  of  the  same  year,  a  com- 
mencement was  made  with  the  establishment 
of  a  factory  by  the  hiring  of  a  house.  Some 
ciays    afterwards    the    fair    prospect    which 

Amoy  had  its  advantages,  but  there  were 
no  delusions  at  home  as  to  its  inferiority  as 
a  centre  of  trade  compared  with  Canton. 
In  1689  90  the  Court  despatched  the  ship 
Defence  out  with  special  instructions  to 
attempt  to  open  up  trade  with  that  port.  On 
September  ist  the  vessel  arrived  at  an  anchor- 
age about  "  15  leagues  to  the  fclastward  of 
Macao,"  and  tlie  supercargoes  landed  "in  a 
fair  sandy  bay  in  siglit  of  ye  Maccoa  Islands." 
At  a  town  they  came  to  they  procured  three 
bamboo     chairs    and     eleven     wheelbarrows 

CXTy    OK    .A.MUY     FltOM    THK    TOMBS, 
(From  Allom  H.  Wright's  "Cliina.') 

teemed  to  have  opened  up  was  obscured  by  a 
"regrelUble  incident. "  A  drunken  English 
sailor,  wandering  about  at  night,  found  his  way 
to  the  Custom  House,  which  he  broke  open. 
To  acc'immodate  the  matter  the  factors  went 
to  the  leading  official.  This  person  "was 
kind  and  civill  and  all  he  desired  was  a  due 
punishment  might  be  given  to  him  (the  sailor) 
by  (Mirselvcs  according  (as  in  our  opinion) 
ye  cTime  meritled  ;  w'h  was  inflicted  in 
public  view  aslKjre  by  100  stripes  with  a  call 
of  nine  lailes  and  Pickle  to  their  satisfaction." 

"  much  more  convenient  than  our  English 
ones,  but  somewhat  more  noisy,  for  twas 
easy  to  hear  them  a  league  off."  On  their 
way  to  Canton  the  trio  were  well  received 
and  strangely  enough  the  Mandarins  would 
neither  accept  presents  themselves  nor  allow 
their  followers  to  take  them.  Arrived  at 
Canton  the  supercargoes  without  difficulty 
obtained  a  chop  for  the  ship  to  proceed  up 
the  river  ;  but  to  their  mortification  the  captain 
declined  to  move  from  the  anchorage  to  which 
he  had  proceeded  about  six  leagues  off  Macao. 

His  excuse  was  that  he  had  struck  his 
topmasts  and  could  not  get  away.  But  it 
appeared  that  there  were  other  and  more 
personal  reasons  for  his  rchictance  to  accept 
instructions.  He  seems  to  have  been  busy 
doing  an  active  private  trade,  "forestalling" 
the  Company's  agents  in  several  directions. 
These  delinquencies,  however,  faded  into 
insignificance  by  the  side  of  one  indiscretion 
which  had  a  tragic  result  and  eventually 
wrecked  the  entire  enterprise.  While  ashore 
one  day  the  Captain  got  into  an  altercation 
with  the  Chinese  about  a  mast.  After  a 
scuffle  the  captain's  men  bore  away  the  trophy 
in  triumph,  but  as  they  went  off  in  the  boats 
the  natives,  irritated  at  their  discomfiture, 
pelted  them  with  stones.  Upon  this  the 
captain  gave  orders  to  his  men  to  fire, 
and  a  volley  was  directed  to  the  crowd 
on  the  shore  with  unfortunate  results,  one 
Chinaman  being  killed  outright  and  another 
wounded.  The  fire  was  returned  and  the 
native  pilot  who  stood  by  the  captain  was 
wounded.  But  this  was  not  the  worst  outcome 
of  the  business.  "  In  this  confusion,"  says 
the  account  sent  to  the  Court  by  the  super- 
cargoes, "  ye  poore  doctor  3rd  and  5th  mate 
and  7  Englishmen  on  shore  were  not  thought 
on,  or  neglected,  the  pinnice  and  long  boat 
having  cutt  loose  ye  mast  making  a  way  from 
ye  shoar,  who  had  they  stay'd  but  a  few 
minutes  longer  might  have  received  our  poor 
Doctoi-,  who  with  some  others  making  towards 
ye  boat  was  miserably  cut  down  in  their  sight. 
Later  news  was  brought  that  the  doctor 
mortally  wounded  was  drag'd  by  ye  cruell 
Tartars  into  their  Cajan  Watch  House,  where 
he  lies  on  ye  ground  chain'd  in  his  gore  most 
miserably,  with  ye  stinking  dead  corps  (after 
it  had  been  carried  around  ye  towne  ye  more 
to  irritate  ye  Chinese)  lay'd  by  him  and  none 
suffered  to  come  near  and  dress  his  wounds, 
and  all  ye  rest  of  his  people  (save  ye  two 
mates  which  (I)  believe  have  sheltered  them- 
selves amongst  ye  Portuguez)  bound  miserably 
in  ye  same  house." 

The  supercargoes  offered  2,800  taels  to 
accommodate  the  affair,  but  the  Mandarins 
demanded  S,ooo,  and  not  receiving  this 
amount  they  detained  one  of  the  super- 
cargoes to  enforce  the  payment.  The  captain, 
who  throughout  had  acted  in  a  spirit  of 
absolute  independence,  finding  the  turn  that 
events  had  taken  s-et  sail  without  the  super- 
c.ugo,  and  so  what  seemed  a  most  promising 
opening  for  securing  a  foothold  at  Canton 
ended    in    the    official    classes    being    turned 


once  more  stro[if«ly  aj;ainst  the  traders. 
Apart  from  this  unfortunate  episode  the  times 
were  not  at  this  period  propitious  for  the 
China  trade.  "Interlopers"  had  become  a 
source  of  serious  anxiety  to  the  Company. 
On  the  one  hand  they  made  things  difficult 
in  China  by  submitting  to  exactions  ;  on  tlie 
other  they  injured  sales  at  home  by  flood- 
ing the  market  with  goods  at  low  rates.  The 
Court,  writing  to  Madras  in  October,  1690, 
thus  explained  the  situation  :  "  China  goods  of 
all  sorts  are  in  very  low  esteem  here ;  we  sell 
them  cheaper  than  ever  we  did  in  times  of 
peace.  That  trade  hath  been  much  overlaid 
of  late  and  must  be  declined  for  a  while  to 
recover  its  reputation.  Lacq''  ware  of  Ton- 
quin  is  a  great  drugg  and  so  is  Thea  except 
it  be  supertine,  and  conies  in  pots,  tubs  or 
chests  that  give  it  no  ill  scent  of  the  oyl,  or 
any  other  matter.  The  custom  upon  Thea 
here  is  about  five  shillings  p.  pound,  whereas 
a  mean  sort  of  Thea  will  not  sell  for  above 
two  shillings  or  two  shillings  and  sixpence 
(p.  pound)."  In  another  communication  of  a 
somewhat  earlier  period  the  Court,  depressed 
by  the  failure  of  their  projects  in  the  Far 
East,  made  a  novel  suggestion  to  their  agents 
at  Madras :  "  We  have,"  they  wrote,  "  no 
kind  of  thoughts  of  spending  any  part  of  the 
Company's  stock  in  any  new  port  or  factory 
at  present,  except  upon  the  generalls  arrivall 
he  and  you  should  resolve  to  settle  some 
place  in  or  near  the  South  Seas,  where  the 
Chineeses  may  resort  to  and  cohabit  with  us 
(without  passing  by  Mallacca  or  Batavia) 
under  the  protection  of  our  fortificalion  and 
plant  sugars  and  Betlenut,  keep  shops,  and 
do  all  other  business  as  they  do  under  the 
Dutch  at  Batavia,  for  which  we  should  be 
content  to  allow  them  our  encouragement 
and  protection,  paying  us  one  fourth  part  in 
all  respects  of  what  they  pay  the  Dutch,  and 
we  should  order  all  our  China  ships  to  stop 
there  going  and  returning  for  encouragement 
of  the  place."  This  proposal  was  not  acted 
upon,  but  the  entry  is  interesting  as  an  indi- 
cation that  the  Company  so  far  back  as  the 
end  of  the  seventeenth  century  grasped  the 
importance  of  the  possession  of  great 
entrepots  such  as  Singapore  and  Hongkong 
afterwards  became. 

The  Company's  fight  against  trade  rivals 
at  this  period  was  of  such  a  character  as  to 
leave  it  little  energy  for  any  fresh  adventures. 
A  new  charter  was  under  consideration  by 
Parliament,  and  pending  its  issue  "  inter- 
lopers "  were  everywhere  active,  doing  their 
best  to  capture  trade  which  the  Company 
regarded  as  its  own.  How  bitterly  the 
Court  resented  these  rival  efforts  is  to  be 
seen  in  the  following  order  which  was 
issued  in  reference  to  trade  in  the  early 
part  of  1693:  "We  have  and  do  continue 
and  confirm  our  indulgence  for  all  Bengali 
and  China  goods  to  be  sent  home  by  the 
Armenians  and  all  English  merchants, 
our  owne  servants  and  all  other  persons 
whatsoever  upon  the  same  terms  of  consign- 
ment and  indulgence  as  last  yeare  ;  it  being 
of  absolute  necessity  for  us  so  to  do  untill 
our  Charter  be  thoroughly  settled  by  Act  of 
Parliament,  without  which  permission  and 
indulgence  during  the  Company's  unsettle- 
ment  it  will  be  impossible  soe  to  curb  the 
avaritious  corrupt  nature  of  mankind  but  that 
some  officers  of  our  owne  ships  or  others 
of  our  servants  will  be  tempted  secretly  at 
least  to  assist  and  countenance  interlopers  for 
the  very  end  of  sending  home  by  the  inter- 
loping ships  goods  prohibited  by  our  Charter 
Partys — notwithstanding  any  oaths  or  other 
obligations  they  have  entered  into  to  us." 

The  Company  secured  its  new  charter  in 
October,   1693.      Under  it  its  exclusive  privi- 

leges were  extended  for  a  period  of  twenty- 
one  years,  and  it  was  empowered  to  add 
;£"744,ooo  to  its  slock.  The  powers  conferred 
brought  a  welcome  addition  of  strength  to 
the  Company,  but  they  did  not  set  the  trade 
of  the  Far  East  free  from  the  baneful  in- 
fluence of  the  wicked  interloper.  When  the 
Court  was  despatching  the  ship  Tniiiiball  to 
Amoy,  in  1697,  it  gave  the  supercargo 
specific  instructions  to  hasten  the  voyage  so 
as  to  anticipate  a  Mr.  Gough  who  was 
sending  out  an  interloping  ship  or  two. 
"And  if  between  you,"  they  said,  "you  could 
secure  to  yourselves  Amo,  or  whoever  else 
you  find  the  most  considerable  merchants  on 
the  place  by  such  apt  ways,  and  means,  as 
to  hinder  his,  or  their,  assisting  the  inter- 
lopers, it  will  be  a  very  commendable  and 
dexterous  piece  of  service,  which  we  think 
should  not  be  a  very  difficult  thing  to  effect, 
if  you  can  make  him  or  them  rightly  sen- 
sible that  the  Company  are  a  permanent 
lasting  body,  likely  to  continue,  having  settle- 
ments in  diverse  parts  of  India  and  their 
fiiendship  worth  courting  and  preserving; 
whereas  the  interlopers  are  a  sort  of  licen- 
tious people  whose  interests  often  thwart 
one  another,  at  least  run  in  different  chan- 
nells,  and  are  likely  never  to  come  thither 
again,  after  having  once  made  a  voyage." 
The  interlopers  continued  to  give  trouble  for 
long  afterwards,  and  complications  were 
added  by  "country"  ships  from  India  at- 
tempting to  cut  into  the  trade.  The  latter 
class  of  rivals,  however,  burnt  their  fingers 
so  severely  over  their  enterprises,  owing  to 
the  exactions  to  which  they  were  subjected, 
that  they  speedily  dropped  out  of  the  run- 
ning. Meanwhile,  the  Court,  with  intent  to 
secure  a  new  trading  centre  in  the  China 
seas,  opened  up  negotiations  with  the  King 
of  Cochin  China,  for  the  establishment  of  a 
factory  in  his  dominions.  This  was  not  the 
first  attempt  of  the  Company  to  obtain  a 
lodgment  in  Cochin  China.  Early  in  the 
century  a  factory  had  been  established  in  the 
King's  territory,  but  its  life  was  brief  and 
its  end  tragic.  After  numerous  disputes  with 
the  native  officialdom  the  chief  agent  one 
day  openly  resented  the  extortions  practised 
upon  him.  A  fight  ensued,  which  resulted 
in  the  massacre  of  the  entire  eslablishment. 
Those  were  days  when  British  prestige  was 
at  a  very  low  ebb,  and  the  outrage  went 
unavenged.  More  than  this,  with  the  story 
staining  its  records,  the  Company,  eighty 
years  later,  on  a  hint  from  the  then  King, 
was  ready  to  cringe  for  favours  which  His 
High  Mightiness  might  be  pleased  in  his 
great  condescension  to  extend  to  it.  In 
acknowledging  a  letter  from  the  monarch 
inviting  the  Company  to  trade,  Mr.  Nathaniel 
Higginson,  the  president  at  Madras,  in  a 
strain  of  exaggerated  hyperbole,  commended 
His  Majesty  for  his  liberality.  The  King's 
ancestors,  the  letter  said,  had  forbidden  trade, 
but  their  "luster  was  confined  within  their 
own  bounds,"  but  now  His  Majesty's  fame 
"  like  the  sun  would  shine  throughout  the 
world."  Not  to  be  outdone  in  flattery,  the 
King  thus  responded  ;  "  Supreme  Governours 
and  Princely  Councillour,  who  represents 
ye  chief  person  of  ye  Western  axis,  which 
receives  its  name  from  ye  Northern  Pole 
hanging  over  it— the  English  who  perfectly 
understand  whatsoever  is  contained  in  ye 
Book  of  ye  6  Sheaths  and  ye  Three 
Orations,  so  called  among  us,  and  containing 
wholesome  doctrine — who  have  ye  strength 
and  courage  of  ye  Bear,  ye  Tigre  and  ye 
Panther — who  industriously  nourish  ye  mili- 
tary art,  and  perfectly  understand  not  only 
ye  Heavens,  but  ye  earth,  ye  wind,  ye  clouds 
and    ye    airy    regions — whose    understanding 

reaches  ye  sun,  and  whose  hands  are  able 
to  sustain  ye  firmament — who  are  so  very 
carefull  in  clioosing  governors  and  ruling 
their  subjects  ;  in  ye  protecting  of  their 
people,  in  giving  honour  to  great  and 
worthy  men,  in  kindness  to  foreigners — and 
although  ye  distance  from  us  hinders  our 
personall  conversation,  yet  our  minds  are 
never  separated  from  you  in  esteem  and 
affection."  He  proceeded  to  say  that  the 
season  was  now  past  for  trade,  but 
that  if  the  ship  returned  next  year  all 
requests  would  be  freely  granted,  and  thus 
would  be  introduced  "a  new  method  of 
trade,  that  making  use  of  ye  riches  that 
are  under  Heaven,  we  may  gain  ye  love  of 
all  ye  nations  of  ye  Northern  and  Southern 

The  reception  accorded  to  the  Company's 
agents  was  hardly  in  accord  with  the 
unctuously  friendly  tone  of  the  letter.  On 
arrival  off  the  coast  they  landed  and  were 
entertained  at  the  hut  of  a  fisherman  "  with 
boiled  snake  and  black  rice."  After  a  con- 
siderable delay  they  were  carried  across  the 
river  to  "  ye  Barre  Towne  "  where  they 
were  received  by  a  great  company  of  armed 
men.  After  some  general  questions  they 
were  told  to  stand  up,  in  order,  says  the 
factor's  narrative,  "  that  their  men  might  feel 
us  (it  being  their  custom)  which  they  did 
examining  our  pockets  ....  as  if  they 
searched  for  diamonds,  &c.  A  Common 
Prayer  Book  and  other  of  like  bulk,  they 
must  know  what  was  writt  in  them,  and 
what  language  with  many  other  imper- 
tinences." Eventually  the  visitors  were 
allowed  to  depart,  but  an  order  was  given, 
and  had  to  be  obeyed,  for  the  unloading  of 
the  ship  in  order  that  the  cargo  might  be 
inspected.  The  King  took  what  goods  he 
wanted,  but  the  Company  was  not  much 
better  off  for  the  transactions  because  of  the 
action  of  "  certain  Japaners,"  who  priced  the 
goods  sold  low  in  their  own  interests.  Here 
for  the  moment  we  must  leave  the  Cochin 
China  enterprise.  There  was  an  interesting 
sequel,  but  before  we  come  to  that  we  must 
deal  with  a  rather  important  development  in 
the  China  trade.  This  was  the  despatch  in 
1698-99  by  the  English  East  India  Company, 
as  distinguished  from  the  London  Company, 
of  the  first  ship  sent  direct  to  China  by  them. 
This  vessel,  the  Macclesfield  galley,  arrived 
off  Macao  on  August  26,  1699.  Soon  after 
the  anchor  had  been  dropped  a  Canton 
merchant,  Sheamea  by  name,  came  on  board 
and  offered  to  take  the  entire  cargo.  It 
subsequently  proved  that  his  overtures  were 
part  of  a  conspiracy  amongst  the  Cantonese 
traders  to  keep  down  prices.  How  the  affair 
was  worked  is  described  in  this  interesting 
passage  from  the  ship's  journal;  "Sheamea 
on  his  departure  desired  us  to  try  the  market 
and  we  would  then  finde  that  his  offers  were 
the  best  ;  this  was  part  of  the  plot,  they  having 
agreed  to  bandy  us  about  from  one  party  to 
the  other,  and  that  each  should  offer  less 
than  the  other  for  our  goods,  and  advance 
the  price  of  their  own,  till  at  last  we  should 
be  glad  to  agree  with  Sheamea  who  was  to 
make  the  best  offers  and  finish  the  contract, 
in  which  each  party  was  to  have  their 
determined  shares.  The  existence  of  this 
combination  was  further  demonstrated  by  the 
following  circumstances,  viz. — Having  some 
suspicion  we  privately  marked  the  silks  and 
found  that  all  the  parties  produced  the  same 
musters — one  party  mentioning  what  another 
party  had  enjoined  as  a  secret,  and  on  our 
going  to  visit  one  of  them  we  found  them  all 
in  consultation,  which  with  other  concurring 
circumstances  left  no  doubt  of  the  combina- 

I.      FA^AOE  of  THK  (iKKAI  Tl^UI>LI. 

2.    Gknekal  View. 

3.    Chapel  ok  the  Great  Temple. 



The  Enjjlishmcii,  after  coiisultiiif;  together, 
thought    that   the    Company's    interest   would 
be  best  served  by  their  proceeding  to  Canton 
and  disposing  of  their  goods  there.     They  had 
previously  found  the  Cliinese  authorities  very 
courteous,   but    tlie    chop    given    them    only 
permitted   trade   at  Macao,   and   consequently 
a   new    permit    would    have    to   be   obtained 
before    the    ship     could     be    taken    into    the 
Canton  Kiver.     In  these  circumstances  two  of 
the  supercargoes,  Messrs.  Douglas  and  Biggs, 
were  sent  to    Canton    to    negotiate    with    the 
authorities.      They   were   kindly   received  on 
arrival   in  the  city  by  the  two  Hoppos,  and 
also    met    with    a    friendly    reception    from 
M.  Bonac,  the   P'rench   agent,  who   had   been 
a  resident  since   1698.     M.  Bonac  invited   the 
visitors  to  stay  at  his  house,  but  from  jealousy 
of    the    designs    of    the    French,    the    factors 
declined   the  offer,  though    they  accepted   an 
invitation    to    dinner.       The    full    permit    to 
trade   having   been   obtained   the  Mncdcsfwld 
galley  entered  the  river  on  October  3rd,  and 
anchored    at   Whampoa   near  a   French   ship 
from  Madras  and  a  "Moor  ship"  from  Surat. 
Six  days  later,  on  going  ashore  to  pitch   his 
lent,    the    captain    was    attacked    by   a    large 
armed   party  from  the  French  ship,  and   his 
men  were  severely  beaten.     A  complaint  was 
made  to  the  chief  Hoppo  of  the  outrage,  but 
he,  while  sympathising  with  the  English,  said 
that  as   the   French   ship   had  come  with  an 
ambassador   and  presents   it   was   beyond   his 
jurisdiction.        In    the    circumstances    as    the 
French    were    overwhelmingly    strong    there 
was    no    alternative    but    for    the    captain    of 
tlie  Macclesfield  galley  to  pocket  the  affront. 
Though  this  unpleasant  occurrence  did  much 
to  mar  the  harmony  of  the  Englishmen's  early 
days  at   Canton   there  was  compensation  for 
them  in  the  progress  which  they  made  with 
their    business.       Following    upon    the    grant 
of   a   right   to   trade   they,   on    October   9th, 
laid    the    foundations    of    an    English    factory 
at     Canton     by    occupying    a     house     which 
they   had    rented    from    a    merchant    at    the 
modest    price    of    fifty    taels    for    the    mon- 
soon  season.     Their  early  days   in   this   new 
home   are   described   in   interesting  detail    in 
the   journal    which    they   faithfully  forwarded 
home   for  the   edification  of   their  employers 
in    accordance    with    the    almost    unvarying 
practice  followed  by  the  agents  of  the  Com- 
pany's   ships.      Soon    after    the    factors    had 
settled,  the  two    Hoppos    invited   themselves 
to  dinner.     They  were  advised  by  their  mer- 
chant—  Hun-Shun-Quin — "to    bespeak    some 
tables  of  victuals  from  the  cook  shop,  for  the 
two  Hoppos  and  their  ol'licers,  and  that  we 
should     allow    their    servants,     soldiers     and 
chairmen,  about   seventy  in    number,  5   ban- 
dareeus  each   for  their   dinner."      The  chief 
factor  accordingly  ordered   eight  tables,  one 
for  each    Hoppo,  one  for  himself  and   assis- 
tants,   and     five     for    the     Hoppos'    officers. 
"  The  chiefe  Hoppo's  table  was  placed  at  ye 
upper   end    of   ye   roome,  upon   ye   left   hand 
side  and  ye  second  Hoppo's  on  ye  right  hand 
side  (ye  other  being  ye  highest  place  accord- 
ing to    ye    Chinese  and   Tartar   fashion)   our 
table  was  placed  in  ye  same  roome,  fronting 
ye   Hoppos',  with   our  faces   towards   them  : 
ye  table   for  ye   Secretarys   was   in   ye   next 
(roome)  adjoyning  to  yt  where  we  satt  ;   and 
ye  tables  for  ye  other  officers  where  below. 
Every  table  was   served  with  5  or  6   dishes, 
dressed   in  whole   joynts  Tartar  fashion   (ac- 
cording  to   ye   Europe   manner)  but   brought 
in  only  one  dish  at  a  time  ;  and  afterwards 
scverall   services  of    China  victualls,  brought 
in   after   ye   same   maimer,  but   not   removed 
untill   ye   whole   number   was   compleat,  wch 
was    16  in  all,  sett   in  a  peculiar  forme  and 
manner   and    brought   in    att   a   considerable 

distance  of  time,  drinkeing  tea,  wine  or 
cordiall  waters,  between  each  service  accord- 
ing to  ye  custome."  The  dinner  being  over 
the  Hoppos  retired  until  the  tables  were 
"  clean'd  downe,  for  they  use  no  table  cloths." 
The  dessert,  consisting  of  sixteen  sorts  of 
fruits,  sweetmeats,  and  pickles,  being  placed 
on  the  tables  the  Hoppos  returned.  The 
chief  Hoppo  "  being  an  old  man  drank 
sparingly  but  the  second  Hoppo  took  his 
cups  freely  and  urged  us  to  do  tlie  same." 

Afterwards  an  official  inspection  was  made 
of  the  goods.  "  The  chief  Hoppo  fancied  a 
pair  of  brass  blunderbusses  and  the  second 
a  pair  of  pistols  which  they  desired  to  pur- 
chase ;  this  the  linguist  told  me  was  only  a 
genteel  way  of  begging  and  advised  me  to 
give  them  as  a  present  which  I  did  and 
they  after  some  pretended  difficulty  in  taking 
them  accepted." 

Some  little  time  after  this  entertainment 
the  Chief  Hoppo  invited  the  English  factors 
to  breakfast.  The  account  given  of  the 
function  by  Mr.  Douglas,  the  chief  factor, 
furnishes  amusing  reading  :   "  Being  arrived," 

tions  to  the  Court,  thus  concludes:  "Ye 
many  troubles  and  vexations  wee  have  mett 
with  from  these  subtile  Chineese — whose 
principalis  allow  them  to  cheat  and  ye  dayly 
practise  therein  have  made  them  dextrus  at 
it — I  am  not  able  to  express  at  this  time  ; 
and  however  easie  others  may  have  repre- 
sented ye  trade  of  China,  nether  I  nor  my 
assistants  have  found  it  so,  for  every  day 
produces  new  troubles,  but  I  hope  that  a 
little  time  will  put  an  end  to  them  all."  Sub- 
sequently Mr.  Douglas  ascribed  the  delays 
and  difficulties  experienced  in  realising  the 
sales  and  investments  actually  agreed  upon  to 
the  great  fall  in  the  price  of  Europe  goods 
and  the  rise  in  that  of  Nanking  silk  after 
a  contract  for  sale  had  been  made.  Owing 
to  the  many  delays  it  was  not  until  July  18, 
1700,  that  the  Macclesfield  galley  was  able  to 
leave  Canton.  The  vessel,  after  touching  at 
various  ports  to  coinplete  her  cargo,  arrived 
off  Portsmouth  in  the  July  following  with  "a 
rich  and  full  cargo." 

Before     the    Macclesfield    galley    had     left 
Canton  the  Coiut  at  home  had  decided  upon 


(Krora  Allom  &  Wiight's  "Cliina.") 

he  wrote,  "  we  were  obliged  to  wait  the 
coming  of  the  French,  Captain  Goosline  and 
Mr.  t'leetwood,  the  Hoppo  having  provided 
a  breakfast  for  us  and  intending  to  admit  us 
altogether.  In  the  meantime  suspecting  that 
the  French  miglit  attempt  to  take  precedence 
I  by  the  linguist  informed  the  Hoppo  of  my 
fears,  who  immediately  sent  word  that  he 
would  take  care  about  that  and  appoint  us 
our  places.  The  expected  party  being  arrived 
we  were  ushered  into  the  inner  apartment 
where  the  Hoppo  met  us  at  the  door  and 
received  us  in  the  most  courteous  manner. 
After  the  usual  compliments  he  ordered  three 
tables  to  be  prepared,  one  for  himself,  one 
for  the  French,  and  one  for  the  English  ; 
which  being  done  he  desired  us  to  be  seated, 
when  the  French  second  (the  Chief  being 
absent  from  indisposition)  either  by  design 
or  accident  took  the  place  intended  for  me 
(Douglas)  which  the  Hoppo  observing  called 
me  to  his  own  table  and  seated  me  on  his 
left  hand,  treating  me  with  great  respect." 

The  trading  transactions  of  the  factors 
were  marked  by  interminable  disputes  and 
delays.      Mr.  Douglas,  writing  of   his  opcra- 

the  formation  of  a  permanent  Council  to  over- 
look the  Company's  affairs  in  the  Far  East. 
The  Commission,  which  was  dated  November 
23,  1699,  was  to  Allen  Catchpoole,  president, 
Solomon  Lloyd,  Henry  Rowse,  John  Kidges 
and  Robert  Master.  In  order  to  give  greater 
prestige  to  the  chief  of  the  CounciJ  the 
Court  obtained  from  the  King  a  commission 
appointing  him  and  his  successors  in  the 
presidential  office  "  King's  Minister  or  Consul 
for  the  English  Nation."  With  this  appoint- 
ment may  be  said  to  begin  the  caiecr  of  the 
British  Consular  Service  in  the  Far  East, 
and  in  a  measure  the  commencement  of  the 
diplomatic  connection  of  Great  Britain  with 
China.  The  Council's  instructions  were  to 
attempt  to  form  a  settlement  at  Limpo  or 
at  some  convenient  port  near  Nanking  or  at 
Nanking  itself.  "  We  have  been  greatly 
encouraged  to  this  Northern  Settlement  from 
the  hopes  we  entertained  of  opening  a  way 
into  the  Japan  trade,"  wrote  the  Court  in 
explanation  of  this  selection  of  localities 
for  a  factory.  As  to  the  person  ticl  of  the 
establishment  thus  constituted,  the  members 
of    the    Council    were    given    the    rank    of 



mcfchants.  It  was  directed  that  all  the 
(actors'  affairs  of  tMiying  and  selling  should 
be  managed  in  Council,  for  which  purpose 
consultations  should  be  held  once  a  week  or 
oftener  and  the  proceedings  regularly  entered 
by  a  Secretary. 

The  Cimncil  was  empowered  to  dismiss 
any  servant  who  defrauded  the  Company  or 
betrayed  their  interests,  or  who  "  should 
cmnmil  any  heinous  crime  as  murder,  theft, 
blasphemy  or  the  like, — or  should  rent  any 
farms  or  duties  of  the  Emperor  of  China  or 
his  Ministers  whereby  they  might  be  subjected 
to  their  arbitrary  powers  and  the  Company's 
estate  under  their  management  ha/arded, — or 
if  anv  Company's  servant  marry  any  Maho- 
metan, Gentoo  or  Pagan." 

To  encourage  their  servants  the  Court 
allowed  them  to  send  home  yearly  what  gold 
they  pleased  in  order  that  their  friends  might 
return  the  prixxx-ds  to  them  in  silver.  All 
salaries  in  China  were,  it  was  stipulated,  to 
be  paid  at  the  rate  of  5s.  the  "  piece  of  eight " 
or  dollar.  The  jurisdiction  of  the  presidency 
was  to  extend  over  the  whole  Empire  of  China 
and  the  adj.iceiit  islands. 

The  new  Council  sailed  from  England  in 
the  Eaton  frigate  at  the  close  of  1699,  and 
arrived  at  Banjarmassin  on  July  16,  1700. 
There  news  was  received  tliat  the  Com- 
pany's ship,  Trumbiill  galley,  had  left  in 
company  with  two  junks  on  the  15th  of 
June  previously  for  Chusan,  where  it  was 
intended  to  form  a  settlement.  In  conse- 
quence of  this  information  the  Ealoii  directed 
her  course  also  to  Chusan,  and  arrived  off 
that  island  on  the  nth  of  October.  President 
CatcIip<K)le  met  with  a  friendly  reception 
from  the  Governors,  but  he  could  not  obtain 
permission  to  form  a  settlement.  When  he 
pressed  the  matter  he  was  referred  to 
Peking.  To  approach  the  Emperor  an  em- 
bassy would  have  been  necessary,  and  as 
this  Would  have  cost  at  the  least  ;^io,ooo,  the 
recommendation  to  memorialise  the  throne 
was  not  unnaturally  disreg.irded.  President 
Catchpoole  continued  at  Chusan  in  the  hope 
that  some  change  might  be  effected  in  the 
situation  by  persistent  applications  backed  by 
gratuities  to  the  hungry  officialdom  of  the 
Government  In  this  expectation  he  was 
disappointed,  and  month  after  month  slipped 
by  without  the  Council  advancing  an  inch  in 
the  direction  in  which  it  wished  to  go. 
Meanwhile,  trouble  arose  through  the  rivalry 

concerned.  At  the  beginning  of  1701-2 
matters  reached  a  crisis.  Through  the 
machinations  of  Mr.  Cough,  the  agent  of 
the  London  Company,  an  edict  issued  by 
the  Chinese  authorities  expelling  Catchpoole 
and  his  establishment  from  the  island.  The 
terms  of  the  order  were  so  emphatically 
expressed  that  Catchpoole  had  no  allernative 
but  to  obey,  and  on  the  2iid  of  February  he 
and    his    colleagues    left    in    the    Eaton    for 


(From  a  drawiiij*  in  the  Manuscript  l^ooni  of  tht 

llritisli  Museum.) 

Batavia.  In  writing  home  at  this  period, 
Catchpoole  and  his  colleagues  reverted  to 
their  troubles  and  disappointments  since 
their  arrival  in  China.  They  stated  that 
they  had  been  "  scarce  a  day  free  from 
insults,  impositions,  or  hardships  from  the 
mandarins  or  merchants  in  respect  of  trade 
or  government  ; "  but,  they  went  on  to  say, 
"nothing  thereof  have  affected  us  with  that 
concern    as   the    treachery   and    undermining 

(From  a  drawing  in  the  British  Museum.) 

o(  the  I^ondon  East  India  Company  which 
at  this  time  was  actively  competing  for  the 
China  trade,  notwithstanding  that  negotia- 
tions were  going  forward  and,  indeed,  were 
advancing  towards  a  satisfaciory  issue,  for 
the  amalgamation  of  the  two  Companies. 
There  were  constant  disputes  and  bickerings 
between  the  two  establishments,  to  their 
mutual    disadvantage    as    far    as    trade    was 

practices  of  our  own  countrymen  and  bosom 
friends  ;  who  whilst  sitting  in  Council  with  us 
have  been  privately  working  the  ruin  of  our 
footing  with  the  mandarins  and  merchants 
of  the  place  by  abetting  and  encouraging 
them  to  force  us  away  in  the  Eaton." 

After  an  absence  of  about  twelve  months 
the  Council  returned  to  Chusan,  the  way  for 
them  having  been  made  smooth  by  the  usual 

material  agencies.  But  it  was  only  lo  renew 
the  old  struggle  for  ascendency  with  obsliiiate 
and  unreasonable  colleagues.  On  this  occasion 
it  was  the  captains  of  the  Company's  ships 
who  caused  the  trouble.  These  individuals 
comported  themselves  in  iiidcpeiulent  fashion, 
showing  a  contempt  for  authority  vvhicli 
was  resented  by  President  Catchpoole  and  his 
Council.  Tiieir  worst  offence  seems  to  have 
been  to  make  themselves  at  home  at  the 
factory,  utilising  rooms  which  were  required 
by  the  establishment.  Catchpoole,  in  reporting 
their  delinquencies  at  home,  remarked  a  fro/'os 
of  an  unwelcome  visit  from  the  captains : 
"The  writers  and  factors  lay  up  and  down 
on  tables.  As  we  now  are  four  writers  lie 
in  a  room  ;  and  yet  the  Factory  rent  stands 
the  Company  in  100  taels  a  month.  We  had 
trouble  to  get  Captain  Palmer  out  of  Mr.  Hal's 
apartment  :  he  left  in  such  a  rage  that  he 
went  on  board  and  broke  open  Mr,  Carleton 
and  Mr.  Chitty's,  the  supercargoes'  apartments, 
and  has  made  the  great  cabin  less.  Should 
your  honours  think  I  act  too  little  I  must 
plead  for  myself  that  we  are  in  China,  where 
the  Governors  are  so  villainous  that  they 
einbrace  any  opportunity  to  confound  all,  and 
these  captains,  to  gratify  their  little  pride,  fear 

In  another  conimunicalion,  after  fuither 
dissensions,  Catchpoole  wrote  saying  that  all 
the  captains  were  unruly,  but  there  were 
distinctions  to  be  made  between  them. 

"  We  look  upon  Captain  Palmer's  as  a 
giddy  headed  boyish  distraction  ;  but  Captain 
Smith's  rudeness  grew  to  so  great  a  height, 
that  in  Council  we  unanimously  ordered  him 
not  to  come  into  the  factory  ;  yet  some  few 
days  after  he  did  come,  and  falling  into  hot 
and  quarrelsome  words,  he  challenged  the 
President  out  of  the  Factory  ;  who  did 
go  out  after  him,  and  to  avoid  the  porlerly 
dispute  of  Boxing,  threw  a  counting  board  at 
him  and  broke  his  head  ;  and  he  having  in 
this  encounter  offered  to  strike  the  President, 
the  said  Captain  was  again  brought  into  the 
Factory  and  with  abundance  of  violence  forced 
on  board  the  Liampo  (one  of  the  three  ships 
in  port).  Which  although  it  raised  a  great 
uproar  in  the  town  and  amused  the  mandarins, 
yet  it  convinced  them  that  the  English  Com- 
pany's President  has  soine  power. " 

President  Catchpoole  came  eventually  to  the 
conclusion  that  the  position  at  Chusan  was 
not  worth  maintaining.  Trade  was  irregular 
and  at  the  best  not  lucrative  and  the  otiicial 
interferences  and  exactions  made  existence 
almost  intolerable.  He  had  long  had  his  eye 
on  Pulo  Condore,  an  island  off  the  coast  of 
Cochin  China,  which  he  confidently  believed 
might  with  due  enterprise  be  made  to  become 
a  valuable  entrepot  for  the  China  trade. 
Tliitlier  he  proceeded  in  1703  and  forthwith 
commenced  to  establish  a  factory.  Apparently 
the  King  of  Cochin  China  claimed  sovereignty 
over  the  island,  and  on  hearing  of  the  occu- 
pation sent  a  letter  of  protest  through  a  local 
governor.  President  Catchpoole  acknowledged 
this  in  a  strain  of  humility  worthy  of  Uriah 
Heap.  Addressing  the  official  as  "  great  and 
noble  sir,"  he  assured  him  that  if  they  had 
been  wanting  in  respect  it  was  due  to  their 
ignorance  of  the  customs  of  Cochin  China. 
But  now  that  he  had  been  pleased  "  to  con- 
descend so  far  as  to  style  me  your  brother, 
you  shall  on  all  occasions  find  me  to  behave 
with  the  dutiftilness  of  a  younger  brother  to 
his  elder."  Referring  to  the  presence  of  two 
of  the  Company's  servants  in  the  King's 
dominions,  he  said  that  he  did  not  doubt  his 
countrymen  would  return  to  him  "  with  the 
welcome  news  of  the  conquering  King  of 
Cochin  China's  leave  for  my  settling  here 
with    my    people.      But    I    shall    find    some 


inconveniencing  if  you  are  not  so  bountiful 
to  me  as  to  order  about  50  carpenters 
and  bricklayers  hither  to  build  me  a  house 
and  other  conveniences  ;  for  those  already 
built  for  the  English  who  can't  work  in 
these  hot  countries,  do  keep  not  out  the  rain. 
And  it  will  be  but  like  an  elder  brother,  to 
condescend  to  order  what  pay  each  man  shall 
have."  The  King  of  Cochin  China  himself 
replied  to  this  letter  in  an  extraordinary 
effusion  dated  August  2,  1703.  The  King 
stated  tliat  his  complaint  against  them  was 
not  that  they  showed  no  civility  by  the  mak- 
ing of  presents,  but  because  of  their  illegal 

"  Consider  ye,"  he  said,  "  and  examine 
seriously,  and  fear  Heaven  with  all  your  heart 
and  all  your  strength  and  you  will  presently 
become  as  if  we  were  surrounded  by  a  wall." 

"  You  are  pleased  to  say  in  your  letter  that 
upon  another  occasion  when  a  ship  comes, 
you  (will)  send  richer  presents.  How  can 
such  sort  of  things  be  precious  to  us  ? 
Would  you  know  what  it  is  we  highly 
esteem  ?  Upon  goodness  and  piety  we  put 
a  great  value  ;  friendship  and  love  we  reckon 
of  great  moment  :  what  regard  can  we  have 
to  pearls  and  rich  silks,  if  honesty  and  respect 
be  wanting  ?  But  seeing  you  are  very  expert 
in  sea  and  military  affairs  we  are  confident 
you  will  exert  your  teeth  and  hoofs  against 
our  enemies  ;  and  on  this  account  you 
will  do  a  considerable  piece  of  service 
and  worthy  of  you ;  and  so  long  as  you  stay 
and  trade  in  that  island  we  freely  forgive 
you  the  Customs  of  the  goods  and  the 
tribute  of  the  land  although  the  old  inhabi- 
tants pay  both  ..." 

"  Get  everything  in  good  order,  that  you 
may  come  to  Court  yearly,  whereby  it  will 
come  to  pass  that  we  shall  mutually,  as  in 
the  Winter  Season,  cherish  one  another,  and 
also  increase  our  fidelity  and  friendship  ; 
which  two  blessings  are  so  great  that  they 
can  never  be  exhausted." 

"  Now  the  wind  is  favourable,  the  sea  calm 
and  the  vessel  desires  to  leave  the  port  ;  and 
we  have  written  this  letter.  Although  the 
rivers  be  as  a  belt,  and  although  the  hills  be 
as  stone  to  rub  ink  upon  ;  although  also  the 
sea  be  spacious  and  the  Heavens  high  ;  never- 
theless, piety,  concord,  gratitude  and  the 
remembrance  of  favours  done,  shall  never 
have  an  end." 

The  immortal  Chadband  himself — to  select 
another  Dickensonian  illustration — could  not 
have  surpassed  the  unctuous  fervour  of  this 
communication.  The  amusing  thing  is  that 
the  King  was  a  notorious  old  reprobate  who 
worthily  ruled  over  as  thievish  a  lot  as  the 
East  India  Company  ever  had  dealings  with. 
From  beginning  to  finish  the  attempts  to 
trade  in  Cochin  China  were  failures  mainly 
for  this  reason.  The  Pulo  Condore  factory 
was  a  particularly  bad  bargain.  The  place 
was  unsuited  in  every  way  for  the  purposes 
for  which  it  was  designed,  and  the  estab- 
lishment, after  the  expenditure  of  a  consider- 
able amount  of  money  upon  the  enterprise, 
was  withdrawn.  With  it  disappears  from 
the  scene  the  pompous  figure  of  President 
Catchpoole,  "  the  King's  Consul,"  and  the 
first  official  chief  of  the  Company's  establish- 
ments in  China. 

The  chief  centre  of  interest  once  more 
shifts  to  Canton.  Relations  of  some  kind 
appear  to  have  been  maintained  with  that 
city  by  the  Company  during  the  period  of 
President  Catchpoole's  sojourn  in  Cliusan  and 
Pulo  Condore.  In  1704  an  unpleasant  new 
departure  was  made  by  the  Chinese  authorities 
by  the  appointment  of  a  functionary  known 
as  the  Emperor's  Merchant,  who  was  in- 
vested with  authority  to  monopolise  the  trade. 
This  "  new  monster,"  as  he  was  termed  by 
the  indignant  English  factors  in  their  reports 
to  the  Court,  was  a  man  "  who  formerly  sold 
salt  at  Canton  and  was  whip't  out  of  the 
province  for  being  caught  defrauding  tlie 
Emperour   of    his   dutys   on   that  commodity, 

but  not  being  whip't  out  of  all  his  money, 
he  had  found  means  to  be  introduced  to  the 
Emperour's  son  and  successor  who  for  a 
sum  of  money  reported  to  be  42,000  Taels 
had  given  him  a  patent  to  trade  with  all 
fcluropeans  in  Canton  exclusive  of  all  other 
merchants."  The  discontent  aroused  by  this 
new  and  formidable  obstacle  to  trade  took 
shape  in  a  strong  representation  to  the  Quang- 
choo-foo,  as  to  the  disastrous  results  which 
would  ensue  if  the  system  were  continued. 
This  official  set  an  inquiry  on  foot  and  found 
that  the  Emperor's  Merchant  had  literally 
no  goods,  and  that  the  other  traders  were 
debarred  from  selling  goods  in  consequence 
of  his  patent.  In  the  end  an  agreement  was 
come  to  by  which  the  Emperor's  Merchant 
allowed  others  to  participate  in  the  trade  in 
consideration  of  a  payment  to  him  of  a  duty 
of  5,000  taels  per  ship.  Besides  having  to 
bear  this  heavy  imposition  trade  about  this 
period  was  penalised  by  an  import  duty 
amounting  to  4  per  cent,  of  the  value  of 
the  goods.  In  1704  the  charge  is  spoken  of 
as  "  an  imposition  lately  crept  upon  us  by 
the  submission  of  our  predecessors  the  two 
preceding  seasons."  The  character  of  the 
duty  is  thus  explained  :  "  One  per  cent,  of 
the  four  is  what  has  been  usually  given  by 
the  Chinese  merchants  to  the  linguist  upon 
all  contracts,  and  the  linguist  was  used  to 
gratify  the  Hoppo  out  of  the  sum  for  his 
employment.  The  other  three  were  first 
squeezed  from  the  China  merchant  as  a 
gratuity  for  upholding  some  particular  men 
in  monopolising  all  the  business,  and  this 
used  to  be  given  in  a  lump,  so  that  by  under- 
valuing the  goods  and  concealing  some  part 
they  used  to  secure  half  the  charge  ;  but  to 
show  how  soon  an  ill  precedent  will  be 
improved  in  China  to  our  disadvantage,  the 
succeeding  Hoppos,  instead  of  the  persuasive 
arguments  such  as  their  predecessors  used, 
are  come  to  demand  it  as  an  established 


Regular  Trade  at  Canton — Accession  of  the  Emperor  Kienlung — Liberal  Trade  Policy — Commodore  Anson  and 
the  Mandarins — Trade  Confined  to  Canton — Arrest  of  Mr.  Flint,  a  Supercargo — Special  Mission  despatched  to 
Canton  by  the   East   India   Company — Regrettable    Incidents — A    British    Sailor    delivered    up    to    the    Chinese   and 

executed  by  them. 

Before  the  eighteenth  century  had  far 
advanced  the  trade  with  Canton  had  as- 
sumed to  a  large  extent  a  regular  character. 
The  Company's  instructions  provided  that  the 
supercargoes  in  China  should  keep  but  one 
table,  and  should  meet  at  least  twice  a  week 
for  consultalion  upon  the  Company's  affairs. 
As  to  the  ships,  the  general  practice  was  for 
them  to  await  off  Macao  until  the  super- 
cargoes had  ascertained  whether  the  condi- 
tions at  Canton  were  favourable  to  their 
approach  to  that  city.  If  a  satisfactory  re- 
port was  made  the  vessels  were  taken  to 
Bocca  Tigris  where  the  Hoppo's  officers 
boarded  them.  Through  the  linguist  an  inti- 
mation was  conveyed  to  these  personages 
that  the  supercargoes  wished  to  wait  upon 
the  Hoppo.  Subsequently  an  interview  took 
place  with  this  high  official,  and  after  the 
exchange  of  compliments,  a  demand  was 
made   for  free   trade   under  stipulated   condi- 

tions. The  main  conditions  were  that  the 
trade  should  be  with  all  people  without  re- 
striction ;  that  the  Company's  servants  might 
entertain  in  their  service  what  Chinese  ser- 
vants they  pleased,  and  discharge  them  at 
their  pleasure  ;  that  if  their  English  servants 
committed  any  fault  deserving  punishment 
they  should  be  dealt  with  by  the  super- 
cargoes ;  that  they  should  be  at  liberty  to 
buy  all  sorts  of  provisions  for  the  factory 
and  the  ship  at  their  will  ;  that  they  should 
pay  no  custom  or  other  duties  for  any  goods 
they  should  bring  on  shore  and  not  dispose 
of  ;  that  they  should  have  liberty  to  set  up 
a  tent  ashore,  to  mend  and  fit  their  casks, 
sails,  and  rigging ;  that  their  boats  should 
have  liberty  to  pass  the  several  custom 
houses  or  boats  as  often  as  should  be 
thought  fit  without  being  called  to  or  ex- 
amined on  any  pretence  whalsoever  where 
the  British  colours  were  hoisted,  and  that  at 

no  time  should  their  seamen's  pockets  be 
searched  ;  that  the  Hoppo  should  protect 
them  "  from  all  insults  and  impositions  of 
the  common  people  and  Mandarins  who 
were  annually  laying  new  duties  and  exac- 
tions which  they  were  forbidden  to  allow 
of."  Finally,  it  was  demanded  "that  the 
four  per  cent,  be  taken  off  and  that  every 
claim  or  dem.ind  the  Hoppo  had  should  be 
demanded  and  determined  the  same  time 
with  the  measurement  of  the  ship."  It  was 
usual  for  the  Hoppo  to  signify  his  assent  to 
all  the  demands,  with  the  exception  of  the 
last,  which  he  could  not  agree  to.  The 
supercargoes  were  accustomed  to  press  the 
point,  and  on  finding  that  there  was  no 
prospect  of  concession  would  discreetly  "  let 
that  argument  drop." 

In  1720  a  new  source  of  embarrassment  to 
the  trade  arose  in  the  formation  of  a  com- 
bination  of  native   merchants    to    secure  the 


fixing  of  prices  at  levels  which  they  approved. 
A  movcaient  o(  the  kind  was  set  on  foot 
as  \vc  have  seen  iin>re  than  twenty  years 
earlier,  but  this  was  by  no  means  so  formid- 
able a  manifestation  of  the  genius  of  the 
Chinaman  for  exclusive  dealing  as  that  with 
which  the  factors  were  now  faced.  Finding 
how  matters  stood  the  supercargoes  adopted 
a  bold  line.  They  declined  to  wait  on  the 
Mandarin  at  Whampoa  or  to  commence  the 
trade  until  the  Co-hong,  as  the  combination  called,  was  abolished,  and  they  were 
at  liberty  as  heretofore  to  trade  without 
restraint.  The  Isontock,  hearing  of  the  dis- 
pute, summoned  the  princip;»l  native  mer- 
chants before  him  and  told  them  that  if  they 
did  not  dissolve  the  Co-hong  he  would  find 
means  to  compel  them  to  do  so.  This  plain 
speaking  had  its  effect,  and  trade  dropped 
into  its  old  channels.  But  within  a  year  a 
further  source  of  anxiety  arose  in  one  of 
those  episodes  with  which  the  history  of 
British  trade  in  China  teems.  One  of  the 
Hoppo's  officers  was  accidentally  killed  at 
Whampoa  while  engaged  in  the  discharge 
of  his  duties  amongst  the  shipping.  Though 
no  blame  attached  to  any  one  the  local  oHicials 

festation.  Before  many  months  had  elapsed 
the  old  tactics  were  revived  and  practised 
with  irrit.iting  persistency.  In  1728,  following 
upon  a  series  of  disagreeable  incidents,  came 
the  levy  of  an  additional  duty  of  10  per  cent. 
on  all  goods  sold  by  the  merchants.  The 
burden  imposed  by  this  charge  was  so  serious 
that  the  European  trading  community  decided 
upon  the  somewhat  bold  course  of  making  a 
a  personal  protest  to  the  Isontock.  Assem- 
bling at  the  factories  they  proceeded  in  a 
body  to  the  Isontock's  residence.  They  were 
admitted  after  some  delay  to  the  Mandarin's 
presence,  and  delivered  their  address  to  him 
through  one  of  his  officers.  After  cursorily 
perusing  the  document  the  great  man  told 
them,  not  too  affably,  that  they  should  deal 
with  responsible  merchants  and  pay  their 
customs.  With  this  advice,  with  which  they 
could  very  well  have  dispensed,  they  were 
dismissed.  Alter  the  interview  there  was 
some  relief  from  the  more  obno.\ious  of  the 
regulations,  but  the  10  per  cent,  duty  was 
maintained  in  spite  of  repeated  protests  and 
representations  to  the  Court  of  Peking. 

A   new  and    important   era   in  the    history 
of  European  trade  in  China  was  reached  in 

(l-'roni  u  print  engraved  in  17K4J  from  a  picture  paiiUcdiii  Cliina.) 

seized  two  mates  and  four  of  the  inferior 
officers  of  the  CadoUnn,  one  of  the  Company's 
ships,  who  were  quietly  walking  in  the  street 
near  the  factory  at  Canton.  An  indignant 
protest  was  made  to  the  Hoppo  against  this 
despotic  action,  and  a  plain  inlimation  was 
given  that  unless  redress  was  immediately 
afforded  the  Company  would  be  recom- 
mended to  transfer  their  commercial  dealings 
from  Canton  to  some  other  port.  As  usual 
when  firmly  treated  the  authorities  were 
quite  reasonable.  The  Mandarin  who  com- 
mitted the  affront  was  degraded  from  his 
office  and  a  promise  was  given  that  he  should 
be  bamtxxicd  and  rendered  incapable  of 
being  again  admitted  into  the  Emperor's 
iicrvice.  It  may  be  doubted  whether  the 
punishment  was  ever  inflicted,  or  if  inflicted, 
whether  the  right  person  suffered,  but  the 
fact  that  the  Hoppo  thought  it  worth  while 
to  give  even  formal  expression  to  his  dis- 
pleasure shows  that  the  Chinese  officials  at 
this  time  had  learned  to  value  the  privileges 
which  trade  bi  ought  in  its  train  Uto  highly  for 
them  to  part  with  them  readily.  The  sweet 
reasonablieness  shown  by  the  Mandarins  in 
this  affair  was,  however,  but  a  passing  mani- 

1736  on  the  occasion  of  the  accession  to  the 
throne  of  the  Emperor  Kicnlung.  Of  all 
the  modern  rulers  of  China  Kienluiig  de- 
serves to  be  regarded  as  by  far  the  greatest. 
He  entered  upon  his  long  and  eventful  reign 
of  more  than  sixty  years  animated  by  the 
highest  principles.  While  perfonning  the 
customary  rites  on  the  day  of  his  installation, 
the  youthful  monarch  made  a  vow  that 
"  should  he  like  his  illustrious  grandfather, 
Kang-hy,  be  permitted  to  complete  the  six- 
tieth year  of  his  reign,  he  would  show  his 
gratitude  to  heaven  by  resigning  the  crown 
to  his  heir,  as  an  acknowledgment  that  he 
had  been  f.avoured  to  the  full  extent  of  his 
wishes."  Kienlung  lived  to  redeem  this 
pledge,  and  by  so  doing  gave  a  remarkable 
example  of  royal  sincerity.  The  first  public 
act  of  the  Emperor  was  to  recall  from  exile 
all  the  members  of  the  Koyal  family  who  h:id 
been  banished  by  his  predecessor  in  conse- 
quence of  their  attachment  to  the  Christian 
religion.  Associated  with  this  tolerant  mea- 
sure was  the  issue  of  an  edict  relative  to 
foreign  trade,  the  general  tendency  of  which 
was  liberal.  The  rescript  abolished  the  10 
per  cent  duty  and  made  other  notable  con- 

cessions. On  the  other  hand  there  was  a 
provision  in  the  imperial  decree  that  all 
vessels  on  arriving  at  Whampoa  should  land 
their  armament  and  leave  it  in  the  custody 
of  the  imperial  officials.  In  due  course  the 
edict  was  prnmulgated,  and  the  opportunity 
was  availed  of  by  the  British  traders  to 
make  the  Isontock  handsome  presents,  in 
the  expectation,  afterwards  realised,  that  the 
order  in  reference  to  the  delivery  of  guns, 
&c.,  might  be  dispensed  with.  Matters  pro- 
ceeded smoothly  after  this  until  1741,  when 
the  arrival  of  Commodore  Anson,  in  His 
Majesty's  ship  Centurion,  the  first  King's 
ship  to  visit  the  Canton  River,  caused  some 
excitement  and  led  to  a  fresh  crop  of  difli- 
culties.  Under  the  Chinese  law  the  admission 
of  warships  to  the  river  was  forbidden,  and 
obstacles  were  interposed  to  the  Cenlnrion's 
passage.  Finding  how  matters  stood.  Com- 
modore Anson  hired  a  boat  with  the  intention 
of  proceeding  to  Canton  to  interview  the 
authorities.  As  he  was  embarking  the  Hoppo 
declined  to  grant  him  a  permit,  and  forbade 
the  boatmen  to  proceed.  Not  to  be  thwarted 
in  this  fashion,  Anson  told  the  Hoppo  that 
if  by  the  next  day  a  permit  was  not  forth- 
coming he  would  arm  the  Ccntiirioti's  boats 
and  force  a  passage.  This  had  the  desired 
effect  of  breaking  down  the  opposition  to  the 
famous  officer's  visit  to  Canton.  Elated  at 
his  victory,  Anson  would  have  insisted  upon 
an  interview  with  the  Viceroy  at  Canton,  but 
he  was  dissuaded  from  pressing  for  this  by 
the  British  traders,  who  feared  that  high- 
handed action  would  react  unfavourably  on 
commercial  relations.  After  refitting  and 
provisioning  his  ship,  Anson  put  to  sea  with 
the  view  of  intercepting  the  valuable  Spanish 
ship  bound  annually  from  Acapuico  and 
Manila  to  Lisbon.  He  succeeded  in  his 
venture  and  took  his  prize  into  the  Canton 
River  with  the,  to  him,  surprising  result  that 
the  Chinese  authorities  promptly  demanded 
the  customary  duties  for  both  vessels.  Anson 
emphatically  declined  to  accede  to  this  de- 
mand, and  with  a  view  to  contesting  the 
matter  with  the  high  Chinese  authorities, 
repaired  with  his  boat's  crew  in  full  dress 
to  Canton.  Actuated  by  a  desire  to  ensure 
the  safety  of  the  shipment  of  stores  for  his 
vessels,  he  refrained  from  seeking  an  inter- 
view with  the  Viceroy  for  some  days.  At 
length,  wearied  with  the  procrastinating 
policy  pursued  towards  him,  he  sent  a  letter 
by  one  of  his  ofiicers  demanding  to  see  the 
Viceroy.  This  application  would  probably 
have  met  with  but  scant  courtesy  but  for  a 
happy  incident  which  won  the  good  will  of 
the  authorities.  Two  days  after  the  letter 
was  despatched  a  serious  fire  broke  out  in 
Canton.  It  would  have  ravaged  a  consider- 
able quarter  of  the  city  but  for  the  prompt 
and  efficient  aid  rendered  by  the  Cciiliiiioit's 
men,  who,  by  arduous  work,  were  able  to 
confine  the  outbreak  within  comparatively 
narrow  limits.  In  gratitude  for  this  signal 
service  the  Viceroy  appointed  a  day  for  an 
interview.  Anson  attended  at  the  time  fixed, 
and,  with  a  sailor's  frankness,  detailed  to  the 
Viceroy  the  various  grievances  under  which 
the  British  traders  laboured.  He  concluded 
with  the  expression  of  a  hope  that  orders 
would  be  given  which  would  prevent  the 
recurrence  of  the  events  complained  of.  No 
immediate  reply  was  given  to  this  bold 
harangue.  After  a  time  the  interpreter  inti- 
mated to  Anson  that  he  did  not  believe  that 
any  reply  would  be  given.  The  audience 
closed  with  the  expression  by  the  Viceroy  of 
a  hope  that  Anson  would  have  a  prosperous 

The  deliberate  reticence  of  the  Viceroy  on 
this  occasion  was  doubtless  only  a  courteous 


way  of  intimatinjf  that  the  policy  pursued 
hitherto  would  not  be  altered,  notwithstand- 
ing all  that  had  been  urjjed  ajjainst  it.  This, 
in  fact,  was  the  attitude  assumed  later  and 
persisted  in  in  the  face  of  the  most  strenu- 
ous representations  from  the  British  trading 
community.  One  feature  of  the  administra- 
tion, which  at  this  period  was  productive 
of  bitter  resentment,  was  the  practice  of 
naming  security  merchants  for  each  ship. 
Under  the  system  a  particular  merchant  was 
held  responsible  to  the  Government  for  the 
payment  of  all  duties  and  customs  on  goods 
imported  in  the  ship,  whether  purchased  by 
the  security  merchant  himself  or  any  one 
ebe.  In  like  manner  he  was  made  account- 
able for  the  duties  on  export  cargoes,  while 
he  was  subjected  to  heavy  financial  charges 
of  an  irregular  character  on  the  strength  of 
his  position.  The  natural  effect  of  the 
system  was  to  prejudice  the  Company's  busi- 
ness transactions  in  various  ways,  but  more 
particularly  in  enhancing  the  cost  of  com- 
modities which  its  agents  purchased.  In 
1754  the  Isontock  was  approached  with  a 
view  to  the  abolition  of  the  practice.  These 
merchants  were  received  courteously,  but  the 
Isontock  declined  to  give  them  a  written 
reply.  Afterwards  he  appointed  two  security 
merchants  to  each  ship,  in  the  illusory  hope, 
apparently,  that  the  increase  in  the  number 
ol  the  sureties  would  meet  the  objections  of 
the  merchants. 

Marked  by  some  vicissitudes,  but  on  the 
whole  showing  a  satisfactory  measure  of 
progress,  the  trade  contiimed  until  1757.  In 
that  year  a  striking  change  in  its  conditions 
was  made  by  the  issue  of  an  imperial  edict 
coniining  the  foreign  trade  of  the  Empire  to 
Canton.  Up  to  this  point,  as  the  narrative 
has  shown,  Amoy  and  Limpo  in  Chusan 
had  both  been  the  resort  of  British  ships, 
and  thougli  Canton  had  with  the  advance  of 
the  century  become  more  and  more  the  real 
centre  of  the  China  trade,  thoughts  were 
from  time  to  time  longingly  directed  by  the 
Court  of  Directors  towards  other  ports.  At 
the  very  time  that  the  edict  was  being 
promulgated  a  vessel  despatched  by  the  Com- 
pany was  on  its  way  to  Cliina  charged  with  a 
mission  to  open  up  a  more  regular  trade  with 
Chusan.  Mr.  P'lint,  who  went  as  supercargo, 
was  instructed  to  reside  if  possible  for  some 
time  at  Nanking,  and  while  there  to  direct 
attention  to  the  silk  trade  to  which  the  Com- 
pany attached  great  importance.  Mr.  Flint, 
on  arriving  at  Limpo,  found  it  impossible  to 
get  even  common  necessaries,  much  less  to 
carry  on  a  trade.  This  attempt  to  open  a 
trade  after  the  issue  of  the  edict  was  keenly 
resented  by  the  Chinese  authorities,  who 
saw  in  it  a  deliberate  defiance  of  the 
imperial  orders.  On  Mr.  Flint  proceeding  to 
Canton  in  December,  1759,  to  report  himself, 
he  was  summoned  to  the  presence  of  the 
Isontock.  The  supercargoes  deemed  it  expe- 
dient that  they  should  accompany  him,  and 
accordingly  the  entire  party  proceeded  to 
the  Isontock's  palace.  The  officials  there 
would  have  confined  admission  to  Mr.  Flint, 
but  the  supercargoes  determined  not  to  be 
excluded.  They  were  received  by  a  Mandarin 
and  proceeded  through  two  courts  with  the 
apparent  acquiescence  of  the  officials.  On 
arrival  at  the  gate  of  the  inner  court  of  the 
palace,  their  swords  were  taken  from  them 
and  they  were  hurried  into  the  Isontock's 
presence.  There  an  attempt  was  made  to 
compel  them  to  pay  homage  after  the  Chinese 
fashion,  and  on  their  resisting  they  were 
thrown  down.  The  Isontock  perceiving  that 
the  supercargoes  were  resolute  in  their 
determination  not  to  humiliate  themselves, 
ordered  the  attendants  to  desist.    Afterwards 

he  directed  Mr.  Flint  to  advance  towards 
him,  and  this  gentleman  having  separated 
himself  from  his  colleagues  he  was  told 
that  an  order  had  been  received  from  the 
Emperor  for  his  banishment  to  Macao  for 
three  years,  and  for  his  ultimate  exclusion 
from  China,  for  going  to  Limpo  after  His 
Imperial  Majesty  had  positively  ordered  that 
no  ship  should  trade  there.  It  was  further 
intimated  that  a  man,  who  had  writlen  a 
petition  which  Mr.  Flint  had  caused  to  be 
publicly  displayed  at  Tientsin  with  the  object 
of    attracting    the    notice    of    the    Emperor, 

upon  them  as  they  were  fully  persuaded  he 
was  well  disposed  to  favour  them."  The 
sanguine  belief  here  expressed  in  the  ulti- 
mate repudiation  of  the  Isontock's  despotic 
behaviour  was  not  justified  by  events.  Mr. 
Flint  was  kept  in  close  confinement  at  a 
place  near  Macao  for  nearly  three  years. 
Such  was  the  rigour  of  his  treatment  that 
even  letters  were  not  allowed  to  reach  him. 
With  a  view  to  ameliorating  the  situation 
the  Court,  in  1760,  determined  to  send  out  a 
special  mission  to  Canton.  To  represent  them 
they     appointed     Captain     Skottowe    of    the 

(From  Sir  Georj^c  St;iunton"s  '■  Lord  Mac;u-tnL'y's  Embnss)-.") 

was  to  be  publicly  beheaded  that  day  for 
treacherously  encouraging  such  a  step.  The 
indignation  which  this  extraordinary  episode 
excited  found  vent  at  a  united  meeting  of 
European  traders  at  the  British  factory  three 
days  later.  All  present  agreed  to  send  home 
lo  their  respective  companies  a  report  of  the 
unwarrantable  action  of  the  Isontock,  and 
they  doubted  not  that  a  method  would  be 
found  and  measures  taken  to  make  the 
facts  known  to  the  Emperor,  "  who  they 
were  convinced  would  avenge  the  affront  put 

Company's  ship  Royal  George,  and  they 
entrusted  him  with  a  letter  from  themselves 
to  the  Isontock.  Elaborate  instructions  were 
given  to  the  envoy  as  to  his  behaviour  in 
the  Far  East.  He  was  not  to  be  seen  in 
the  shops,  &c.,  purchasing  chinaware  ;  if  he 
wanted  any  goods  he  was  to  send  for  the 
merchants,  and  not  go  for  them  himself  ; 
he  was  never  to  appear  in  undress  in  the 
streets,  or  at  home  when  he  received  visits  ; 
above  all  he  was  to  be  called  Mr.  Skottowe, 
not  Cdfhiiii,  and  it  was  to  be  given  out  that 


he  was  llie  bri>«lier  of  His  Majesty's  I'nder 
Secretary  of  State  who  had  the  honour  to 
write  the  King's  letters.  The  Court  might 
have  spared  themselves  this  (letty  deceit. 
Captain  Skottowe's  mission  was  a  complete 
failure,  no«  a  single  point  of  the  list  of  de- 
mands he  presented  being  conceded.  There- 
after, for  some  years,  events  pursued  their 
accustomed  course.  The  only  development 
of  interest  was  the  revival  of  the  Co-hong,  in 
1760,  with  consequences  very  detrimental  to 
the  Company's  trade.  The  supercargoes  were 
instructed  to  pay  constant  attention  to  this 
conspiracy  and  to  other  restrictions  on  trade, 
but  at  the  same  lime  they  were  told  "  that 
in  all  their  proceedings  pacilic  and  ct>ncilia- 
tory  measures  only  were  to  be  observed,  and 
Uie  utmost  care  taken  not  to  give  any  just 
reason  for  umbrage  to  the  Chinese  govern- 
ment." In  I7ft4  the  visit  of  the  British 
warship  Ari<o  to  the  Canton  River  led  to 
trouble  of  a  new  kind.  The  Chinese  authori- 
ties, on  the  appe.irance  of  the  ship,  insisted 
on  measuiing  her  with  a  view  to  the  payment 

a  refusal.  After  due  deliberation  the  captain 
assented,  and  the  ship  was  measured,  to  the 
great  relief  of  the  traders,  whose  affairs  had 
been  at  almost  a  complete  standstill  during 
the  four  months  that  the  dispute  con- 
tiimed.  In  connection  with  the  Ari^o's  visit 
to  Canton  we  find,  in  a  minute  of  the  Court 
of  the  Directors  of  the  period,  one  of  the 
first  references  to  that  tral'tic  in  opium  which 
was  destined,  a  good  many  years  later,  to 
exercise  a  powerful  influence  on  the  course 
of  events  in  China.  The  Court,  adverting  to 
the  stoppage  of  trade  caused  by  the  incident 
just  narrated,  state  that  they  had  heard  that, 
besides  other  goods,  opium  had  been  shipped 
in  the  Arf^o  in  the  way  of  private  trade,  and 
they  requested  that  a  full  account  might 
be  sent  home  of  the  matter,  as  opium  was 
prohibited  and  the  importation  might  be 
most  detrimental  to  the  Company's  interests. 
The  fact  that  the  Company's  ships  were 
the  only  vessels  exempted  from  search  on 
account  of  opium  no  doubt  lent  point  to  this 

AN    OLD    VIEW    OF    NANKING. 
(From  a  print  at  tlic  liiilish  Muscuin.) 

o(  the  ordinary  dues.  The  captain  resented 
this  on  the  ground  that  the  officials  had  no 
power  over  a  king's  ship.  In  consequence 
of  the  attitude  he  assumed  the  merchants 
refused  to  be  responsible  for  the  Company's 
ships,  and  trade  was  stopped.  To  alleviate 
the  situation  the  supercargoes  offered  to  pay 
dues  for  the  Argo  at  the  same  rate  as  that 
charged  for  the  largest  Company's  ship  ;  but 
this  was  declined.  The  Hoppo  slated  that  he 
intended  to  proceed  to  Whampoa  to  measure 
the  ship,  and  that  if  his  request  was  refused 
she  would  have  to  leave.  The  Isontock  took 
an  even  higher  line.  He  wanted  to  know 
what  the  supercargoes  meant  by  offering  to 
pay  the  mea-sureagc  in  lieu  of  the  ship  being 
measured  ?  Such  procedure,  he  intimated, 
was  contrary  to  all  custom,  and  he  concluded 
by  sa}-ing  ll>at  if  the  ship  was  not  measured- 
the  supercargoes  would  have  to  leave  the 
country,  and  the  merchants  would  be  bam- 
booed  and  banished  Canton.  In  view  of  the 
official  attitude  the  supercargoes  strongly 
urged  the  captain  of  the  Argo  to  submit  in 
order  to  avert  the  injurious  results  which 
would,  in  their  opinion,  certainly  How  from 

By  this  time  the  Biilish  trade  in  China 
had  dropped  into  a  regular  groove,  and  it 
was  yearly  growing  in  importance.  In  order 
that  their  interests  might  be  better  safe- 
guarded the  Court,  in  1770,  ordered  that 
their  surpercargoes,  instead  of  going  back- 
wards and  forwards  with  the  ships,  should 
reside  permanently  in  China.  An  almost 
immediate  outcome  of  this  change  in  system 
was  the  dissolution  of  the  Co-hong,  which 
the  supercargoes  were  able  to  effect  through 
an  intermediary,  though  only  at  the  cost  of 
100,000  taels.  The  removal  of  this  barrier 
to  trade  had  a  beneficial  effect,  but  in  general 
the  position  of  the  British  traders  did  not 
improve  with  the  lapse  of  years  and  the 
growth  of  their  mercantile  relations.  Re- 
grettable incidents  were  still  of  frequent 
occurrence.  They  were  not  always  due  to 
faults  on  the  Chinese  side,  but  in  their 
adjustment  the  Chinese  ofiicialdom  invariably 
put  themselves  in  the  wrong  by  tlieir  arrogant 
and  unfair  attitude.  One  of  the  most  im- 
portant of  these  imbroglios  occurred  in  1784 
through  the  accidental  killing  of  two  Chinese 
by   the    firing    of    a    saluting  gun    from   the 

British  ship  Lady  Hii!;lics.  On  the  occurrence 
becoming  known  the  authorities,  accompanied 
by  the  native  merchants,  waited  on  the 
President  of  the  British  factory  to  demand 
that  the  man  who  had  fired  the  gun  should 
be  given  up  in  accordance  with  the  laws  of 
the  Empire.  The  reply  given  was  that  it 
could  not  be  ascertained  who  the  man  was, 
that  in  all  probability  the  gunner  had 
absconded,  and  that  they  (the  supercargoes) 
had  no  power  over  private  ships,  to  which 
category  this  vessel  belonged.  However,  the 
supercargo  of  the  l.aiiy  Hiifihcs  agreed,  at 
the  instance  of  the  Select  Connnittee — as  the 
Company's  governing  body  at  Canton  was 
styled — to  go  to  Canton  in  order  to  explain 
the  circumstances.  This  individual  subse- 
quently accompanied  the  Chinese  officials  to 
their  destination,  and  after  an  examination 
for  form's  sake,  he  was  decoyed  away  and 
conveyed  by  an  armed  guard  into  the  city. 
The  seriousness  of  the  turn  that  events 
had  taken  was  recognised  by  the  European 
communities  of  all  nationalities.  With  one 
accord  they  agreed  to  stand  by  the  British 
in  their  demand  for  the  release  of  the 
supercargo.  In  order  to  give  emphasis  to 
the  protest  armed  boats  of  the  several  ships 
at  anchor  at  Whampoa  were  called  up  to 

Notwithstanding  this  display  of  force,  the 
Chinese  resolutely  declined  to  hand  over  the 
supercargo  until  the  gunner  or  some  sub- 
stitute had  been  provided.  The  Select  Com- 
mittee ultimately  weakly  conceded  the  point 
by  delivering  over  to  the  custody  of  the 
Chinese  the  man  who  fired  the  gun  on  the 
fatal  occasion.  When  he  was  surrendered 
the  Mandarins  desired  the  Europeans  present 
"not  to  be  uneasy  as  to  his  fate."  This 
was  thought  at  the  time  to  be  reassuring. 
But  the  Select  Committee  were  reckoning 
without  the  ingrained  devotion  of  the  Cliinese 
to  the  spirit  of  their  law  of  homicide,  under 
which  the  causing  of  death  in  all  circum- 
stances, even  the  most  innocent,  is  a  serious 
crime.  On  January  8,  1785,  in  consequence 
of  an  order  received  from  the  Emperor, 
the  unfortunate  man  was  put  to  death  by 
strangling.  Afterwards  representatives  of  the 
various  European  factories  were  summoned  to 
attend  the  Mandarins,  and  were  informed  by 
them  that  the  Emperor  was  greatly  displeased 
at  their  having  so  long  delayed  giving  the 
man  up.  The  official  spokesman  commented 
on  the  extreme  moderation  of  the  Govern- 
ment in  demanding  the  life  of  only  one 
foreigner  while  the  lives  of  two  Chinese 
subjects  had  been  lost  by  the  accident. 
He  added  that  the  Government  expected  a 
readier  compliance  with  their  demands  on  any 
future  occasion  of  a  similar  character.  It 
does  not  appear  that  any  further  protest 
was  made  by  the  British  representatives 
against  the  arbitrary  action  of  the  authori- 
ties. Probably  it  was  recognised  that  such 
would  have  been  useless.  Whether  that  is 
the  true  explanation  or  not  the  episode 
cannot  be  said  to  reflect  credit  on  the 
British  representatives  of  the  period.  They 
seem  to  have  blustered  at  the  outset  and 
then  to  have  handed  this  wretched  man 
over  without  the  smallest  guarantee  as  to 
his  treatment.  They  might  have  known 
from  earlier  experiences  of  the  same  type 
that  the  surrender  in  the  circumstances  was 
tantamount  to  acquiescence  in  a  sentence  of 
death.  Reviewing  the  whole  circumstances  of 
the  deplorable  incident  later  the  Court  made 
some  sensible  remarks  on  the  general  attitude 
of  the  Chinese.  "  Experience  had  slunvn," 
they  wrote,  "  that  the  Court  of  Pekin  would  use 
its  power  to  carry  into  execution  whatever  it 
declares   to   be  the  law.      Individual   Chinese 


I.    Tkmple  ok  Buddha. 
3.    Bridgk  near  Canton. 

Pagoda  and  Village  on  the  Caxal  near  Canton. 
On  the  Canal  between  Macao  and  Canton. 


may  be,  and  often  arc,  afraid  of  Europeans, 
but  ttie  Gt>vei  nineiit  was  not  so.  Dcsiwtic 
in  itself,  iijnorant  of  the  power  of  foreij;n 
nations,  very  su|vrrior  to  tlie  divided  and  small 
Slates  tliat  surround  it,  the  Chinese  esteem 
Ihemselves  not  only  the  lirst  nation  in 
the   world    but    the    most    powerful.      Such 

circumstances  and  such  notions  had  naturally 
produced  a  high  and  imperious  spirit  in 
the  {•overnment,  but  no  fear."  The  Court 
directed  that  in  the  event  of  a  casualty 
like  the  last  unfortunate  accident  happening 
to  any  of  the  English,  the  supercargoes 
should   use  every  means   in   their    power   to 

slop  the  business  in  the  first  stage  by  apply- 
ing to  some  Chinese  mercliant  of  ability 
to  get  such  a  representation  made  to  the 
Viceroy  as  might  secure  the  life  of  the 
person.  Only  in  the  event  of  a  murder 
were  they  to  deliver  the  perpetrator  up  to 
the  Chinese. 


Lord  Macartney's  Mission  to  China — Friendly  Reception  by  the  Emperor — Stately  Court  Ceremonies — Unsatisfactory 
Negotiations — Return  of  the  Mission — The  Emperor's  Letter  to  King  George — Affairs  at  Canton. 

The  cumubtive  efl'ect  of  vexatious  inter- 
ferences, the  arbitrary  displays  of  authority, 
the  unfair  exactions,  and  the  ever  present 
manifestations  of  jealous  exchisivencss  which 

went  to  make  up  the  Imperial  Chinese 
policy,  was  to  produce  in  England  a  feeling 
that  an  organised  effort  should  be  made  lo 
place   matters   on   a   better   footing.       In   the 

(From  an  cDgravinK  by  liartolozzi  in  the  Print  Kooni,  Brilisli  MuMum.) 

view  of  influential  authorities,  the  China  trade 
was  too  important  to  be  subjected,  as  it 
often  was,  to  the  caprice  of  local  ofiicials. 
It  had  developed  in  remarkable  fashion  and 
would  develop  to  a  still  larger  extent  if  the 
heavy  restraints  put  upon  it  were  removed, 
or  even  materially  modified.  Furthermore, 
there  was  the  consideration  that  while  other 
nations,  through  missionaries  or  scientists, 
had  long  been  able  to  maintain  direct  inter- 
course with  the  Emperor,  Great  Britain, 
though  possessing  by  far  the  greatest  stake 
in  the  country,  had  never  been  represented 
at  the  Imperial  Court.  It  was  suspected  that 
the  loss  from  this  absence  of  contact  was  a 
good  deal  more  than  the  negative  one  of 
lack  of  influence.  On  the  one  hand  foreign 
intrigues  were  promoted,  there  was  reason 
to  believe,  by  the  spirit  of  aloofness  which 
was  maintained  by  the  Court,  while,  on  the 
other,  abuses  were  created  as  the  direct 
result  of  giving  local  ofiicials  practically 
unlimited  powers,  and  denying  all  right  of 
appeal  to  the  supreme  head  of  the  Govern- 
ment. In  all  tlie  circumstances  it  was  held 
that  the  time  was  ripe  for  the  despatch  of 
a  special  missioti  to  China  to  invoke  the 
imperial  protection  for  British  subjects  and 
to  attempt  to  widen  the  opportunities  for 
trade  between  the  two  countries.  The  idea 
took  definite  shape  at  the  beginning  of  1792, 
when  the  Court  of  Directors  were  informed 
by  the  Govermnent  that  tliey  contemplated 
sending  an  embassy  to  Peking  for  the  pur- 
pose of  placing  our  intercourse  with  China 
on  a  firmer  and  more  extended  footing. 
Doubts  were  expressed  by  tlie  chairman  and 
deputy  chairman,  who  were  first  consulted, 
as  to  the  probability  of  any  substantial  advan- 
tage accruing  from  the  projected  step.  But 
in  view  of  confident  expressions  of  opinion 
in  a  contrary  sense,  emanating  from  other 
quarters,  and  of  the  strong  desire  evinced  to 
make  the  experiment,  they  did  not  allow 
their  misgivings  to  go  to  the  extent  of  opposi- 
tion lo  the  proposal.  The  Court  subsequently 
took  a  very  active  part,  in  consultation  with 
Ministers,  in  perfecting  the  arrangements  for 
the  mission. 

The  choice  of  the  Govermnent  for  the 
office  of  ambassador  fell  upon  Lord  Macartney, 
a  distinguished  Ex-Governor  of  Madras,  who 
had  specially  qualified  for  diplomatic  work 
early  in  life  by  conducting  a  successful  mission 
to  the  court  of  Catherine  ol  Russia.  He  was 
an  accomplished  man  of  the  world,  tactful, 
dignified,  and  resourceful,  and  he  had  shown 
in  his  dealings  with  Orientals  in  his  Indian 
appointment  that  siuvir  fiiirc  which  of  all 
personal  qualities  is  perhaps  the  most  im- 
portant in  that  connection,  k  better  selection 
indeed  could   scarcely  have   been   made,  and 


it  was  approved  witli  something  like  enthu- 
siasm by  the  East  India  Company.  The 
mission  sailed  from  Spithead  on  September 
26,  1792.  Macartney  and  his  suite  of  ninety- 
five  persons  embarked  on  board  the  Lion 
man-of-war  of  sixty-four  guns,  and  the  East 
India  Company's  sliip  Hiiiitooslnii,  one  of 
tlie  finest  of  tlie  Company's  fleet,  accom- 
panied the  warship,  together  with  the  brig 
Jackall.  After  calling  at  Balavia  and  Tuion 
iBay  in  Cochin  China,  the  little  squadron 
arrived  at  Chusan.  The  Embassy  was  well 
received  here  and  at  other  ports  at  which 
the  vessels  touched,  and  abundant  supplies 
were  furnished  by  the  authorities.  On 
August  Sth  Lord  Macartney  and  his  suite, 
emiiarking  in  the  smaller  vessels  of  the 
squadron,  proceeded  up  the  Peiho  Kiver, 
where  a  yacht  was  awaiting  to  convey  them 
to  Tongsion,  tlie  landing  place  for  Peking. 
The  Ambassador  was  most  favoiUMbly  im- 
pressed, not  only  with  the  higher  officials 
who  were  assiduous  in  their  attentions,  but 
with  the  common  peojile  who  thronged  the 
shore  at  every  point.  "  I  was  so  much 
struck  with  their  appearance,"  he  writes  in 
his  diary,  "that  I  could  scarce  refrain  from 
crying  out  with  Shakespeare's  Miranda  in 
the  '  Tempest ' — 

'  Oh.  wonder  !    How  many  goodly  creatures  are 
there  here ! 
How  beauteous  mankind  is  !     Oh  !   brave  new 

That  lias  sucli  people  in  it.'  " 

On  August  6th  the  mission  landed.  They 
were  received  with  much  ceremony  and  were 
conducted  to  the  Temple  of  the  Sea  God, 
where  they  were  formally  welcomed  by  tlie 
Viceroy  of  the  province.  After  partaking  of 
tea  the  party  proceeded  to  business. 

"  The  Viceroy  began  by  many  compliments 
and  inquiries  about  our  health,  and  talked 
much  of  the  Emperor's  satisfaction  at  our 
arrival,  and  of  his  wish  to  see  us  at  Gehol, 

■ssxr-x^i^f-afsax  Sfc- 

many  persons,  and  that  the  presents  for  the 
Emperor  and  our  own  baggage  were  so 
numerous  and  took  up  so  much  room,  that 
we  should  require  very  spacious  quarters 
at    Peking.       That   as  we   found   it   was  the 

to  the  Sovereign  of  the  East  by  sending  the 
present  Embassy,  and  hoped  it  would  be 
attended  with  all  the  good  effects  expected 
from  it.  That  as  it  was  equally  my  duty 
and  inclination  to  promote  these  views  to  the 

(From  Sir  George  Staunton's  "  Lord  Macartney's  Embassy.") 

Emperor's  wish  for  us  to  proceed  to  Gehol, 
we  should  prepare  ourselves  accordingly,  but 
that  we  should  find  it  necessary  to  leave  a 
great  part  of  the  presents  at  Peking,  as  many 



(From  Sir  George  Staunton's  "  Lord  Macartney's  Embassy.") 

in  Tartary  (wl;ere  the  Court  always  resides 
at  this  season),  as  soon  as  possible.  To 
these  we  made  (he  proper  return  of  compli- 
ment, and  then  informed  the  Viceroy  that 
the   train   of    the   Embassy   consisted    of    so 

of  them  could  not  be  transported  by  land 
to  such  a  distance  without  being  greally 
damaged  if  not  totally  destroyed.  We  ex- 
plained to  him  the  high  compliment  inteudtd 
by  the  first  Sovereign  of  the  Western  'W^orld 

utmost  of  my  power,  I  requested  the  Viceroy 
would  be  so  kind  as  to  give  me  such  infor- 
mation and  advice  as  might  enable  me  to 
render  myself  and  my  business  as  accept- 
able to  the  Emperor  as  possible." 

The  Viceroy,  who  was  described  by  Lord 
Macartney  as  "a  line  old  man  of  seventy- 
eight  years  of  age  .  .  .  calm,  venerable, 
and  dignified,"  listened  with  perfect  politeness 
to  the  Ambassador's  representations  and  ex- 
pressed in  unaffected  manner  his  complete 
compliance  with  them.  On  August  7th  the 
mission  commenced  their  journey  to  the 
interior.  The  entire  party  were  embarked 
on  thirty-seven  yachts  or  junks,  "  each  yacht 
having  a  flag  flying  at  her  mast  head  to 
distinguish  her  rank  and  ascertain  her  station 
in  the  procession."  The  emblems  also  bore 
in  large  Chinese  characters  these  words,  "The 
English  .Ambassador  bringing  tribute  to  the 
Emperor  of  China."  Besides  the  boats  accom- 
modating the  mission  were  numerous  craft 
conveying  Mandarins  and  officers  who  were 
allotted  to  the  service  of  the  visitors.  Indeed, 
as  Sir  G.  Staunton,  the  official  historian  of 
the  Embassy,  records,  "  No  slight  magnificence 
was  displayed,  and  no  expense  seemed  to 
be  spared."  But  the  mission  had  not  got 
very  far  before  it  had  a  taste  of  the  un- 
pleasant side  of  Chinese  officialdom.  A 
Tartar  Mandarin  in  high  office,  styled  the 
Emperor's  Legate  —  one  Chin-ta-gin  —  who 
had  been  told  off  to  accompany  the  Embassy 
to  Gehol,  raised  difficulties  in  regard  to  the 
disposition  of  the  presents.  In  somewhat 
brusque  fashion  he  intimated  that  the  Em- 
peror would  expect  to  have  all  the  presents 
carried  to  Gehol  and  delivered  at  the  same 
time.  Macartney  answered  him  "  that  the 
Emperor  was  certainly  omnipotent  in  China 
and  might  dispose  of  everything  in  it  as  he 
pleased,  but  that  as  the  articles  which  I 
meant  to  leave  at  Peking  would  certainly  be 
totally  spoiled  if  managed  according  to  his 
notions,    I    requested    he    would    take    them 


enlinly  into  hu  own  hands,  for  that  /  must 
be  ocuied  fnwn  presenting  anything  in  an 
imperfect  or  damaged  state,  as  being  un- 
worthy of  his  Britannic  Majesty  to  give  and 
o(  bis  Chinese  Majesty  to  receive."  This 
view  of  the  matter  "startled"  llie  Legate 
and    together    with    the    Viceroy's    opinion 


custom.  The  reception  by  tlie  Emperor  took 
place  on  September  14th.  Macartney  gives 
an  interesting  description  of  it  in  his  diary. 
"  We  alighted  at  tlie  park  gates,"  he  wrote, 
"  from  whence  we  walked  to  the  ini|Terial 
encampment  and  were  conducted  to  a  large 
handsome  tent  prepared   for  us  on  one  side 

(Comer's  •'  History  of  Clliila  .ind  India.") 

induced  him  to  recede  from  the  position  he 
had  taken  up.  But  Macartney  "  could  not 
help  feeling  great  disquiet  and  apprehension 
from  this  untoward  disposition  so  early 
manifested  by  the  Legate."  Later  the  Legate 
and  his  brother  ofticials  essayed  to  give  the 
Amb.issador  lessons  in  court  etiquette  and 
more  particularly  in  the  ceremony  known 
as  the  kototr.  This  was  done  "  with  a  degree 
of  art  address  and  insinuation  that  Macartney 
could  not  help  admiring."  They  said,  "they 
supposed  the  ceremonies  in  both  countries 
must  be  nearly  alike,  that  in  China  the  form 
was  to  kneel  down  on  both  knees  and  make 
nine  protestations  or  inclinations  of  the 
bead  to  the  ground,  and  that  it  never  had 
been  and  never  could  be  dispensed  with." 
Macartney  replied  that  the  English  form  was 
sofDewhat  different  and  that  though  he  was 
most  anxious  to  do  everything  that  might 
be  agreeable  to  the  Emperor  his  lirst  duty 
was  to  do  what  was  agreeable  to  his  own 
king.  This  ended  the  discussion  for  the 
period,  but  a  few  days  afterwards  the  subject 
was  revived.  The  Mandarins  pressed  Macart- 
ney most  earnestly  to  comply  with  it,  and 
said  it  was  a  mere  trifle.  "They  kneeled 
down  on  the  floors  and  practised  it  of  their 
own  accord  to  show  me  the  manner  of  it, 
and  begged  me  to  try  it  whether  I  could 
not  perform  it."  Macartney  remained  obdu- 
rate, but  he  subsequently  relented  to  the 
extent  of  agreeing  to  omform  to  their 
etiquette  provided  a  person  of  equal  rank 
Willi  his  were  appointed  to  perforin  the 
same  ceremony  before  his  sovereign's  picture 
as  he  should  perform  before  the  Kmperor 

After  a  short  stiy  at  Peking  en  route,  the 
Ambatsador  entered  Gehol  in  great  state  on 
September  8th.  Here  the  old  controversy 
about  the  etiquette  of  the  reception  was 
renewed.  Finally,  it  was  decided  that  the 
English  ceremony  should  be  used,  but  that 
Macartney  should  not  kiss  the  Emperor's 
hand,  this  being  deemed  repugnant  to  Chinese 

of  the  Emperor's.  After  wailing  there  about 
an  hour  his  approach  was  announced  with 
drums  and  music  on  which  we  quitted  our 
tent  and  came  forward  upon  the  green 
carpet.     He  was  seated  in  an  open  palanquin, 

prostrations.  As  soon  as  he  had  ascended 
his  throne  I  came  to  the  entrance  of  the 
tent,  and  holding  in  both  my  hands  a  gold 
box  enriched  with  diamonds  in  which  was 
enclosed  the  King's  letter,  1  walked  de- 
liberately up  and  ascending  the  side  steps 
of  the  throne  delivered  it  into  the  Emperor's 
own  hands,  who  having  received  it,  passed 
it  to  the  minister  by  whom  it  was  placed  on 
the  cushion.  He  then  gave  me  as  the  first 
present  to  his  Majesty  the  Ju-eu-jou  or  Giou- 
giou,  as  the  symbol  of  peace  and  prosperity 
and  expressed  his  hopes  that  my  sovereign 
and  he  should  always  live  in  good  corre- 
spondence and  amity.  .  .  .  The  Emperor 
then  presented  nie  with  a  Jeu-eu-jou  of  a 
greenish  coloured  stone  of  the  same  emble- 
matic cluuacter  ;  aS.  the  same  time  he  very 
graciously  received  from  me  a  pair  of  beau- 
tiful enamelled  watches  set  with  diamonds." 
Other  presentations  were  made  and  the 
members  of  the  Embassy  then  sat  down  to 
a  most  sumptuous  banquet.  "  The  Emperor 
sent  us  several  dishes  from  his  own  table, 
together  with  some  liquors  which  the  Chinese 
call  wine,  not,  however,  expressed  from  the 
grape,  but  distilled  or  extracted  from  rice, 
lierbs,  and  honey.  In  about  half-an-hour  he 
sent  for  Sir  George  Staunton  and  me  to 
come  to  him,  and  gave  to  each  of  us  with 
his  own  hands  a  cup  of  warm  wine,  which 
we  immediately  drank  in  his  presence,  and 
found  it  very  pleasant  and  comfortable,  the 
morning  being  cold  and  raw.  Anmngst  other 
things  lie  asked  me  the  age  of  my  king  and 
being  informed  of  it,  said  he  hoped  lie  might 
live  as  many  years  as  himself,  which  are 
eighty-three.  His  manner  is  digiiilied,  but 
affable  and  condescending,  and  his  reception 
of  us  has  been  very  gracious  and  satisfactory. 
He  is  a  very  tiiie  old  gentleman,  still  healthy 
and  vigorous,  not  having  the  appearance 
of   a   man   of   more   than   sixty.      'I'lie   order 



(From  Sir  George  Staunton's  "  L.ord  Macirtney's  Embassy.") 

carried  by  sixteen  bearers,  attended  by  a 
number  of  officers  bearing  flags,  standards 
and  umbrellas,  and  as  he  passed  we  paid 
liim  our  compliment  by  kneeling  on  one 
knee  whilst  all  the  Chinese  made  their  usual 

and  regularity  in  serving  and  removing  the 
dinner  was  wonderfully  exact,  and  every 
function  of  the  ceremony  performed  with 
such  silence  and  solemnity  as  in  some 
measure    to    resemble    the    celebration    of    a 



religious  mystery.  .  .  .  The  comm.inding 
feature  of  the  ceremony  was  that  cahn 
dignity,  that  sober  pomp  of  Asiatic  greatness, 
which  European  refinements  have  not  yet 
attained.  .  .  .  Thus  have  I  seen  '  King 
Solomon  in  all  his  glory.'  I  use  this  expres- 
sion as  the  scene  recalled  perfectly  to  my 
memory  a  puppet  show  of  that  name  which 
I  recollect  to  have  seen  in  my  childhood,  and 
which  made  so  strong  an  impression  on  my 
mind  that  I  then  thought  it  a  true  represen- 
tation of  the  highest  pitch  of  human  great- 
ness and  felicity." 

At  a  later  period  the  visitors  participated 
in  the  solemn  ceremonies  incidental  to  the 
celebration  of  the  Emperor's  birthday.  The 
Emperor  did  not  show  himself  on  the  occa- 
sion, but  remained  behind  a  screen  where 
he  could  see  wliat  was  taking  place  without 
inconvenience.  At  first  there  was  slow  music. 
"  On  a  sudden  the  sound  ceased  and  all  was 
still  ;  again  it  was  renewed  and  then  inter- 
mitted with  short  pauses  during  wliich  several 
persons  passed  backwards  and  forwards,  in 
the  proscenium  or  foreground  of  the  tent, 
as  if  engaged  in  preparing  some  grand  coup 
dc  thcairc.  At  length  the  great  band  struck 
up  with  all  their  powers  of  harmony,  and 
instantly  the  whole  Court  fell  flat  upon  their 
faces  before  the  invisible  Nebuchadnezzar, 
'  He  in  his  cloudy  tabernacle  sojourned  the 
while.'  The  music  was  a  sort  of  birthday 
ode  or  state  anthem,  the  burden  of  which 
was  '  Bow  down  your  heads,  all  ye  dwellers 
upon  earth,  bow  down  your  heads  before  the 
great  Kien  Lung,  the  great  Kien  Lung.'  And 
then  all  the  dwellers  upon  China  earth  there 
present,  except  ourselves,  bowed  down  their 
heads  and  prostrated  themselves  upon  the 
ground  at  every  renewal  of  the  chorus. 
Indeed,  in  no  religion,  ancient  or  modern 
has  the  Divinity  ever  been  addressed  I  believe 
with  stronger  external  marks  of  worship  and 
adoration  than  were  this  morning  paid  to 
the  plianloni  of  his  Chinese  Majesty."  On 
September  i8th  the  .Ambassador  had  another 
opportunity  of  conversing  with  the  Emperor. 
The  occasion  was  a  theatrical  performance 
in  the  palace  to  which  the  members  of  the 
mission  were  invited.  At  this  meeting  the 
Emperor  handed  to  Macartney  a  casket  which 
he  said  had  been  in  his  family  for  eight 
centuries  and  which  he  desired  should  be 
presented  to  the  King  as  a  token  of  his 
friendship.  This  and  other  imperial  cour- 
tesies showed  the  old  Emperor  in  a  most 
amiable  light.  Hut  as  far  as  the  great  objects 
of  the  mission  were  concerned  Macartney 
was  able  to  make  no  progress.  His  efforts 
to  open  up  negotiations  were  at  first  politely 
ignored,  and  when  he  became  importunate 
it  was  plainly  hinted  to  him  that  the  Em- 
peror regarded  the  mission  at  an  end.  After 
this  the  courtesies  which  had  been  paid  to 
the  Ambassador  became  less  marked.  There 
seemed  even  a  disposition  to  humiliate  him, 
as,  for  example,  in  compelling  his  attendance 
at  three  o'clock  on  a  cold  morning  to  wait 
for  hours  for  an  audience  with  the  Emperor 
who  never  put  in  an  appearance.  The  results 
of  the  mission  were  tersely  summed  up  in 
the  following  words  by  Aeneas  Anderson, 
who  accompanied  Lord  Macartney  in  a  subor- 
dinate capacity  and  wrote  an  account  of  the 
Embassy :  "  In  short,  we  entered  Peking  like 
paupers,  we  remained  in  it  like  prisoners, 
and  we  quitted  it  like  vagrants."  The 
mission  bore  home  with  it  a  letter  from  the 
Emperor  to  the  King  which  set  fortli  in 
unequivocal  terms  the  determination  of  the 
Chinese  Government  to  adhere  to  the  exclu- 
sive policy  which  it  had  hitherto  maintaijied. 
It  stated  that  the  proposals  of  the  Ambas- 
sador went  to   change   the  whole   system  of 

European  connnerce  so  long  established  at 
Canton,  and  this  could  not  be  allowed.  Nor 
could  his  consent  by  any  means  be  given  for 
resort  to  Limpo,  Cluisan,  Tientsin,  or  any 
northern  ports,  or  to  the  stationing  of  a 
British  resident  at  Peking.  He  mentioned 
that  the  Russians  now  only  traded  to  Kiatcha 
and  had  not  for  many  years  come  to  Peking  ; 
and  added  that  he  could  not  consent  "  to  any 
other  place  of  residence  for  Europeans  near 
Canton  but  Macao."  In  conclusion,  after 
remarking  that  the  requests  made  by  the 
Ambassador  militated  against  the  laws  and 
usages  of  the  Empire,  and  at  the  same  time 
were  wholly  useless  to  the  end  proposed,  he 
read  his  royal  correspondent  a  sort  of  lecture 
on  the  virtue  of  resignation  to  his  supreme 
will,  "  I  again  admonish  you,  O  King  ! "  he 
wrote,  "  to  act  conformably  to  my  intentions 
that  we  may  preserve  peace  and  amity  on 
each  side  and  thereby  contribute  to  our 
reciprocal  happiness.  After  this,  my  solemn 
warning,  should  your  Majesty,  in  pursuance 
of   your  ambassador's  demands  fit   out   ships 

a  thing  of  the  past.  A  shooting  incident 
which  occurred  in  1800  marked  very  con- 
spicuously the  change  which  had  come  over 
the  attitude  of  officialdom  since  Lord  Macart- 
ney's Embassy.  On  the  night  of  the  nth  of 
P'ebruary,  the  officer  on  watch  on  H.M.S. 
Minims  at  VVhampoa,  having  hailed  a  boat 
which  had  been  at  the  ship's  bows  for  some 
time,  and  receiving  no  answer  fired  into  her 
under  a  conviction  that  an  attempt  was  being 
made  to  cut  the  vessel's  cable.  By  the  dis- 
charge a  Chinaman  in  the  boat  was  wounded 
and  a  second  man  in  the  course  of  a  struggle 
with  one  of  the  crew  of  the  Madras  either 
jumped  or  fell  overboard.  The  Chinese 
authorities  demanded  that  the  oflicer  who 
fired  the  shot  should  be  given  up  for  exami- 
nation, and  that  the  man  who  caused  the 
man  to  fall  overboard  should  be  confronted 
with  his  accuser.  Finally  it  was  demanded 
that  a  basket  of  vegetables  stated  to  have 
been  taken  out  of  the  boat  should  be  res- 
tored. The  Captain  of  the  Madras  proceeded 
to  Canton  and  from  thence,  on  the  22nd  of 

( From  Sir  George  Staunton's  "  Lord  Macartney's  Embassy.") 

in  order  to  attempt  to  trade  either  at  Ning 
Po,  Tehu  San,  Tien  Sing,  or  other  places,  as 
our  laws  are  exceedingly  severe,  in  such 
case  I  shall  be  under  the  necessity  of  direct- 
ing my  mandarins  to  force  your  ships  to  quit 
these  ports,  and  thus  the  increased  trouble 
and  exertions  of  your  merchants  would  at 
once  be  frustrated.  You  will  not  then,  how- 
ever, be  able  to  complain  that  I  had  not 
clearly  forewarned  you.  Let  us,  therefore, 
live  in  peace  and  friendship,  and  do  not 
make  light  of  my  words.  For  this  reason 
I  have  so  repeatedly  and  earnestly  written 
to  you  upon  this  subject." 

Regarded  in  its  main  aspect  as  an  attempt 
to  open  up  the  trade  of  China  the  Embassy 
was  beyond  cavil  a  conspicuous  failure.  But 
that  it  was  not  without  some  beneficial  effect 
is  a  fair  assumption  from  the  course  of 
events  in  the  years  following  the  reception 
of  the  mission.  The  vexatious  interferences 
of  Mandarins  in  the  conduct  of  business 
were  abandoned,  and  the  costly  and  incon- 
venient practice  of  stopping  the  whole  trade 
on  the  smallest  pretext  also  apparently  became 

February,  addressed  a  letter  to  the  Viceroy 
respecting  the  thievish  conduct  of  the  Chinese, 
and  stated  that  he  had  no  doubt  they  would 
meet  with  proper  punishment.  He  main- 
tained that  an  attempted  theft  led  to  the 
firing  of  the  shot  which  wounded  the  man, 
and  he  asserted  in  regard  to  the  second  man 
that  he  jumped  overboard  and  was  not 
pushed  into  the  water.  The  demand  for  the 
return  of  the  basket  was  treated  as  a  trifle 
but  a  promise  was  given,  nevertheless,  that 
it  should  be  returned.  To  the  Chinese  mer- 
chants who  were  asked  to  deliver  the  letter 
a  statement  was  made  that  the  captain  would 
not  give  up  the  man  without  seeing  the 
Viceroy,  and  that  he  would  not  even  be 
placed  in  the  charge  of  the  Select  Com- 
mittee. The  discussion  continued  for  some 
weeks  and  eventually  was  amicably  closed, 
a  settlement  being  greatly  facilitated  by  the 
recovery  of  the  wounded  man  and  a  confes- 
sion on  the  part  of  the  second  Chinese 
concerned  that  he  had  thrown  himself 
overboard.  Owing  to  this  occurrence,  the 
President    of    the    Select    Committee   applied 


for  a  a>pv  of  the  laws  of  China  with  special 
reference  to  the  crime  of  homicide.  In  reply 
they  received  a  paper  containing  extracts 
from  the  Chinese  c^xle  of  laws. 

The  priiK-ipal  clauses  cited  were  : 

1st.    A   inan   who    kills    another   on   the 

SMpicton  of  theft  shall  be  strangled,  aca)rd- 

3rd.  A  man  who  puts  to  death  a  criminal 
who  had  been  apprehended  and  made  no 
resistance  shall  be  strangled  according  to 
the  law  of  homicide  committed  in  an  affray. 

4th.  A  man  who  falsely  accuses  another 
innocent  person  of  theft  (in  cases  of  greatest 
criminality)   is  guilty  of   a  capital  offence  ; 

(FfXMn  Sir  George  Staunton's  "  Lord  Mac;irtney'8  Embassy.**) 

ing  to  the  law  against  homicide  committed 
in  an  affray. 

2nd.  A  man  who  fires  at  another  with 
a  musket  and  kills  him  thereby  shall  be 
beheaded  as  in  cases  of  wilful  murder.  If 
the  sufferer  is  wounded  (but  not  mortally) 
the  offender  shall  be  sent  into  exile. 

in  all  other  cases  the  criminals  whether 
principals  or  accessories,  shall  be  sent  into 

5th.  A  man  who  wounds  another  unin- 
tentionally shall  be  tried  according  to  the 
law  respecting  blows  given  in  an  affray, 
and  the  punishment  rendered  more  or  less 

severe   according   to   the   degree   of    injury 

6th.  A  man  who,  intoxicated  with  liquor, 
commits  outrages  against  the  laws,  shall 
be  exiled  to  a  desert  country,  there  to 
remain  in  a  state  of  servitude. 

"The  foregoing  are  articles  of  the  laws 
of  the  Empire  of  China,  according  to  which 
judgment  is  passed  on  persons  offending 
against  them,  without  allowing  of  any  com- 
promise or  extenuation." 
After  a  long  period  of  immunity  from 
trouble  tlie  more  or  less  friendly  relations 
existing  between  the  British  factory  and  the 
authorities  at  Canton  were  rudely  interrupted 
by  an  incident  of  the  familiar  kind.  On 
P'ebruary  24,  1808,  some  sailors  from  tlie 
Company's  sliip  Ncpliine  got  into  an  alterca- 
tion with  a  party  of  natives  near  the  factory. 
The  men  were  promptly  withdrawn  to  the 
factory  precincts,  but  they  were  followed  by 
a  Chinese  mob  who  commenced  to  throw 
stones  at  the  factory  and  at  every  European 
passing.  Eluding  their  officers  the  men 
rushed  out  and  attacked  the  mob,  causing  the 
death  of  one  of  the  number.  The  Select 
Committee  decided  to  comply  with  every 
reasonable  demand  that  might  be  made  upon 
them  in  connection  with  the  unfortunate  inci- 
dent, but  to  resist  with  firmness  anything  of 
a  contrary  nature.  After  long  discussions 
between  the  British  and  the  authorities  it 
was  arranged  that  an  examination  ol  52 
men  of  the  Neptune  should  take  place  at 
the  factory,  where  the  Chinese  consented  to 
hold  the  court  of  inquiry.  At  the  inquiry 
the  forms  of  a  Chinese  Court  of  Justice  were 
observed,  but  seats  were  provided  for  Captain 
liolles  of  H.M.S.  Lion,  the  members  of  the 
Committee,  and  for  Sir  George  Staunton, 
wliile  two  of  Captain  Holies'  marines  with 
fixed  bayonets  were  posted  as  sentries  at  the 
door  of  the  factory  during  the  whole  of  the 
proceedings.  The  Chinese  produced  no  evi- 
dence, but  Captain  Buchanan  and  the  officers 
of  the  Ncptniic  admitted  that  eleven  men  had 
been  specially  singled  out  by  their  violence 
in  the  affray.  It  was  hoped  that  the  assign- 
ment of  some  punishment  to  these  men 
would  have  satisfied  the  Chinese,  but  the 
Cliinese  officials  made  it  clear  that  they 
would  not  be  satisfied  until  some  one  person 
had  been  named.  Eventually  the  name  of 
the  ringleader,  Edward  Sheen,  was  given, 
and  there  seemed  every  indication  that  the 
payment  of  a  sum  of  money  as  compensation 
would  now  settle  the  business.  As,  however, 
the  members  of  the  Committee  were  about 
to  leave  for  Macao  a  demand  was  made  upon 
them  for  the  custody  of  Sheen.  The  claim 
was  resisted,  and  it  was  not  until  Captain 
Rolles  was  about  to  take  the  man  with  him 
on  board  the  Lion  that  the  Mandarins  yielded. 
Ultimately  a  settlement  was  effected  on  the 
payment  of  a  pecuniary  fine.  Thereafter 
trade  which  had  been  at  a  complete  stand- 
still during  the  prolonged  discussions  was 
resumed.  The  Court  of  Directors  were  so 
gratified  with  the  ability  and  firm  conduct 
displayed  on  tlie  occasion  that  tliey  passed  a 
special  resolution  of  thanks  and  voted  a  sum 
of  ;ii,ooo  to  Captain  Rolles  for  his  part  in 
the  transaction. 

twp:ntieth  century  impressions  of  Hongkong, 




The  effe<5t  of  the  War  between  France  and  England — British  occupation  of  Macao— Indignation  of  the  Chinese 
Government — Peremptory  demand  for  the  evacuation  of  Macao— Stoppage  of  Trade — Withdrawal  of  the  British 
Troops — Further  Incidents  at  Canton — Outrageous  Conduct  of  the  Chinese  Officials — Sir  George  Staunton  protests 
— British  leave  Canton — Trade  resumed — Lord  Amherst's  Mission — Arrival  in  China — Ships  of  the  Mission  anchor 
in  Hongkong  Harbour — Failure  of  the  Mission — Arrogant  Policy  of  the  Chinese — Formal  Complaint  made  by 
British  Merchants  to  the  Select  Committee  of   1 832 — Appointment  of  Lord  Napier  as  Superintendent  of  Trade — 

His  ill-treatment  and  death. 

The  prolonged  state  of  war  between  France 
and  England  at  the  close  of  the  eighteenth 
and  the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century 
from  time  to  time  influenced  the  China  trade. 
The  British  mercantile  ships  for  a  consider- 
able period  were  regularly  convoyed,  and  in 
1804  there  was  a  brisk  action  in  the  China 
seas  between  a  homeward  bound  fleet  of 
sixteen  sail  under  Sir  Nathaniel  Dance,  and  a 
French  squadron  under  Admiral  Linois.  The 
utmost  gallantry  was  shown  on  this  occasion 
by  the  British  ships  with  the  result  that  the 
attacking  fleet  was  beaten  off.  It  was  esti- 
mated that  the  value  of  British  property  at 
slake  on  the  occasion  reached  the  high  figure 
of  si.xteen  millions.  Consequent  upon  the 
frequent  visits  of  the  King's  ships  to  the 
China  coast  at  this  juncture  negotiations  were 
opened  up  with  the  local  Chinese  authorities 
for  the  use  of  Anson's  Bay  in  the  Canton 
River  as  an  anchorage.  The  Select  Com- 
mittee were  unable  to  obtain  avowed  sanction 
for  the  use  of  the  bay,  but  the  authorities 
permitted  supplies  of  provisions  to  be  sent 
up  from  VVhampoa,  and  having  secured  this 
material  concession  the  Committee  were  the 
less  anxious  on  the  other  points  involved  as 
they  were  convinced  that  the  anchoring  of 
the  ships  in  the  bay  would  be  tolerated,  and 
in  time  become  an  established  privilege. 

In  1808  a  serious  difference  arose  between 
the  British  and  the  Chinese  authorities  owing 
to  action  that  was  taken  in  connection  with  the 
war.  A  vague  report  having  been  transmitted 
to  the  Bengal  Government  to  the  effect  that 
the  P'rench  contemplated  the  occupation  of 
Macao  a  combined  naval  and  military  expe- 
dition was  sent  from  India  to  forestall  the 
intended  move.  A  landing  was  effected  in 
September  in  opposition  to  the  sentiments  of 
the  Portuguese  Governor  and  to  the  known 
wishes  of  the  local  Chinese.  A  formal  protest 
was  promptly  made  by  the  Hoppo  against  the 
occupation,  and  this  was  followed  by  a  more 
emphatic  remonstrance  from  the  Viceroy. 
Later,  Chinese  troops  were  ordered  to  the 
spot  to  compel  the  evacuation  of  the  port  by 
the  British  force,  and  the  threat  was  held 
out  that  in  the  event  of  the  occupation  being 
continued  the  ships  at  Whampoa  would  be 
fired.  Notwithstanding  this  hostile  attitude 
on  the  part  of  the  Chinese  a  second  detach- 
ment of  troops  was  landed  on  the  20th  of 
October.  By  this  time  trade  was  at  a  stand- 
still, and  the  usual  relations  between  the 
authorities  and  the  Select  Committee  through 
the  Chinese  merchants  had  been  broken  off. 
A  letter  was  forwarded  by  the  Committee  on 
the  5th  of  November  to  the  Viceroy  request- 
ing that  some  person  might  be  appointed 
to  receive  their  representation.  A  reply  came 
through  a  Mandarin  that  the  Viceroy  had 
seen  their  letter,  but  did  not  think  a  compli- 
ance necessary  "  as  the  troops  must  be 
removed,  their  remaining  on  shore  being 
contrary  to  the   law   of    the    Empire."     The 

Committee  intimated  that  in  view  of  the 
haughty  conduct  of  the  Isontock  the  Admiral 
could  not  remove  the  troops  as  such  action 
might  have  the  appearance  of  fear.  The 
discussion  now  waxed  warmer.  As  the  Vice- 
roy declined  to  receive  a  further  commu- 
nication the  President  stated  his  intention 
to  order  all  British  sulijects  to  quit  Canton 
in  forty-eight  hours.  To  this  threat  the 
Viceroy  replied  on  the  21st  of  November 
that  if  they  wished  to  make  war  on  China 
he  was  prepared,  but  that  he  would  not 
commence.  He  added  that  the  Committee 
might,  if  they  pleased,  remove  the  ships,  but 
that  if  they  went  they  would  not  be  permitted 
to  return.    Matters  remained  in  abeyance  until 

further  resistance  was  useless  the  President 
gave  orders  for  the  withdrawal  of  the  troops 
and  the  evacuation  was  completed  by  the 
2oth  of  December.  The  settlement  was  a 
distinct  triumph  for  the  Chinese  authorities. 
Having  made  a  demand  at  the  outset  they 
never  wavered  in  their  determination  to 
enforce  it,  and  in  the  end  they  completely 
carried  their  point.  There  can  be  little 
question  that  the  incident  did  much  to  lower 
British  prestige.  An  immediate  result  which 
flowed  from  it  was  that  obstacles  were 
placed  in  the  way  of  the  free  entrance  of  the 
Company's  ships  to  the  river.  The  Court  of 
Directors  recalled  the  President  and  consti- 
tuted a  new  Select  Committee  and  took  other 


(l'"i(im  an  cngraviiii;.) 

the  4th  of  December,  when  the  Select  Com- 
mittee, then  assembled  at  Macao,  received 
an  imperial  edict  for  the  withdrawal  of  the 
troops.  Instead  of  complying  with  this  the 
British  redoubled  their  preparations  for  the 
defence  of  the  positions  they  held.  As  a 
consequence  the  batteries  at  the  Bogue  forts 
fired  at  the  ships  going  up  and  down  the 
river  and  the  fire  was  returned.  Then  came 
something  in  the  nature  of  an  ultimatum 
from  the  Viceroy — a  declaration  that  while 
there  remained  a  single  soldier  in  Macao 
and  the  laws  were  disobeyed  the  British 
should  not  trade,  and  that  if  the  Admiral 
hesitated  a  moment  "  innumerable  troops 
would  be  sent  to  destroy  him."     Finding  that 

measures  to  efface  the  unpleasant  impression 
left  by  the  bungling  policy  of  the  old  Com- 
mittee. But  it  was  not  until  the  end  of 
October  that  the  Emperor's  orders  were 
received  for  the  placing  of  foreign  trade  on 
its  old  footing.  Thereafter  events  dropped 
once  more  into  their  accustomed  groove, 
though  it  was  not  long  before  new  disputes 
arose  to  interrupt  the  course  of  trade,  and 
the  maimer  in  which  these  episodes  were 
treated  by  tlie  Chinese  officials  indicated  that 
they  had  not  forgotten  their  triumph  in  the 
Macao  business. 

By  far  the  most  important  of  the  contro- 
versies raised  raged  around  the  presence  in 
Chinese    waters   of    H.M.S.  Doris   during   the 


»-ar  with  America.  In  April,  1814,  the  Dons 
arri\-ed  in  Macao  Roads  with,  as  a  prize,  the 
American  ship  Hunter,  captured  off  the 
LjKlrones.  A  communicalion  was  addressed 
to  the  President  by  the  Chinese  authorities 
pointing   out    that    the    action    taken   was   a 

Canton  to  open  up  negotiations  for  a  settle- 
ment with  tlie  Viceroy.  In  furtherance  of 
the  arrangement  Sir  George  Staunton,  on  the 
20th  of  October,  proceeded  to  Canton  accom- 
panied by  Sir  Theopliilus  Metcalfe.  At  the 
interview  which  took  place  Sir  George  stated 

(From  AlU'in  &  Wrijiht's  ''Chiiui.") 

vioblion  of  the  functions  of  the  Celestial 
Empire,  and  desiring  that  the  Doris  might 
be  directed  not  to  intercept  American  ships 
going  out  of  the  river.  Protracted  discussions 
ensued  as  to  the  legitimacy  of  the  course 
which  had  been  pursued.  As  the  American 
ship  had  l>een  taken  without  the  limits  of  the 
Chinese  jurisdiction  the  Committee  did  not 
consider  that  the  Chinese  Government  had 
any  locus  sUimii.  They  caused  it  to  be 
known  that  the  Americans  had  declared  war 
against  the  British,  and  that  the  British 
oommander  had  orders  to  capture  American 
veaiels.  The  Chinese  retort  was  that  "  if  the 
English  and  Americans  have  petty  quarrels 
let  tliem  go  to  their  own  country  and  settle 
them."  At  the  same  time  the  Select  Com- 
mittee were  required  to  order  the  Doris  away. 
While  the  war  of  words  was  at  height  the 
Viceroy  aggravated  the  situation  by  issumg 
an  order  prohibiting  the  employment  of  native 
servants  at  the  factoiy.  In  vain  the  Select 
Committee  represented  that  for  one  hundred 
years  they  had  been  allowed  to  employ  native 
servants,  and  that  a  change  in  the  custom 
now  would  cause  great  confusion.  The 
Government,  finding  that  their  edict  was  not 
obeyed  as  promptly  as  it  anticipated,  or  at 
least  wished,  sent  emissaries  into  the  factory 
with  orders  to  seize  all  native  servants  they 
might  find  there.  A  vigorous  protest  was 
ItKlgcd  by  the  Commillce  against  the  outrage, 
but  its  only  effect  appeared  to  be  to  stimulate 
the  Chinese  authorities  to  greater  insolence. 
Traffic  was  suspended,  one  of  the  Company's 
captains  on  his  way  from  Whampoa  to 
Canton,  though  travelling  with  an  ofiicial 
pa**,  was  stopped  and  forcibly  carried  to  the 
offidaJ  headquarters,  and,  finally,  the  Com- 
mittee's linguist  was  seized.  The  Select 
Committee,  after  deliberating  over  the  best 
course  to  pursue  in  the  face  of  this  outrageous 
conduct  of  tlie  Canton  officials,  decided 
ullimateiy  to  depute  Sir  George  Staunton  to 

"  that  he  was  charged  by  the  Coiiimiltee  with 
several  cominuiiitalions  of  imporlaiice,  but 
in  none  of  them  was  anything  proposed  for 
themselves  more  than  the  prosecution  of  a 
fair  and  equitable  commerce  under  the  pro- 
tection of  His  Imperial  Majesty  ;  that  they 
entertained  every  disposition  to  obey  his 
laws ;  that  they  sought  for  no  innovations, 
nor  were  desirous  of  interfering  in  any  affairs 
of  Government  in  which  they  were  not 
concerned."  After  a  series  of  meetings  tlie 
Viceroy  suddenly  broke  off  the  negotiations. 
Sir  George  Staunton  therefore  quitted  Canton, 
having  previously  desired  all  British  subjects 
to  leave  also.  The  Company's  ships  were  by 
his  directions  removed  from  Whampoa  to  a 
point  near  the  Bocca  Tigris.  Here  they 
remained  until  the  middle  of  November,  when 
deputations  of  the  hong  merchants  came  from 
Canton  to  request  that  further  movement  of 
the  ships  might  be  suspended  in  view  of  the 
fact  that  the  Viceroy  was  willing  to  depute 
a  Mandarin  to  discuss  the  remaining  points 
in  dispute.  Sir  George  Staunton,  responding 
to  the  representations  made  by  the  deputa- 
tions, returned  to  Canton  ;  but  he  had  no 
sooner  arrived  there  than  he  was  informed 
by  Howqua,  the  leading  merchant,  that  the 
Mandarin  would  not  be  sent  until  trade  was 
resumed.  Incensed  at  this  double  dealing. 
Sir  George  Staunton  announced  his  intention 
of  immediately  quitting  Canton  and  at  the 
same  time  took  occasion  to  point  out  "the 
unparalleled  disgrace  and  dishonour  which 
must  fall  upon  himself  (Howqua),  his  Govern- 
ment, and  his  country  if  the  promises,  upon 
the  truth  of  which  the  English  gentleman 
had  returned  to  Canton,  were  to  be  so 
shamefully  violated."  The  hong  merchants 
pleaded  that  if  the  Mandarins  retracted  it 
was  not  their  fault.  Sir  George  Staunton 
retorted  that  such  a  breach  of  national  faith 
could  not  take  place  without  infamy  and 
heavy    responsibility     attaching     somewhere. 

The  interview  ended  with  a  promise  on  the 
part  of  the  merchants  that  they  would  consult 
the  Mandarins.  They  did  so,  with  the  result 
that  a  mcetinsj  was  after  all  arranged  and 
took  place  without  the  stipulated  prior  openliij; 
of  trade.  A  series  of  proposals  bearing  upon 
recent  incidents  were  subsequently  drawn  up 
for  consideration  by  the  Chinese  autlioiilies. 
Some  days  after  they  had  been  submitted  the 
Viceroy's  reply  was  given  through  Howqua. 
Most  of  the  demands  made  were  conceded, 
though  in  one  or  two  points  the  language  of 
the  reply  seemed  to  be  deliberately  obscure. 

The  capricious  and  vexatious  action  of  the 
local  authorities  at  Canton  in  this  and  other 
cases,  combined  with  a  desire  to  establish 
the  China  trade  on  a  footing  of  permanent 
stability,  suggested  the  advisability  of  send- 
ing anotlier  mission  to  the  Emperor  of 
China.  In  the  tirst  instance  the  proposal 
emanated  from  a  gentleman  who  had  been 
a  member  of  Lord  Macartney's  suite,  and 
Lord  Liverpool's  Government  were  not 
disposed  to  think  that  there  was  sufficient  to 
justify  the  great  expense  Involved  in  the 
despatch  of  the  mission.  But  the  Court  of 
Directors  adopted  the  scheme  so  warmly 
and  brought  forward  such  strong  aigunicnls 
in  its  favour  that  the  Government  ended  by 
extending  to  the  project  their  hearty  support. 
Ixird  Amherst  was  selected  to  till  the  office 
of  ambassador.  This  nobleman  had  not  the 
great  qualifications  for  the  office  which  were 
possessed  by  his  predecessor  and  in  the 
light  of  subsequent  events  it  may  lie 
questioned  whether  the  Government  choice 
was  altogether  a  wise  one.  He  was,  how- 
ever, no  novice  In  public  affairs  and  had  had 
training  in  diplomatic  work  for  some  time 
previously  as  British  representative  in  Sicily. 
He  eml-iodled  In  his  person  the  average 
qualitications  of  a  British  diplomat  of  the 
period.  What  he  lacked  was  a  knowledge 
of  Orientals  and  their  ways — a  very  'serious 
shortcoming     in     the     circumstances.      With 



(From  a  print  in  tlie  British  Museum.) 

Lord  Amherst  went  as  chief  assistant  Mr. 
Henry  Ellis,  who  had  canled  through  some 
delicate  negotiations  with  the  Shah  of 
Persia,  and  the  Ambassador's  son,  the  Hon. 
Jeffery  Amherst,  also  accompanied  him. 
The  Alccstc,  a  frigate  of  forty-six  guns  was 
set    apart    for    the   accommodation    of    Lord 


Amiierst    and    his    suite,    and    in    attendance  subject.     At    length,    when    the    controversy 

upon    it    were    the    East    Indiaman    General  had   raged   for    three    days,  the    Ambassador 

Hewitt    and   the    brig    Lyra.     Quitting    Spit-  was   aroused   from   his   bed  one   morning  to 

head     on     February     8,     i8i6,     the     vessels  receive  a  message  from  the  Emperor  to  the 

arrived  off  tlie   Lamma  Islands  on  the   loth  effect  tliat  he  must  either  perform  the  Itotma 

(From  De  Goyer  &  De  Keysers  •■  Embassy  to  China.") 

of  July  and  found  awaiting  them  there  two 
of  the  East  India  Company's  ships  having 
on  board  Sir  G.  Staunton,  who  was  to  accom- 
pany the  Embassy  in  the  important  position 
of  interpreter,  and  other  gentlemen  who 
were  to  discharge  various  duties  in  con- 
nection with  it.  Two  days  subsequent  to 
the  meeting  the  squadron,  now  numbering 
five  ships,  dropped  anchor  in  Hongkong 
Harbour.  The  occasion  was  the  first  on 
which  the  position  had  been  brought  into 
prominence  by  association  with  important 
events  in  the  history  of  British  relations 
with  China,  but  the  harbour  had  often  been 
used  previously  by  merchantmen  trading  on 
the  China  coast,  and  its  advantages  were 
well  known  though  few  at  the  time  could 
have  suspected  the  great  destiny  which  was 
marked  out  for  the  island.  Soon  after  the 
squ.idron's  arrival  news  was  brought  to 
Lord  Amherst  that  the  Emperor  was  pre- 
pared to  receive  him.  The  sojourn  at 
Hongkong  was,  therefore,  cut  short,  and  the 
vessels  sailed  on  the  I2tli  of  July  for  the 
mouth  of  the  White  River  in  the  Gulf  of 
Pechili,  which  was  reached  on  the  28th  of 
July.  The  Ambassador  was  kept  waiting  on 
board  his  ship  for  some  days  pending  the 
arrival  of  the  Imperial  Legate.  When  at 
length  this  functionary  put  in  an  appearance 
the  mission  landed  at  Tientsin,  reaching  that 
port  on  August  12th.  At  the  very  outset  the 
question  of  the  kotow  was  raised.  The 
Chinese  put  the  performance  of  the 
ceremony  forward  as  an  indispensable  con- 
dition of  an  audience,  and  they  had  the 
effrontery  to  assert  that  in  complying  Lord 
Amherst  would  only  be  following  the  pre- 
cedent set  by  Lord  Macartney,  who  had 
conceded  the  point.  A  further  argument 
used  was  that  trade  at  Canton  would  suffer 
if  the  Ambassador  persisted  in  his  objection 
to  the  ceremony.  Lord  Amherst  courteously 
but  firmly  declined  to  entertain  the  proposal 
for  a  moment.  He  understood  the  immense 
importance  which  attached  to  his  maintain- 
ing an  unyielding  attitude,  and  steadily 
rejected   all   proposals   made   to   him   on  the 

or  return  to  England.  Lord  Amherst's  reply 
was  an  offer  to  perform  the  ceremony  pro- 
vided that  he  received  a  formal  engagement 
on  the  part  of  the  Emperor  that  any  subject 
of  his  deputed  to  England  should  be  ordered 
to  perform  the  same  ceremony  to  the  British 
sovereign.     The  Chinese  officials  declined  to 

But  on  the  following  morning  the  two 
Mandarins  who  acted  as  conductors  of  the 
Embassy  stated  that  two  ofticers  of  very 
high  rank  had  been  appointed  to  meet  the 
Embassy  at  Tung  Chow,  12  miles  from 
the  capital,  to  renew  the  negotiation  as  to 
ceremonial,  and  it  was  suggested  that  in  the 
meantime  a  rehearsal  of  the  ceremony 
should  take  place.  The  proposed  rehearsal 
was  declined,  but  Ihe  offer  was  made  of  a 
written  promise  to  perform  the  ceretnony 
before  the  Emperor  on  the  terms  already 
stated.  The  Mandarins  seemed  to  be 
satisfied  with  this,  and  having  obtained  from 
the  Ambassador  the  formal  document  gave 
orders  for  the  journey  to  be  continued  to 
Peking.  Four  days  subsequently  the  subject 
was  re-opened  by  the  Mandarins  with  the 
object  of  preparing  the  way  for  the  recep- 
tion of  the  delegates  who  were  to  give 
instruction  in  the  ceremony.  It  was  artfully 
suggested  that  the  Ambassador  might  very 
well  yield  as  "such  report  as  he  saw  tit 
might  be  made  to  England."  The  notion 
that  the  home  authorities  should  be  deceived 
was  promptly  spurned,  and  with  renewed 
emphasis  a  statement  of  the  limits  to  which 
Lord  AiTiherst  was  prepared  to  go  was 
made.  Some  Mandarins  who  brought  the 
message  relative  to  the  conference  behaved 
very  rudely  in  the  presence  of  the  mission. 
They  treated  the  objections  raised  to  the 
performance  of  the  ceremony  with  insolent 
contempt.  Their  inental  attitude  is  well 
illustrated  by  the  remark  of  one  of  them, 
"  that  as  there  was  only  one  sun  in  the 
firmament,  so  there  was  only  one  sovereign 
in  the  universe,  the  Emperor  of  the 
Heavenly  Empire."  The  discussions  con- 
tinued until  the  mission  reached  the  palace 
of  Yuen-ming-Yuen  at  Peking  on  the  evening 
of  the  29th  of  August.  Prostrate  with  the 
fatigues    of    a    long    journey,    unnecessarily 

Pro.^iT.CT  OF  Y    INNKR    COniT    OT   TUX    EMl'moUK? 

rAIACf,  dt    TEKIN 

(From  a  print  in  the  British  Museum.) 

entertain  this  compromise  and  they  formally 
took  their  leave  while  the  heads  of  the  boats 
were  turned  down  the  river  as  if  in  pre- 
paration for  a  return.  Whether  this  was 
done  in  order  to  test  the  finnness  of  the 
Ambassador,  or  in  obedience  to  the 
Emperor's  instructions   was   not  made   plain. 

protracted  in  its  final  stage  for  some  pur- 
pose not  easy  to  define.  Lord  Amherst  was 
about  to  retire  to  rest  when  he  received  a 
peremptory  summons  into  the  presence  of 
the  Emperor.  The  Ambassador  was  con- 
siderably taken  aback  by  having  so  e.xtra- 
ordinary    a    demand    made    upon    him,    and 


cxpTxrssed  his  inlcniion  not  to  go.  One  of 
Ihc  k-Jiting  Mandarins  thereupon  took  him 
sonK-whal  roughly  by  the  arm  with  the 
object  apparently  of  compellinj;  him  to  pro- 
ceed. The  .\mbassa<lor  shakiiii!  himself  free 
stated  that  nolhin);  short  of  the  exercise  of 
violence  would  induce  him  to  wait  on  the 
Emperor  at  that  time.  Finding  that  I>ord 
Amherst  was  inHexible  in  his  determination 
the  Chinese  authorities  without  more  ado 
issued  orders  for  the  immediate  return  of 
the  mission.  The  instructions  were  carried 
out  to  the  letter.  Though  tired  and  indis- 
posed the  AmK-issador  and  his  suite  the  next 
dav  were  despatched  along  the  route  by 
which  they  had  travelled  with  a  haste  which 
can  only  l>e  descTibcd  as  indecent.  As  was 
remarked  at  the  time,  the  Chinese  treatment 
of  the  mission  '•  comported  more  with  the 
barbarity  of  a  Tartar  cmip  than  with  conduct 
which  could  have  lieen  exjHicted  even  from 
the  most  uncivilised  of  crown  heads."  The 
mis-sion  made  its  way  to  Canton  overland 
passing  down  the  Grand  Canal  and  over  the 
famous    Meling    Pass.     As    it    receded    from 

ing  hatred  towards  the  "  outer  barbarians," 
and  never  missed  an  opportunity  of  displaying 
that  dislike.  Still,  there  were  circumstances 
in  connection  with  the  arrangements  for  tlie 
mission  which  appeared  to  indicate  that  the 
inifierial  mind  might  have  been  iiiHuenced  in 
the  right  direction  if  Lord  .Amherst  had 
humoured  the  Emperor's  whim  of  summoning 
him  to  an  immediate  interview.  Kiaking  was 
so  far  complaisant  that  he  was  willing  to 
receive  the  Ambassador  with  the  English 
LX'remonial  which  had  marked  his  pre- 
decessor's reception  of  Lord  Macartney,  and 
there  is  good  reason  to  think  that  his  com- 
mand for  Lord  Amherst  to  attend  upon  him 
directly  after  his  arrival  was  due  not  so  nauch 
to  an  intention  to  show  disrespect  to  the 
mission  as  to  a  desire  to  satisfy  a  curiosity 
to  see  the  strangers.  An  opportunity  was 
undoubtedly  missed,  and  though  Lord 
Amherst's  action  was  supported  by  Sir  George 
Staunton  and  other  expert  authorities  on 
Chinese  affairs  in  his  suite,  it  is  impossible 
not  to  feel  that  the  situation  was  not  handled 
with    the    tactfulness     which     it     demanded. 

(From  Allum  &  Wrigtit's  "Ctiin.-!.") 

the  capital  the  bearing  of  the  Chinese 
oflfk-ials  towards  it  improved.  The  M  mdarin 
in  charge  of  it  showed  the  utmost  deference 
and  at  every  military  fort  that  the  travellers 
passed  honours  were  paid  them.  The 
Embassy  arrived  at  Canton  on  New  Year's 
Day,  1817,  and  it  embarked  for  home  on  the 
20th  of  January  following.  Misfortune 
dogged  Its  steps  to  the  end.  On  the  way 
through  the  China  Se.i,  when  off  the  island 
of  Pulo  Leal,  the  Alcestc  struck  on  a  sunken 
rock  and  foundered.  No  liven  were 
sacrificed,  but  Lord  Amherst  and  his  suite 
lost  all  their  belongings,  including  the 
presents  which  they  were  conveying  home. 
They  arrived  in  England  at  last  with  a  very 
substantial  bill  of  expenses  for  the  nation  to 
liquidate,  but  with  very  little  else  to  their 
record.  It  is  a  moot  point  whether  in  any 
circumstances  good  would  have  come  from 
the  mission.  The  Emperor  Kiaking  was  a 
different  type  of  man  to  Kienlung  who 
had  received  Lord  Macartney.  He  was  a 
despot  of  a  very  narrow  type— haughty,  cruel, 
and  capricious.    He  entertained  an  unrelent- 

Whatever  degree  of  responsibility  may  have 
attached  personally  to  the  Ambassador  for  the 
failure  of  the  mission,  the  result  was  accepted 
as  decisive  at  home.  "  It  may,  we  think,  be 
clearly  inferred,"  observed  the  Court  of 
Directors  in  their  review  of  the  mission,  "  that 
in  the  event  of  future  disagreements  with  the 
Viceroy  of  Canton,  no  dependence  can  be 
placed  on  the  efficacy  of  an  embassy,  though 
appointed  and  commissioned  by  the  Crown." 

As  the  previous  history  of  British  relations 
with  the  Chinese  authorities  must  have  led 
the  trading  community  at  Canton  to  expect, 
there  was  no  alleviation  in  the  local  situation 
as  a  result  of  the  mission.  On  the  contrary 
the  condition  of  affairs  grew  appreciably 
worse  as  the  years  passed  by  and  it 
became  clearer  that  no  effectual  bar  could  be 
opposed  to  the  high-handed  actions  of  tlie 
Mandarins.  After  a  .series  of  incidents  of  a 
familiar  character  matters  reached  some- 
thing like  a  crisis  in  1821.  On  the  I5lh  of 
December  in  that  year  some  seamen  from 
the  British  warship  Topazc  were  attacked 
while   ashore  at  Lintin   by  a   large  mob  of 

Chinese,  and  several  of  the  men  were  woun- 
ded. In  order  to  effect  the  re-embarkation 
of  the  party,  the  officer  in  command  of  the 
frigate  tired  some  round  shot  and  sent  two 
cutters  manned  and  armed  to  protect  the 
barge  conveying  tlie  seamen  from  the  shore. 
The  incident  on  being  reported  to  the 
Chinese  authorities  elicited  from  tliem  a  de- 
mand that  the  wounded  men  sliould  be  sent 
ashore  for  examination.  Very  naturally  Cap- 
tain Richardson  of  the  Topnzc  declined  to 
entertain  the  proposal,  and  he  further  em- 
phatically rejected  a  suggestion  that  was  put 
forward  tliat  the  men  who  had  fired  the 
shots  (which  had  resulted  in  the  death  of 
two  men)  should  be  handed  over  to  the 
Chinese  power.  The  Canton  authorities, 
finding  that  nothing  was  to  be  obtained  from 
Captain  Richardson,  stopped  the  trade  and 
endeavoured  by  coercing  the  Select  Com- 
mittee to  obtain  an  acceptance  of  their 
demands.  The  position  now  became  so 
threatening  that  the  Company's  treasure  was 
removed  from  Canton  to  Whampoa,  and 
preliminary  measures  were  taken  for  the 
removal  of  the  English  community  fiom  the 
city.  Before  embarking,  the  Committee,  on 
the  loth  of  Jaiuiary,  addressed  a  letter  to  the 
Viceroy  stating  that  tliey  had  no  control  over 
His  Majesty's  ships,  but  that  as  they  had 
been  held  responsible  they  had  accordingly 
determined  to  quit  China.  The  Viceroy  in 
reply  to  an  application  for  permission  to 
ship  goods,  stated  that  he  would  not  allow 
so  much  as  "  a  thread  of  silk  or  the  down 
of  a  plant"  to  be  embarked  until  the  foreign 
nuM-derers  were  delivered  up  by  the  chief. 
The  British  traders  on  leaving  Canton  pro- 
ceeded to  Chuenpee,  from  which  place  the 
negotiations  were  continued  for  some  little 
time.  On  tlie  8th  of  February  the  Topazc 
sailed  and  with  her  depaitiire  events  took  a 
more  favourable  turn.  Finally,  on  an  assur- 
ance being  given  that  the  whole  affair  would 
be  reported  by  Captain  Richardson  to  the 
Home  Government  who  would  apportion  the 
blame,  the  Viceroy,  on  February  22nd,  issued 
an  edict  re-opening  trade.  Three  days  later 
the  establishment  returned  to  Canton,  their 
arrival  there  being  followed  by  the  issue  of 
a  supplementary  edict  of  considerable  length 
containing  a  gross  travesty  of  the  facts 
bearing  upon  the  Lintin  affair.  On  a  report 
of  the  incident  reaching  England,  the 
Government  issued  orders  that  in  future 
during  peace  none  of  the  ships  of  the  navy 
should  visit  any  port  in  China,  excepting  on 
a  requisition  from  the  Governor-General  of 
India,  or  from  the  Select  Committee  of 
supercargoes  at  Canton.  The  Court,  in  for- 
warding a  copy  of  these  instructions  to 
Canton,  urged  that  only  in  a  case  of  extreme 
necessity  should  a  requisition  be  made  for 
a  warship.  They  intimated  that  they  inten- 
ded to  give  the  most  express  orders  to  the 
captains  of  their  ships  as  to  tlie  custody  of 
firearms,  with  a  view  to  rendering  impos- 
sible their  unauthorised  use  by  members  of 
the  crew.  It  was  hoped  that  with  this 
action  the  inconvenient  spectre  of  Lintin 
had  been  laid,  but  from  time  to  time  rum- 
bling echoes  of  the  affair  were  heard,  and 
in  1827,  on  the  appointment  of  a  new 
Viceroy,  the  question  was  re-opened,  and 
for  a  time  threatened  to  give  rise  to  new 
trouble.  The  firm  attitude  assumed  by  the 
Committee,  however,  had  eventually  the 
desired  effect  of  bringing  the  authorities  to 
see  that  nothing  was  to  be  gained  by  con- 
tinuing the  controversy. 

Though  for  their  own  reasons  Chinese 
ofliclals  might  allow  a  particular  incident  to 
pass  into  oblivion  nothing  apparently  could 
change  their  rooted   hostility  to  the   foreign 


traders.  Before  very  long  tlie  situation 
became  worse  tlian  ever.  A  set  of  new 
regulations  was  introduced  wliicli  placed  fresh 
obstacles  in  the  way  of  trade,  and  simul- 
taneously with  their  promulgation  there  set 
in  a  policy  of  a  deliberately  provocative 
character.  A  stoppage  of  trade  was  precipi- 
tated in  May,  1831,  by  a  series  of  acts  of 
exceptional  insolence.  Early  in  the  morning 
of  the  12th  of  the  month  the  Foo-yuen, 
one  of  the  leading  oBicials,  with  a  guard 
of  soldiers  forced  an  entrance  into  the  Com- 
pany's factory,  and  entering  the  public  hall 
directed  that  the  portraits  with  which  it  was 
adorned  should  be  uncovered.  When  that 
of  George  IV.  was  pointed  out  to  him  he 
ostentatiously  ordered  the  back  of  his  chair 
to  be  turned  to  it,  and  seated  himself  in  a 
manner  plainly  indicating  contempt.  A  more 
serious  outrage  perpetrated  by  this  oflicial 
was  the  issuing  of  orders  for  the  removal  of 
an  embankment  which  had  been  made  on 
the  river  side  of  the  factory  in  extension  of 
the  Company's  premises.  This  emliankment 
had  been  constructed  from  rubbish  removed 
from  the  factory  after  a  great  tire  in  1822 
which  consumed  most  of  the  buildings.  The 
work  had  been  carried  out  with  the  sanction 
of  the  Chinese  authorities  and  though  it 
added  a  considerable  area  to  the  factory 
enclosure  it  did  so  without  injury  to  pther 
interests.  The  arrogant  official,  without  enter- 
ing into  any  explanation,  ordered  the  removal 
of  the  rubbish  composing  tlie  embankment. 
The  excavated  material  was  loaded  into  boats 
and  conveyed  by  them  to  a  point  about  fifty 
yards  below  the  factory  where  it  was  thrown 
into  the  river,  as  if  to  show  that  the  desire 
was  not  to  remove  a  public  obstruction  but 
to  offer  a  public  insult  to  the  Company's 
representatives.  These  measures  created 
much  indignation  amongst  the  British  com- 
munity, and  they  were  regarded  even  by  the 
Chinese  mercantile  community  as  outrageous 
and  improper  in  the  highest  degree. 

In  view  of  the  increasingly  hostile  dis- 
position shown  by  the  Chinese  otiicials  to 
British  traders,  and  the  growing  difficulties 
of  carrying  on  trade  it  was  decided  to  make 
a  formal  representation  to  the  home  authori- 
ties in  order  to  secure  an  amelioration  of  the 
conditions  by  Government  action.  The 
opportunity  of  obtaining  an  effective  ventila- 
tion of  grievances  was  afforded  in  1832  by 
the  appointment  of  a  Select  Connnittee  of  the 
House  of  Commons  to  consider  the  question 
of  the  future  of  China  trade.  A  petition  em- 
bodying the  opinions  of  the  British  community 
was  drawn  up  and  in  due  course  presented. 
It  displayed  a  striking  picture  of  the  humilia- 
tions to  which  Europeans  at  that  period  were 
subjected.  The  document  referred  to  "the 
many  studied  indignities  heaped  upon  for- 
eigners by  the  acts  of  this  Government  and 
by  contumelious  edicts  placarded  on  the  walls 
of  their  very  houses,  representing  them  as 
addicted  to  the  most  revolting  crimes,  with 
no  other  object  than  to  stamp  them  in  the 
eyes  of  the  people  as  a  barbarous,  ignorant 
and  depraved  race,  every  way  inferior  to 

"  No  privation  or  discomfort,"  the  petition 
went  on  to  say,  "is  too  minute  to  escape  notice 
in  the  pursuit  of  this  ever  present  purpose. 
Free  air  and  exercise  are  curtailed  by  pre- 
cluding access  to  the  country  or  beyond  the 
confined  streets  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of 
their  habitations.  Even  the  sacred  ties  of 
domestic  life  are  disregarded  in  the  separa- 
tion of  husband  and  wife,  parent  and  child, 
rendered  unavoidable  by  a  capricious  prohibi- 
tion against  foreign  ladies  residing  in  Canton, 
for  which  there  appears  to  be  no  known  law, 
and  no  other  authority  than  the  plea  of  usage." 

The  petition  also  stated:  "They  (the  Chinese) 
subject  foreigners  to  treatment  to  which  it 
would  be  difficult  to  find  a  parallel  in  any 
part  of  the  world  "  ;  "  they  make  no  distinc- 
tion between  manslaughter  and  murder  as 
applied  to  foreigners "  ;  the  Government 
"  withholds  from  foreigners  the  protection 
of  its  laws,  and  its  power  is  felt  only  in  a 
system  of  unceasing  oppression,  pursued  on 
the  avowed  principle  of  considering  every 
other  people  as  placed  many  degrees  below 
its  own  in  the  scale  of  human  beings "  ; 
"  bribes  are  openly  demanded  by  low  and 
unprincipled  men  who  possess  an  arbitrary 
power  of  levying  the  import  duties  on 
goods"  ;  and  "the  local  authorities  at  Canton 
are  a  venal  and  corrupt  class  of  persons 
who  impose  severe  burdens  upon  commerce." 
This  tremendous  indictment  of  the  Chinese 
metliods  of  dealing  with  British  traders  had 
no  small  influence  in  bringing  about  the 
change  which  occurred  at  this  period  in 
relation  to  the  China  trade.  Hitherto  the 
East  India  Company  had  enjoyed  a  practical 

position  without  any  preliminary  inquiry  as 
to  whether  they  would  be  received.  The 
natural  consequence  was  that  their  oflicial 
character  was  completely  ignored,  and  they 
were  treated  with  a  degree  of  disrespect 
which  could  not  have  been  exceeded  if  they 
had  appeared  in  the  character  of  mere  private 
personages.  On  their  arrival  at  Canton  the 
tide  waiters  ofhcially  reported  that  "  three 
foreign  devils  "  had  landed  without  leave. 
Shortly  afterwards  the  Governor  issued  an 
edict  declaring  that  the  presence  of  the  British 
superintendents  in  Canton  was  an  infringe- 
ment of  established  laws,  and  that  "  tlie 
barbarian  eye  "  (Lord  Napier)  ought  to  have 
awaited  orders  at  Macao.  Lord  Napier,  there- 
fore, addressed  a  letter  to  the  Governor 
explaining  that  he  had  come  in  an  official 
capacity,  and  asking  an  interview.  The 
missive  was  returned  to  the  writer  unopened, 
with  a  contemptuous  message  that  it  could  not 
be  received  because  it  was  not  superscribed 
as  a  humble  petition.  In  vain  Lord  Napier 
requested    that    his    communication    might   be 


{From  Allonl  &  Wiighl's  "China.") 

monopoly  of  the  commercial  intercourse 
with  the  Far  East.  What  private  trade  there 
was  was  carried  on  witliout  official  recognition 
and  under  serious  disadvantages.  In  1833, 
on  the  expiry  of  the  Company's  charter, 
the  Government  decided  to  throw  the  trade 
open  to  all,  and  to  appoint  oflicial  superinten- 
dents to  act  as  intermediaries  between  the 
Chinese  ofticials  and  tlie  traders.  The  highly 
responsible  post  of  Chief  British  Superinten- 
dent was  entrusted  to  Lord  Napier,  and  as 
his  assistants  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  J.  F.  Davis, 
and  Sir  G.  B.  Robinson  were  sent  out.  Lord 
Palmerston,  who  was  Foreign  Secretary  at 
the  time,  drew  up  the  instructions  for  the 
three  representatives.  He  was  a  distinguished 
public  man,  thoroughly  versed  in  European 
diplomacy  and  statecraft,  but  he  had  a  pro- 
found ignorance  of  tlie  Oriental  character, 
and  he  made  the  glaring  mistake  of  assuming 
that  the  punctilio,  indispensable  in  the  case 
of  a  European  power,  was  not  necessary 
where  an  Oriental  government  was  concerned. 
Lord  Napier  and  his  colleagues  were  sent 
out  to  fill  what  was  practically  a  diplomatic 

accepted.  Not  a  single  person  could  be  found 
to  risk  official  displeasure  by  delivering  it. 
The  next  stage  in  the  business  was  the  issue 
(in  August)  of  an  edict  demanding  that  Lord 
Napier  should  return  to  Macao,  and  threaten- 
ing to  stop  trade  in  the  event  of  his  non- 
compliance with  the  order.  The  edict  was 
ignored  by  the  British  representatives  with 
the  result  that  trade  was  stopped  on  Sep- 
tember 2nd.  To  emphasise  their  displeasure 
the  authorities  put  a  Chinese  guard  on  the 
British  factory.  Lord  Napier's  response  to 
this  was  to  call  up  two  British  frigates  to 
protect  the  lives  and  properly  of  British 
subjects.  These  vessels,  the  Amiiomache  and 
the  Iiiiogcm;  on  passing  through  the  Bogue 
were  fired  upon  from  the  forts  and  returned 
the  fire.  In  the  enuagement  there  were 
several  casualties  on  both  sides.  The  two 
ships  forced  their  way  up  the  river  to  Canton, 
where  they  landed  a  body  of  blue  jackets  and 
marines  at  the  factory.  The  energy  shown 
had  a  salutary  effect  upon  the  Chinese  officials, 
who  dropped  their  boasting  and  insolence,  and 
sought  an  accommodation.     Unfortunately,  at 


this  particular  juncture.  Lord  Napier,  over- 
come by  the  heat  and  the  strain  of  the 
neiMi^tions,  t>ec.ime  seriously  ill.  The  situa- 
tion, consequently,  did  not  receive  the  amount 
of  attention  which  its  ini|x>rlance  demanded. 
The  «>utcoine  of  the  negotiations  with  the 
authorities  was  an  arrangement  which  enabled 
the  Chinese  to  completely  turn  the  tables  on 
the  British  representatives.  It  was  decided 
that  the  frig.ites  should  be  withdrawn,  and 
that  Lord  N'apier  should  go  to  M.-icao  to 
recruit  The  step,  in  any  event,  was  a 
measure  of  weakness,  but  .is  it  was  carried 
out  it  was  a  positive  humiliation.  Instead  of 
proceeding  as  he  should  have  done  to  Macao 
in  one  of  the  frigates,  Lord  Xapier  took 
passage  in  a  native  craft  provided  by  the 
Chinese  authorities.  The  Chinese,  seizing 
the  opportunity  which  the  carelessness  of  the 
British  offered,  took  good  care  to  make  the 
most  of  "the  barbarian  eye."  He  was  re- 
presented as  a  prisoner  of  oflTended  Chinese 

authority  who  was  being  sent  in  disgrace  to 
Macao.  The  journey  was  prolonged  in  every 
possible  way,  and  all  sorts  of  minor  indignities 
were  heaped  upon  Lord  Napier's  head.  Wlien 
the  British  Superintendent  did  arrive  at  Macao 
he  was  in  a  state  of  such  e.\trenie  prostration 
that  he  took  to  his  bed  and  died  within  a 
fortnight.  His  body  was  interred  with 
military  honours  in  the  Protestant  cemetery  at 
Macao,  but  the  remains  were  afterwards 
exhumed  and  taken  to  England  to  find  a 
final  resting  pl.ace  on  his  native  soil.  This 
deplorable  episode  in  British  relations  with 
China  did  not  end  with  Lord  Napier's  death. 
The  Emperor,  on  hearing  of  tlie  advance 
of  the  frigates  to  Canton,  degr.ided  the  Man- 
darins responsible  for  permitting  the  outrage 
upt>n  Chinese  authority.  Afterwards,  on 
receiving  a  report  that  Lord  Napier  had 
been  driven  out  and  tlie  British  warships 
"  dragged  over  the  shallows  and  e.vpelled " 
he    revoked     the    edict    and    restored    most 

of  the  Mandarins.  In  gratitude  for  favours 
received,  and  in  order  to  show  that  tlieir 
zeal  had  not  abated,  the  Chinese  authorities 
carried  their  crusade  against  the  British 
intruders  to  Macao.  The  Governor  of  that 
place  put  a  number  of  his  subordinates  to 
the  torture  "  to  ascertain  if  they  had  been 
guilty  of  illicit  connexion  witli  the  foreigners," 
and  on  his  instructions  several  natives  who 
had  printed  some  papers  for  Lord  Napier 
were  severely  bambooed  and  thrown  into 
prison.  Of  all  the  blunders  committed 
by  the  British  in  tlieir  dealings  witli  the 
Chinese  tlie  thrusting  of  Lord  Napier  upon 
the  Chinese  authorities,  and  the  acquies- 
cence in  his  subsequent  ignominious  treat- 
ment were  possibly  the  greatest.  The 
mismanagement  and  feebleness  shown  in  this 
connection  gave  strength  to  the  reactionary 
influences  in  China  at  this  period,  and  led 
to  a  state  of  affairs  from  which  there  was 
no  outlet  but  war. 


TTie  Opium  Traffic — Commissioner  Lin's  Campaign  at  Canton  against  the  Trade — Imprisonment  of  the  Superin- 
tendent of  Trade  and  Merchants  at  the  British  Factory — Surrender  of  Opium  and  its  destruction  by  Lin's 
orders — Withdrawal  of  the  British  to  Macao  and  subsequently  to  Hongkong — Unsuccessful  attack  by  the  Chinese 

Fleet  on  the  British  Ships  in  Hongkong  Harbour. 

Before  the  events  narrated  in  the  conclud- 
ing portion  of  the  last  chapter  had  reached 
their  tragic  consummation  a  neiv  factor  had 
come  into  prominence  to  add  bitterness  to 
the  relations  between  the  Chinese  Govern- 
ment and  the  British  trading  community. 
Tliis  disturbing  agency  was,  it  may  be  readily 
surmised,  the  opium  trade.  For  a  great 
many  years  tjefore  this  period  the  drug  had 
been  imported  into  China.  There  are  traces 
of  the  traffic  well  back  into  the  eighteenth 
century.    Until    1773   the    trafhc  was  in   the 

hands  of  the  Portuguese  who  annually  im- 
ported 200  chests  from  Goa.  Then  English 
merchants  engaged  in  the  trade  in  a  desultory 
fashion  until  1781,  when  the  East  India 
Company  took  the  sale  of  the  drug  into  their 
own  hands.  Thereafter  the  traffic  developed 
considerably.  Indeed,  the  Chinese  had  be- 
come so  addicted  to  tlie  opium  habit  by  1796 
that  the  Emperor  acting  at  the  instigation 
of  the  Canton  Viceroy,  "  an  upright,  bold 
and  rigid  minister,"  issued  a  strongly  worded 
rescript  expressive   of   his  ''deep   regret   that 

the  vile  dirt  of  foreign  countries  should  be 
received  in  exchange  for  the  commodities  and 
money  of  the  Empire,"  and  expressing  fear 
"  lest  the  practice  of  smoking  opium  should 
prevail  among  all  the  people,  to  the  waste 
of  their  time  and  the  destruction  of  their 
property."  This  denunciation  was  followed  at 
irregular  intervals  by  other  edicts  even  more 
einphatic  in  language.  But  the  trade  increased 
in  spite  of  the  imperial  fulminations.  Their 
only  perceptible  effect  was  to  drive  the 
operations  to  a  certain  extent  underground. 
The  opium  came  in  in  sufiicient  quantity  to 
satisfy  demands,  but  it  came  in  not  as  an 
ordinary  import  but  as  a  contraband  on  which 
a  corrupt  officialdom  levied  a  heavy  toll.  In 
the  first  instance  the  smuggling  transactions 
were  carried  through  at  Macao,  but  the 
rapacity  of  the  Portuguese  drove  the  trade 
to  the  island  of  Liiitin.  There  the  drug  was 
stored  in  armed  ships  and  delivered  to  the 
Chinese  runners  on  written  orders  from  the 
Canton  merchants  to  whom  the  money  for 
the  drug  had  previously  been  paid.  Such 
was  the  perfection  of  the  arrangements  that 
the  trade  was  prosecuted  with  the  utmost 
smoothness,  and  as  the  nineteenth  century 
advanced  it  underwent  a  marvellous  ex- 
pansion. The  following  figures  illustrate  the 
position  as  it  developed  in  the  period  ante- 
cedent to  Lord  Napier's  arrival  : — 

Year.  Chests.  Dollars. 

1 82 1        4,628  average  price  1,325 
1825        9,621       „  „         723 

1830  18,760      „  „         587 

1832  23,670      „  „        648 




1 1,012,120 

(From  Allom  A  Wright's  "China.") 

Thus  in  eleven  years  the  importation  in- 
creased fivefold.  This  enormous  develop- 
ment .ittracted  anew  the  notice  of  the  Chinese 
Government  to  the  habit  which  from  the 
time  of  the  Emperor  Kicnhiiig's  edict  had 
been  fitfully  condemned.  Practical  rather 
than  moral  considerations  probably  influenced 


their  action.  Tlie  payment  for  the  opium 
being  made  in  silver  there  was  a  constant 
and  increasing  drain  upon  the  country's 
resources.  Tlie  position  was  not  so  bad  as 
it  actually  appeared,  because  as  a  set-off  to 
the  opium  traffic  there  had  grown  up  wilh 
it  a  trade  in  tea  of  almost  equal  value.  But 
political  economy  was  and  is  not  a  strong 
point  with  the  Chinese  Mandarins,  and  they 
regarded  the  money  paid  out  at  Canton  for 
opium  and  European  goods  as  a  dead  loss 
to  the  Empire.  The  Government  strove 
furiously  to  repress  a  commerce  which 
touched  them  on  such  a  very  tender  point. 
"  Terrible  laws  and  decrees,"  says  a  well- 
known  writer,  "  were  fulminated  by  the 
Imperial  Court  against  all  smokers,  senders 
or  purchasers  of  opium.  They  were  to  be 
beaten  with  a  hundred  strokes  of  the  bamboo, 
to  stand  in  the  pillory,  and  to  receive  other 
punishments.  But  the  very  persons  charged 
with  the  execution  of  these  laws  were  them- 
selves the  most  habitual  and  inveterate 
infringers  of  them,  and  nearly  every  man  on 
the  sea  coast  was  a  smuggler  of  opium."  An 
Imperial  State  paper  gives  the  oflicial  view 
of  ihe  state  of  affairs  at  this  period  in  some 
interesting  sentences.  "  It  seems,"  said  the 
Emperor,  "  that  opium  is  almost  entirely 
imported  from  abroad  :  worthless  subor- 
dinates in  offices,  and  nefarious  traders  first 
introduced  the  abuse  :  young  persons  of 
family,  wealthy  citizens,  and  merchants 
adopted  the  custom,  until  at  last  it  reached 
the  common  people.  I  have  learnt  on  inquiry, 
from  scholars  and  official  persons,  that  opium 
smokers  exist  in  all  the  provinces,  but  the 
larger  proportion  of  these  are  to  be  found 
in  the  Government  offices :  and  that  it  would 
be  a  fallacy  to  suppose  that  there  are  not 
smokers  among  all  ranks  of  civil  and  military 
officers,  below  the  station  of  provincial 
governors  and  their  deputies.  The  magis- 
trates of  districts  issue  proclamations  inter- 
dicting the  clandestine  sale  of  opium,  at  the 
same  time  that  their  kindred  and  clerks  and 
servants  smoke  it  as  before.  Then  the 
nefarious  traders  make  a  pretext  of  interdict 
for  raising  the  price.  The  police,  influenced 
by  the  people  in  the  public  offices,  become 
the  secret  purchasers  of  opium,  instead  of 
labouring  for  its  suppression  ;  and  thus  all 
interdicts  and  regulations  become  vain."  It 
is  a  striking  picture  that  is  thus  drawn  with 
the  imperial  pen.  But  as  the  writer  already 
quoted  points  out  the  denunciation  might  have 
been  made  far  more  general.  "  The  highest 
mandarin  or  prince  of  the  blood  smoked  his 
opium  pipe,  and  so  did  the  poorest  peasant, 
when  he  could  get  it.  At  Canton  and  all  the 
frequented  seaport  towns  there  were  public 
houses  exclusively  devoted  to  opium  smoking. 
At  Peking,  in  the  very  palace,  the  ladies  of 
the  imperial  harem  and  their  emasculated 
attendants  smoked  opium,  and  would  not  be 
without  it  ;  and  if  the  Emperor  himself  had 
wholly  foregone  the  practice,  which  is  proble- 
matical, he  had  notoriously  been  an  opium 

The  throwing  open  of  the  China  trade  had 
a  marked  effect  in  aggravating  the  controversy 
which  arose  over  the  opium  trade.  Not  only 
was  an  impetus  given  to  the  importation  of 
the  drug,  but  a  sense  of  irresponsibility  in 
regard  to  many  phases  of  the  commerce  was 
developed  which  tended  to  increase  the 
official  irritation.  An  almost  endless  series 
of  "  incidents "  occurred  of  greater  or  less 
importance.  Captain  Elliot,  K.N.,  who  had 
attained  to  the  position  of  Chief  Superinten- 
dent of  British  trade,  did  his  utmost  to 
conciliate  the  Chinese.  By  his  exertions  the 
trade  was  practically  driven  out  of  the 
Canton  River  and  the  smuggling  of  the  drug 

was  made  a  diflicult  and  precarious  business. 
The  Chinese,  however,  were  not  to  be 
placated  by  any  measures,  however  energetic 
or  well  intenlioned.  Their  objection  was 
not  so  much  to  the  opium  trade  as  to  all 
foreign  trade,  and  they  apparently  had  come 
to  the  conclusion  at  the  time  that  they 
would  exclude  it.  Towards  this  end  they 
unceasingly  strove.  No  overt  steps,  however, 
were  taken  by  the  Chinese  authorities  until 
December  12,  1838,  when  preparations  were 
made  for  strangling  a  native  opium  dealer 
in  front  of  the  British  factory.  An  emphatic 
protest  was  made  against  this  outrage  by 
Captain  Elliot,  and  when  the  deed  had  been 
perpetrated  all  the  foreign  flags  were  struck 
as  a  mark  of  tlie  indignation  felt  at  so 
extraordinary  a  proceeding.  It  was  soon 
made  abundantly  clear  that  the  authorities 
were  in  earnest  in  their  determination  to 
push  the  opium  dispute  to  extreme  lengths. 
Early  in  March,  1839,  there  suddenly 
descended  upon  Canton  a  high  imperial 
official  charged  with  extraordinary  powers 
for  the  suppression  of  the  opium  trade.  This 
functionary,  whose  name — Lin — was  subse- 
quently to  become  a  household  word  in  Eng- 
land, announced  himself  by  a  proclamation 
dated  the  i8th  of  March,  as  a  specially  ap- 
pointed Imperial  Commissioner  with  "great 
irresponsible  authority,"  and  as  being  "sworn 
to  stand  or  fall  by  the  opium  question."  On 
the  previous  day  the  hong  merchants  had 
received  an  edict  commanding  them  to  in- 
quire into  the  state  of  the  opium  trade.  The 
manifesto  declared  that  the  utter  annihilation 
of  it  was  his  first  object  and  that,  therefore, 
"  he  had  given  commands  to  the  foreigners 
to  deliver  up  to  Government  all  the  myriad 
chests  of  opium  which  they  had  in  their 
vessels."  The  merchants  were  called  upon 
to  subscribe  to  a  bond  in  the  Chinese  and 
foreign  language  jointly  declaring  that 
thenceforth  "  they  would  never  venture  to 
bring  opium,  and  that  if  any  should  again 
be  brought,  on  discovery  thereof,  the  parties 
concerned  should  immediately  suffer  execu- 
tion of  the  laws  and  the  property  be 
confiscated  to  Government."  These  bonds, 
it  was  intimated,  were  to  be  obtained  by 
the  hong  merchants  and  the  same  reported 
to  tlie  High  Commissioner  within  three  days 
on  penalty  of  death.  On  the  19th  of  March 
the  Hoppo  issued  an  order  to  the  merchants 
directing  them  to  notify  the  foreigners  that 
pending  the  High  Commissioner's  investiga- 
tions they  were  not  at  liberty  to  proceed 
down  the  river  to  Macao  ;  in  other  words, 
that  they  were  prisoners  in  the  factories. 
With  a  view  to  making  the  order  effective, 
a  strong  land  and  water  guard  was  posted 
at  the  factories,  furnished  with  instructions 
to  allow  of  no  egress  from  them.  Captain 
Elliot,  R.N.,  who  was  at  Macao  at  the  time, 
took  a  very  serious  view  of  this  action  on 
the  part  of  the  Chinese  Government.  He 
issued  a  proclamation,  dated  the  22nd  of 
March,  to  the  following  effect : — 

"The  Chief  Superintendent  of  the  trade 
of  British  subjects  in  Canton  having  received 
information  that  Her  Majesty's  subjects  are 
detained  against  their  will  in  Canton,  and 
having  other  urgent  reasons  for  the  with- 
drawal of  all  confidence  in  the  just  and 
moderate  pretensions  of  the  Provincial 
Government,  has  now  to  require  that  all 
the  ships  of  Her  Majesty's  subjects  at  the 
outer  anchorages  should  proceed  forthwith 
to  Hong  Kong  and  hoisting  their  national 
colours  be  prepared  to  resist  any  act  of 
aggression  on  the  part  of  the  Chinese 
Government."  Tlie  next  day  he  issued 
another  proclamation  in  which,  after  referring 
to  the   Chinese   war   preparations    and   "  the 

threatening  language  of  the  High  Commis- 
sioner and  provincial  authorities  of  the  most 
general  application  and  dark  and  violent 
character,"  he  intimated  that  he  should  forth- 
with demand  passports  for  all  such  of  Her 
Majesty's  subjects  as  might  think  fit  to 
proceed  outside  within  the  space  of  ten  days. 
He  counselled  all  Her  Majesty's  subjects  to 
make  immediate  preparations  for  moving 
their  property  on  board  the  ships  Reliance, 
Orwell,  and  George  the  Fourth,  or  other 
British  vessels  at  Whampoa.  Captain  Elliot 
followed  up  his  second  proclamation  by  pro- 
ceeding to  Canton  in  person  with  a  view, 
in  his  own  words,  "  to  put  an  end  to  the 
state  of  difficulty  and  anxiety  then  existent 
by  the  faithful  fulfilment  of  the  Emperor's 
will."  On  arrival  he  respectfully  asked  that 
the  rest  of  the  foreign  community  might  be 
set  at  liberty  in  order  that  he  might  calmly 
consider  and  suggest  adequate  remedies  for 
the  great  evils  so  justly  denounced  by  His 
Imperial  Majesty.  He  was  answered  by  a 
close  imprisonment  of  more  than  seven 
weeks,  with  armed  men  by  day  and  night 
before  his  gates,  under  threats  of  privation  of 
food,  water,  and  life.  "  Was  this,"  he  asked 
in  one  of  his  remonstrances,  "becoming 
treatment  to  the  officer  of  a  friendly  nation 
recognised  by  the  Emperor,  and  who  had 
always  performed  his  duty  peaceably  and 
irreproachably,  striving  in  all  things  to  afford 
satisfaction  to  the  Provincial  Government?" 

Lin  was  not  in  the  least  moved  by  Captain 
Elliot's  earnest  representations.  If  anything, 
he  put  the  screw  on  tighter  when  he  found 
that  his  decrees  were  disregarded.  At  length 
he  caused  not  obscure  threats  to  be  conveyed 
to  the  imprisoned  merchants  that  if  they  did 
not  yield  obedience  to  his  orders  he  would 
cause  them  to  be  put  to  death.  Captain  Elliot 
now  realised  that  if  a  catastrophe  was  to  be 
prevented  the  Commissioner's  demands  must 
be  conceded.  He  therefore  demanded  of  the 
British  merchants  in  the  name  of  the  King 
that  they  should  hand  all  the  opium  in  their 
possession  over  to  the  Imperial  Commis- 
sioner. The  opium  was  at  Hongkong,  Linlin, 
and  other  places  beyond  the  port  limits, 
and  yet  twenty  thousand  chests  were  freely 
surrendered.  Notwithstanding  this  extensive 
acquiescence  in  the  ofiicial  demands,  Lin  was 
not  satisfied.  His  calculation  was  that  the 
importation  should  amount  to  20,283  chests, 
so  that  Captain  Elliot,  in  order  to  meet  him, 
had  to  make  up  the  balance  by  purchases, 
paying  with  bills  drawn  on  tlie  British 
Government.  The  operation  of  collecting  the 
opium  took  several  weeks,  and  in  the  mean- 
time Lin  had  been  in  communication  with 
Peking  as  to  the  disposal  of  his  capture. 
Orders  were  finally  received  from  the 
Emperor  to  this  effect  :  "  Lin  and  his 
colleagues  are  to  assemble  the  civil  and 
military  oliicers  and  destroy  the  opium  before 
their  eyes,  thus  manifesting  to  the  natives 
dwelling  on  the  sea  coast  and  the  foreigners 
of  the  outside  nations  an  awful  warning. 
Respect  this.  Obey  respectfully."  The  opium 
was  destroyed  at  the  rate  of  three  hundred 
chests  a  day  in  an  enclosure  near  the  tem- 
porary residence  of  the  Imperial  Commis- 
sioner. In  the  enclosure  were  three  vats  of 
about  75  by  150  feet,  each  opening  by  sluices 
into  the  river.  The  chests  of  opium,  after 
being  re-weighed  and  broken  up  in  the  pre- 
sence of  high  officers,  were  brought  down  to 
the  vats,  and  the  contents  were  crushed  ball 
by  ball  upon  platforms  and  then  pushed  by  the 
coolies  with  their  feet  into  the  receptacles 
beneath.  When  the  process  was  completed 
the  sluices  were  opened  and  the  muddy  com- 
pound was  emptied  into  the  river.  "  Every 
precaution,"    says    a    writer    who    witnessed 


the  operation,  "seemed  to  be  used  by  the 
officers  to  ensure  the  complete  destruction  of 
the  drug,  the  spot  t>eing  well  guarded,  the 
workmen  ticketed,  &c."  This  view  of  the 
cvMnplcte  destruction  of  the  drug  was  not 
universally  held  at  the  time.  It  was  allirmed 
that  the  whole  of  the  drug  was  not  destroyed, 
that  a  gixidly  portion  of  the  best  quality  was 
withdrawn  and  allimately  disposed  of  to  the 
great  advantage  of  the  horde  of  oAicials 
engaged  in  the  work. 

Captain  Elliot  soon  found  that  the  enor- 
mous sacrifice  which  he  had  made  to  win 
over  the  Chinese  oflicials  was  a  vain  one. 
"The  servants,"  rem.irked  the  British  Super- 
intendent in  an  indignant  remonstrance,  dated 

members  of  the  British  community  had   de- 
cided to  leave  Canton. 

He  added  :  "  The  merchants  and  ships  of 
the  English  nation  proceed  to  Macao  and 
Whampoa,  because  the  gracious  coiniuands 
of  the  Emperor  for  their  protection  aie  set 
at  nought  ;  because  the  truth  is  concealed 
from  His  Imperial  Majesty's  knowledge  ; 
because  theie  is  no  safety  for  a  handful  of 
defenceless  men  in  the  giasp  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  Canton  ;  and  because  it  would 
he  derogatory  from  the  dignity  of  their 
Sovereign  and  nation  to  forget  all  the  insults 
and  wrongs  which  have  been  perpetrated 
till  full  justice  shall  have  been  done,  and 
till    the    whole    trade    intercourse    has    been 

(From  Borj;ets  "Sketches  of  China.") 

•June  21,  1839,  "were  not  faithfully  reslored 
when  one  fourth  of  the  opium  had  been 
delivered  up  ;  the  boats  were  not  permitted 
to  run  when  one  half  had  been  delivered 
up  ;  the  trade  was  not  really  opened  when 
ttiree  fourths  had  l>een  delivered  ;  and  the 
last  pledge,  that  things  should  go  on  as 
usual,  when  the  whole  should  have  been 
delivered,  has  been  falsified  by  the  reduction 
of  the  factories  to  a  prison,  with  one  outlet, 
the  expulsion  of  sixteen  |>ersons,  some  of 
them  who  never  dealt  in  opium  at  all,  some 
clerks  (one  a  lad),  and  the  prf>posing  of  novel 
and  intolerable  regulations,"  and  in  conse- 
quence of  this  faithlessness  and  want  of 
security  for  life,   liberty,    and    property,  the 

placed  upon  a  footing  honourable  and  secure 
to  the  Empire  and  to  England.  That  time 
is  at  hand.  The  gracious  Sovereign  of  the 
English  nation  will  can^^e  the  trulh  to  be 
made  known  to  the  wise  and  august  prince 
on  the  throne  of  this  Empire,  and  all  things 
will  be  adjusted  agreeably  to  ihe  principles 
of  the  purest  reason."  The  trade  was 
accordingly  stopped.  The  British  merchants 
repaired  in  the  first  instance  to  Macao,  but 
on  a  dispute  occurring  near  Hongkong 
between  some  English  and  American  sailors 
and  the  Chinese,  in  which  one  of  the  latter 
was  killed,  an  attempt  was  made  by  the 
Chinese  authorities  to  coinpel  the  surrender 
of    the     seamen     concerned     in     the     affair. 

Upon  this  Captain  Elliot  gave  orders  for  the 
removal  of  the  entire  fleet  to  Hongkong,  the 
splendid  harbour  of  which  had  in  years 
immediately  preceding  been  frequently  used 
by  British  vessels.  When  Lin  heard  of  this 
move  he  issued  furious  edicts  prohibiting  all 
intercourse  with  the  audacious  traders  and 
their  "  barbarian  eye."  As  these  did  not 
appear  to  intimidate  the  British  communily, 
he  took  overt  measures  to  assert  the  out- 
raged Chinese  authority.  Furious  proclama- 
tions were  issued  calling  all  loyal  Chinese  to 
assemble  and  wage  a  war  of  extermination 
against  "  the  red-bristled  foreigners."  A  ship 
supposed  to  be  British,  but  actually  Spanish, 
was  on  September  12,  1839,  seized  and 
confiscated.  Meanwhile,  preparations  were 
made  for  lauiicliing  against  the  British  all 
the  naval  might  of  this  port  of  tlie  Chinese 
Empire  as  represented  by  a  considerable 
fleet  of  war  junks.  The  bolt  was  sliot  on 
the  3rd  of  November  when  Admiral  Kwan 
sailed  through  the  Bogue  Passage  to  attack 
the  Britisli  frigates  Voltific  and  Hyaciulh 
which  were  cruising  about  the  entrance 
of  the  rivei'.  It  was  a  very  unequal  combat 
that  ensued.  With  the  greatest  ease  the 
two  war  vessels  witli  their  well-manned 
modern  guns  beat  off  the  Chinese  squadron. 
One  of  the  junks  was  blown  up,  tliree 
were  sunk,  and  the  rest  sailed  away 
badly  maimed.  The  engagement  caused  the 
greatest  consternation  in  Canton,  where  a 
confident  expectation  had  been  entertained 
of  a  brilliant  and  easy  victory  over  Ihe  bar- 
barians. So  serious  was  the  blow  that  Lin 
did  not  dare  to  send  a  true  report  of 
the  episode  to  his  imperial  master.  The 
Emperor  was  led  to  suppose  that  the 
Chinese  had  won  a  great  triumph,  and 
acting  on  this  belief,  he  bestowed  a  titular 
distinction  upon  Admiral  Kwan.  The  truth 
leaked  out  afterwards,  but  the  honour  was 
not  withdrawn  as  Admiral  Kwan  was  a 
valuable  servant  and  his  imperial  master 
was  loth  to  part  with  him.  Possibly  he  also 
had  hopes,  with  Admiral  Kwan's  assistance, 
of  being  able  to  retrieve  the  disaster  of  the 
3rd  of  Noveinber.  Whether  that  was  the 
case  or  not,  the  early  months  of  1840  were 
utilised  by  the  Chinese  in  making  great  pre- 
parations for  a  renewal  of  the  combat. 
Meanwhile,  the  Britisli  had  not  been  idle. 
In  view  of  the  serious  turn  that  events  had 
taken,  a  considerable  armament  under  Sir 
Gordon  Bremer  was  despatclied  from  India 
to  reinforce  the  squadron  already  at  Hong- 
kong. The  Ciiinese  authorities,  greatly 
alarmed  at  the  strengthening  of  the  British 
forces,  decided  to  strike  a  bold  blow  for 
victory.  They  sent  against  the  intruding 
vessels  a  great  number  of  fire  ships  with  the 
intention  of  destroying  them  utterly  by  this 
means.  This  coitp  was  even  less  successful 
than  Admiral  Kwan's  ill-starred  attack.  Most 
of  the  fireships  exploded  prematurely,  and 
those  which  did  not  were  easily  sunken 
before  they  could  do  any  damage. 

TWP:NTIETH  century  impressions  of  HONGKONG,  SHANGHAI,  ETC.       49 


The  First  Chinese  War — Expeditionary  Force  under  Sir  Gordon  Bremer  occupies  Chusan — Operations  in  the 
Canton  River — Sir  Hugh  Cough  assumes  Command — Submission  of  the  Chinese — Temporary  Resumption  of 
Trade — Renewed  Outbreak  of  Hostilities — Canton  at  the  Mercy  of  the  Expeditionary  Force — Arrangement  of 
Terms  with  the  Chinese — Arrival  of  Sir  Henry  Pottinger  as  Sole  Plenipotentiary — Continuance  of  the  War- 
Occupation  of    Amoy — Attacks  on  Chinhai  and  Ningpo — Attack  on  Shanghai — Expedition  in  the  Yangtse  Valley 

— Conclusion   of    Peace — The  Treaty    of    Nanking. 

It  had  now  become  perfeclly  clear  that  the 
situation  had  got  beyond  the  reach  of 
diplomatic  action.  To  the  force  used  by  the 
Chinese  force  must  be  opposed  if  British 
prestige  was  not  to  be  irretrievably  com- 
promised. In  the  Queen's  speech  at  the 
opening  of  the  Parliamentary  Session  in  1840 
reference  was  made  to  the  strained  character 
of  the  relations  between  the  British  and  the 
Chinese  in  the  Far  East,  and  later  it  was 
known  that  an  expedition  was  in  preparation, 
as  Lord  John  Russell  explained  on  tjehalf  of 
the  Government,  to  obtain  reparation  for 
insults  and  injuries  offered  to  British  subjects, 
to  secure  for  British  merchants  in  China 
indemnification  for  the  loss  of  their  property 
incurred  by  threats  of  violence,  and  "  to 
obtain  a  certain  security  that  persons  and 
property  in  future  trading  with  China  shall 
be  protected  from  insult  or  injury  and  that 
their  trade  and  commerce  be  maintained 
upon  a  proper  footing."  The  expeditionary 
force,  whicli  was  mainly  drawn  from  India, 
consisted  of  fifteen  ships  of  war,  four  steam 
vessels,  and  twenly-five  transports  with  four 
thousand  troops  on  board,  tjnder  the  com- 
mand of  Sir  Gordon  Bremer  it  arrived  off 
the  mouth  of  the  Canton  River  in  June,  1840. 
Lin,  so  far  from  being  intimidated  by  this 
display  of  power,  was  only  stimulated  by  it 
to  more  outrageous  acts.  He  issued  edicts 
offering  rewards  proportioned  to  the  rank  of 
the  victims  for  the  killing  or  capture  of 
individual  Britishers,  and  holding  out  tempt- 
ing promises  to  those  who  would  prove  bold 
enough  to  seize  a  ship.  Inspired  by  the 
proclamations,  some  of  the  more  daring 
Chinese  did  capture  a  number  of  British 
subjects,  who  were  handed  over  to  the 
authorities  and  carted  about  the  country  in 
cages  as  proofs  of  the  valour  of  the  all- 
conquering  Chinese.  Amongst  the  number 
of  these  unfortunates  was  a  female  who  it 
was  at  first  proposed  should  be  dressed  up 
in  rich  clothes  and  represented  as  a  sister 
of  the  late  Queen  Victoria.  This  design  was 
not  carried  out  as  it  was  thought  that  even 
the  confiding  Chinese  would  not  accept  quite 
such  an  audacious  lie,  but  the  wretched 
woman  nevertheless  was  subjected  to  the 
indignity  of  public  exposure  in  a  cage  on 
the  ground  of  her  influential  status. 

Sir  Gordon  Bremer  instead  of  carrying  the 
war  directly  into  the  enemies'  country — the 
particular  enemy  of  the  moment  being  Lin 
installed  in  arrogant  plenitude  of  power  at 
Canton — went  with  his  expeditionary  force 
northwards  to  the  beautiful  island  of  Chusan, 
which  he  occupied  without  difficulty  on  the  5th 
of  July.  The  island  made  an  admirable  depot 
for  the  British  force,  and  from  this  point  of 
view  there  was  no  doubt  a  great  deal  to  be 
said  for  its  occupation.  But  the  need  of  the 
moment  was  for  vigorous  action  in  the 
vicinity  of  Canton,  and  tlie  fact  that  such  was 
not  undertaken  led  to  misconception  on  the 
part  of  the  Chinese  and  undoubtedly  stiffened 

their  opposition  to  all  demands.  The  idea  of 
Sir  Gordon  Bremer  seems  to  have  been  to 
open  up  communication  with  the  aulliorities 
at  Peking  at  the  earliest  possible  moment, 
the  assumption  being  that  if  this  could  be 
done  a  settlement  might  be  made  over  Lin's 
head.  In  furtherance  of  this  idea  Her 
Majesty's    ship    Blonde    was    despatched    to 

October  the  fleet  was  back  at  Chusan.  While 
the  bulk  of  the  force  had  been  engaged  in 
this  barren  attempt  to  force  the  front  door 
of  the  Chinese  Empire,  another  section  of 
the  fleet  had  been  carrying  on  active  hos- 
tilities against  the  Chinese  forces  encamped 
outside  Macao.  The  trouble  arose  owing  to 
the   capture   and   removal   to   Canton   of   Mr. 

(l''roni  Allom  &  Wright's  "Chin;i.") 

Amoy,  but  on  a  boat  being  sent  ashore  with 
a  flag  of  truce  it  was  fired  on  by  the  Chinese 
and  the  inmates  narrowly  escaped  dealh.  A 
similar  contretemps  attended  a  further  effort 
to  open  communications  at  Ningpo.  Nor 
did  a  better  fate  attend  an  elaborately 
prepared  effort,  conducted  uirder  the  cover 
of  an  imposing  naval  force,  to  open  up  nego- 
tiations t^y  way  of  the  Peiho  River.  The 
squadron  arrived  off  Taku  on  the  gth  of 
August,  and  Captain  Elliot  proceeded  by 
steamer  to  Tientsin.  There  he  entered  into 
negotiation  with  Keshen,  the  Viceroy  of  the 
province,  who  had  just  been  appointed 
Imperial  High  Commissioner.  Keshen  was 
a  wily  diplomat,  who  proved  more  than  a 
match  for  the  straightforward  and  too 
confiding  British  official  by  whom  he  was 
confronted.  The  great  object  of  the  Chinese 
was  to  get  the  British  fleet  out  of  the  Peiho 
at  all  cost.  To  this  end  Keshen  beguiled 
Captain  Elliot  with  visions  of  a  possible 
settlement  if  only  the  negotiations  were 
directed  from  Canton.  The  British  nego- 
tiator  fell   into   the  trap,  and  by  the  end  of 

Vincent  Stanton,  a  British  subject.  As  no 
reply  was  made  to  repeated  demands  for 
the  release  of  this  gentleman,  it  was  decided 
to  attack  the  Chinese  camp.  The  business  was 
carried  through  in  a  workmanlike  manner  by 
Her  Majesty's  ships  Hyaciiilli  atid  I.artie. 
After  a  destructive  bomtiardment  of  the  forts 
and  war  junks,  a  force  of  four  hundred 
l>luejackets  was  landed  and  the  camp  was 
rushed.  There  were  very  few  casualties  on 
the  British  side,  and  the  Chinese  fled  too 
precipitately  to  lose  heavily.  There  was, 
iiowever,  a  considerable  capture  of  guns  and 
the  demolished  forts  constituted  a  satisfactory 
outward  and  visible  sign  of  British  prowess. 

The  return  of  the  fleet  southward  was 
followed  by  a  period  of  inaction.  Lin  had 
fallen  under  the  imperial  ban  and  been 
replaced  by  Keshen  at  Canton,  and  Mr. 
Vincent  Stanton  had  been  released,  but  other- 
wise the  position  was  unchanged.  All 
attempts  made  to  secure  an  arrangement 
proved  abortive.  Keshen  substituted  for  the 
truculence  of  Lin  an  evasiveness  which  was 
about   as   irritating,   and   as   far   as   the    end 


icMjght— the   disconifitinK    of    the  barbarian—  foreign   factories  and   Fort    Napier.      A   pro- 

quite    as    effecti\-e.      The     patience    of    the  clamation  was  issued  on  the  6th  of  March  to 

British    representatives    was    at     length     ex-  the  people  of  Canton  promising  to  spare  the 

hansted.      Towards  the  end  of   1S40   it   was  city  from  bombardment  if  the  Chinese  authori- 

recognised   that   the  only   way   to   bring  the  ties  refrained  from  offering  opposition  to  the 

(From  Allom  &  WriiJht's  "China.") 

Chinese  to  reason  was  to  give  a  practical 
demonstration  of  British  power  in  a  quarter 
where  the  weight  of  the  blow  would  be 
felt.  On  January  7,  1841,  operations  were 
opened  by  an  attack  on  the  Bogue  (oris.  The 
outer  forts  of  Chuenpee  and  Tae-cok-tow 
were  reduced  without  difficulty,  and  the  rest 
would  have  followed  had  not  Captain  Elliot, 
with  strange  disregard  of  the  teachings  of 
Chinese  warfare,  accepted  overtures  for  a 
truce.  The  cessation  of  hostilities  was 
followed  by  numerous  excesses  on  the  part 
of  the  Chinese.  Edicts  were  issued  by  the 
Canton  authorities  putting  a  price  upon  the 
txKiies  of  Englishmen  dead  or  alive  ;  generally 
it  was  made  manifest  that  peaceful  measures 
would  not  meet  the  exigencies  of  the  situation. 
The  British  held  their  hand  until  an  oppor- 
tunity had  been  afforded  for  the  Chinese  to 
ratify  the  conditions  of  peace  which  Keshen 
had  provisionally  accepted  ;  and  which  in- 
cluded a  large  indemnity,  the  cession  of 
Hongkong,  and  direct  official  intercourse  be- 
tween the  two  Governments.  But  when  it 
became  evident  that  there  was  no  intention 
on  the  part  of  the  Chinese  Government  to 
confirm  the  arrangement,  the  attack  on  the 
Bogue  forts  was  resumed.  On  the  26th  of 
February  the  ass;iult  was  commenced,  and  by 
the  1st  of  March  the  whole  of  the  forts  were 
in  our  hands.  Admiral  Kwan  and  a  host  of 
Chinese  fell  in  the  bombardment  and  the 
satisequent  assault,  and  a  vast  quantity  of 
guns  and  war  munitions  weie  captured.  The 
British  losses  were  trivial  owing  to  the 
excellent  dispositions  made  and  the  cowardice 
displayed  by  the  Chinese  garrison.  On  the  2nd 
of  March  Sir  Hugh  (afterwards  Ixird)  Gough, 
who  had  been  sent  out  from  England  to  take. 
over  the  command  of  the  land  force?,  arrived. 
At  this  time  Canton  was  practically  at  Ihe 
mercy  of  Ihe  British  fleet,  but  yielding  to  the 
urgent  entreaties  of  Ihe  lfjc;il  officials  hostilities 
were  suspended,  the  British  commander  con- 
tenting himself   with    the  occupation   of    Ihe 

invading  force.  Meanwhile,  a  decree  arrived 
from  the  Emperor  ordering  Keshen's  return 
to  Peking  to  suffer  Ihe  extreme  penalty  of  the 
law.  He  was  subsequently  tried  and  con- 
demned to  h,  but  by  an  act  of  special 
favour  the   sentence   was   commuted,  and  he 

leading  local  officials  to  Captain  Elliot 
appeared  to  offer  a  hope  of  an  .inielioration 
of  the  diplomatic  situation.  Hut  it  soon  be- 
came evident  that  the  successes  of  the  British, 
so  far  from  bringing  conviclion  of  the 
necessity  of  the  acceptance  of  the  demands 
made  had  only  increased  the  Emperor  Taouk- 
wang's  determination  to  drive  the  hated 
foreigner  out  of  his  dominions.  The  ofticials 
who  had  waited  on  Captain  Elliot  acted,  it 
was  found,  without  any  authority  whatever 
from  Peking.  The  real  power  was  vested 
in  three  commissioners  and  a  governor 
who  had  been  specially  cliarged  by  the 
Emperor  to  inquire  into  the  position  of  affairs 
more  with  a  view  to  the  concocting  of 
measures  for  the  driving  out  of  the  liiitish 
than  the  satisfaction  of  their  claims.  It  was 
not  long  before  the  British  discovered  the 
true  position  of  affairs.  Their  suspicions 
were  aroused  when  they  found  that  the  new 
commissioners  held  studiously  aloof  from 
them  ;  and  as  Ihe  days  wore  on  they  had 
reason  for  serious  apprehensions  in  the  fact 
that  ominous  preparations  were  being  made 
all  round  them  obviously  with  the  design  of 
re-commencing  hostilities.  Captain  Elliot's 
eyes  were  completely  opened  on  the  nth  of 
May  when  he  paid  what  was  intended  to  be 
a  friendly  visit  to  the  forefeet  of  Canton. 
His  discourteous  reception  on  that  occasion, 
and  the  evidences  wliich  confronted  him  on  all 
sides  of  military  arrangements,  so  impressed 
him  that  he  proceeded  forthwith  to  Hongkong 
to  concert  measures  with  Sir  Hugh  Gougli  to 
meet  the  crisis  which  he  felt  certain  was 
impending.  The  storm  burst  on  the  night 
of  May  2 1st,  When  darkness  had  set  in 
batteries  which  had  been  erected  on  the  river 
banks  by  the  Chinese  opened  fire  on  the 
factories  and  the  ships,  and  simultaneously 
fire  rafts  were  sent  in  amongst  the  latter 
with  the  hope  and  intention  of  destroying 
them.  The  British,  who  were  prepared  for 
attack,   had    no    difticulty   in    frustrating    the 

(Krom  Allom  &  W 

was  banished    to   Tibet,   where    he   resumed 
his  official  career  as  resident  at  Lhassa. 

Commercial  relations  were  now  resumed 
at  Canton  with  eagerness  on  both  sides, 
and     some     visits     of     ceremony     paid     by 

'rijjhl's  "Cliiiia.") 

designs  of  the  enemy.  One  ship — the  Nemesis 
— burned  upwards  of  sixty  of  the  fire  rafts, 
and  some  smaller  war  vessels  effectually 
disposed  of  the  batteries.  All  the  available 
troops  were  now  called  up  from   Hongkong, 


and  on  Ihcir  anival  at  Canton  on  the  24tli 
of  May  operations  ajjainst  the  city  commenced 
in  earnest.  The  landinj;  of  the  troops  from 
Ihe  transports  took  place  on  the  evening  of 
that  day,  and  it  says  much  for  the  military 
incapacity  of  the  Chinese  that  2,500  men 
were  conveyed  to  the  shore  in  absolute 
safety.  On  the  25th  of  May  the  force  moved 
out  in  two  columns  on  the  positions  which 
the  Chinese  had  taken  up  on  the  hills  above 
the  city.  The  troops  were  subjected  to  a 
galling  fire  from  the  walls  of  the  cily  as 
Ihey  marched  forward,  but  they  kept  steadily 
on,  their  advance  being  covered  by  Ihe 
artillery.  When  the  British  came  within 
about   rifle  range  of   Ihe   four   principal   forts 

GOUGH,    K.P.,    G.O.B. 

(From  a  print  in  the  Britisli  Museum.) 

which  were  the  special  object  of  attack  the 
Chinese  evacuated  a  greater  part  of  the 
position.  Only  in  one  fort  was  anything 
like  a  fight  made,  and  there  the  resistance 
was  easily  overcome  when  the  British  tars 
to  whom  the  capture  of  the  fort  was  entrusted 
came  to  close  quarters  with  the  defenders. 
After  the  occupation  of  the  inain  defences, 
Sir  Hugh  Gough,  who  personally  superin- 
tended Ihe  operations,  gave  his  attention  to 
the  outlying  positions.  These  were  soon  in 
our  possession,  and  when  night  fell  the  battle 
was  coinplctely  won,  the  British  losses 
amounting  only  to  seventy  killed  and  wounded. 
Canton  was  now  coinplelely  at  Ihe  mercy  of 
the  British,  and  inilitary  policy  as  well  as 
political  expediency  suggested  Ihe  advis- 
ability of  bombardment  as  a  ineans  of 
bringing  the  Chinese  Government  to  reason 
as  well  as  of  conveying  a  lesson  to  Ihe  local 
officials  that  treachery  did  not  pay.  But  on 
Ihe  inorning  of  the  27th  of  May  just  as  the 
gunners  stood  with  their  guns  loaded  and 
primed  ready  for  firing  the  shots  which 
would  seal  the  doom  of  the  city,  a  special 
messenger  arrived  from  Captain  Elliot  with 
Ihe  intimation  that  he  had  come  to  terms  with 
Ihe  eneiny.  The  conditions  that  he  had  made 
were  that  the  imperial  coimnissioners  and 
all  the  troops  should  within  six  days  with- 
draw to  a  position  not  less  than  60  miles 
from  the  cily,  and  that  an  indemnity  of  six 
million  dollars  should  be  paid  "  for  the  use 
of  Ihe  English  Crown."  Strong  dissatisfaction 
was  expressed  by  the  military  at  this  arrange- 
ment, which  they  regarded  as  affording 
another    example    of    Captain    B-lliot's    inca- 

pacity to  deal  with  the  Chinese  in  the 
manner  which  their  peculiar  characteristics 
demanded.  But  the  bombardment  would 
have  been  a  terrible  business  and  would  have 
resulted  in  immense  loss  to  the  very  classes 
of  Chinese  who  were  most  friendly  to 
foreigners.  In  the  circumstances  the  decision 
arrived  at  had  many  supporters  at  Ihe  time  and 
it  was  even  justified  on  military  grounds,  Ihe 
smallness  of  the  British  force  being  urged  as  a 
sound  reason  for  not  perpetrating  an  act  which 
would  have  given  the  whole  country  over  to 
anarchy.  As  things  were.  Canton  during 
this  period  was  Ihe  scene  of  the  inost  ferocious 
conflicts  between  Ihe  citizens  and  the  lawless 
soldiery  from  outside,  who  occupied  them- 
selves after  the  fighting  in  which  they  had 
played  so  poor  a  part  in  plundering  their 
fellow  countrymen.  It  was  stated  that  in  one 
conflict  alone  between  the  factions  over  a 
thousand  lives  were  lost.  Wise  or  unwise, 
the  arrangement  met  with  prompt  ratifica- 
tion at  the  hands  of  the  Chinese.  Within 
four  days  five  millions  of  the  indemnity  was 
paid,  and  though  Sir  Hugh  Gough  had  to 
resort  to  a  threat  of  bombardment  to  secure 
the  withdrawal  of  the  troops  as  stipulated, 
Ihe  entire  conditions  were  ultimately  satis- 
factorily fulfilled,  and  Ihe  British  forces  were 
withdrawn.  The  generosity  shown  to  Ihe 
C.mtonese  was  ill  requited  by  tliese  turbulent 
and  fanatical  people.  After  the  departure  of 
the  troops  there  were  repeated  outrages  on 
foreigners  traceable  to  sheer  vindictiveness. 
Though  business  was  resuined  it  was  con- 
ducted as  it  were  under  the  shadow  of  the 
sword.  In  point  of  fact  no  one  regarded 
the  Canton  Convention  as  anything  more 
than  a  temporary  provision — a  truce  and  not 
a  peace. 

A  new  turn  was  given  to  affairs  by  the 
arrival  in  the  Macao  Roads  on  August  10, 
1841,  of  Sir  Henry  Potlinger,  armed  with 
full  powers  as  sole  Plenipotentiary  to  the 
Court  of  Peking.  This  officer  found  on 
his  ai  rival  increasing  dissatisfaction  at  the 
conduct  of  the  Chinese.  Insulting  edicts 
continued  to  be  issued,  there  was  gross  ill- 
treatment  of  a  number  of  prisoners  who  were 
still  retained  in  Ihe  hands  of  Ihe  Mandarins, 
and  tile  authorities,  in  defiance  of  the  con- 
vention,  were    busily  engaged   in    re-erecting 

the  river  defences.  Sir  Henry  Potlinger  was 
not  the  man  to  allow  a  situation  to  be  com- 
promised by  lack  of  energy.  He  had  had 
long  training  in  Oriental  methods  in  that 
best   of  all   schools — the   Indian   Govenunent 


(From  .1  print  in  tlie  British  Museum.) 

— and  he  knew  that  decisiveness  was  an 
indispensable  quality  in  dealing  with  Easterns. 
His  first  step,  after  he  had  made  himself 
acquainted  with  Ihe  position,  was  to  give  a 
clear  intimation  to  Ihe  Chinese  authorities 
that  they  inust  either  accede  to  Ihe  British 
demands  or  take  Ihe  consequences.  The 
requireinenis  he  made  were  that  Ihe  opium 
destroyed  by  Lin  should  be  paid  for,  and 
that  certain  ports  in  addition  to  Canton 
should  be  opened  to  British  trade.  To  enforce 
his  demands  he  despatched  an  expedition  to 
Amoy,  Ihe  famous  trade  centre  which  figures 


(From  an  eiij*ravinj^.) 


aa  conspicuously  in  Ihe  earlier  chapters  of 
this  work.  The  squadron  detailed  for  this 
work  arrived  off  the  port  on  Aujjust  2bH\. 
Immediately  after  they  had  drop|->cd  anchor 
a  boat    cainc    from    shore    with    an   inquiry 

on  the  summit  of  which  is  the  citadel,  a 
highly  imix)rtant  defensive  position,  sur- 
rounded by  a  strong  wall  supplied  with 
massive  gates.  On  two  sides  the  citadel  is 
inaccessible  excepting  at  one   point  where  a 


(From  Allcm  & 

from  the  leading  ^fandarin  as  fo  the  reason 
for  the  visit  of  so  many  ships,  and  a  request 
that  the  cxjmmander  should  specify  the  com- 
modities he  wanted.  The  childlike  curiosity 
of  the  functionary  was  satisfied  with  a  verbal 
statement  to  the  effect  that  Ihe  fleet  had  not 
come  to  trade ;  while  Sir  Henry  Pottinger, 
in  a  letter  addressed  to  the  chief  military 
officer  o(  the  province,  explained  that,  differ- 
ences having  arisen  between  Great  Britain 
and  China,  it  was  essential  that  he  should 
have  possession  of  the  town,  and  requesting 
its  surrender  to  avoid  bloodshed.  No  direct 
response  was  made  to  Ihe  letler,  but  that  the 
Chinese  officials  appreciated  the  character  of 
the  crisis  that  had  arisen  was  shown  by  the 
energetic  efforts  they  made  to  fortify  every 
available  position.  Finding  that  the  Chinese 
meant  to  light,  the  British  Commander  drew 
his  ships  up  in  battle  array  and  proceeded  to 
the  attack.  The  repeated  broadsides  from  the 
ships  made  little  impression  upon  the  stone 
wall  defences  which  the  Chinese  had  raised, 
but  a  landing  force  consisting  of  about  twelve 
hundred  troops  soon  put  the  defenders  to  rout. 
Many  of  them  were  killed  in  their  flight, 
and  not  a  few  officers,  overwhelmed  with  the 
disgrace  of  defeat,  committed  suicide.  The 
town  was  entered  by  our  troops,  but  was  not 
occupied  for  more  than  a  few  days.  At  the 
expiration  of  that  lime  the  occupying  force 
was  withdrawn,  and  after  posting  a  garrison 
at  Kulungsu,  a  small  r(x.-ky  island  forming 
part  of  the  fortifications  of  the  port.  Sir 
William  Parker,  the  British  commander,  took 
his  fleet  to  Chusan,  which  was  re-<x:cupied 
after  a  brief  struggle.  The  next  point  selected 
for  attack  was  Chinhai,  a  large  and  opulent 
citv  at  the  mouth  of  the  Ningpo  River. 
Thither  Sir  Hugh  Gough  and  Sir  William 
Parker,  the  joint  commanders,  proceeded, 
together  with  Sir  Henry  Pottinger,  who  was 
ready  to  take  up  the  diplomatic  threads  as 
soon  as  Ihe  opportunity  offered.  The  town 
occupies  a  position  at  Ihe  foot  of  a  lofty  hill, 


Wi-iuhfs  ■■  Chin.!.") 

narrow  path  winds  from  Ihe  >ea,  which 
skirts  the  base  of  the  hill.  The  town  itself 
is  encircled  by  a  wall  about  37  feet  in  thick- 
ness. It  was  a  posilion  of  immense  strength, 
and  defended  by  good  troops  would  have 
been  well-iiigh  impregnable.  When  the 
British  expedition  reached  Ihe  town  it  found 
every  prominent  point  occupied  by  batteries 
and  the  surrounding  hills  covered  with 
military  encampments.  Profiling  by  Ihe 
experience  at  Amoy,  the  British  commanders 
decided  not  to  waste  any  time  on  a  prelimi- 
nary bombardment.     On  the  morning  of  the 

loth  of  October  two  thousand  men  with 
twelve  field  pieces  and  mortars  were  landed 
to  attack  the  citadel  and  cntreiiclied  camp. 
Sir  Hugh  Gou.yh  without  loss  of  time 
divided  his  little  force  into  three  columns, 
and,  assuming  ihe  couunaiid  of  the  centre 
column,  ordered  the  advance.  The  two  Hank 
columns,  owing  to  the  irregularities  of  the 
ground,  went  forward  unobserved  from  the 
citadel,  and  the  garrison,  thinking  they  only 
had  to  deal  witli  the  small  centre  colunni, 
went  out  boldly  to  meet  them.  Before  the 
engagement  had  barely  commenced  the  Hank 
columns  opened  Hre.  So  unexpected  was  the 
attack  that  the  Chinese  broke  and  lied  in  all 
direclions.  In  their  fliyht  hundreds  were 
shot  and  bayoneted  and  lunidreds  of  olhers 
were  drowned.  To  save  useless  slaughter, 
Sir  Hugh  Gough  sent  out  a  Hag  with  an 
inscription  in  Chinese  informing  the  routed 
troops  that  their  lives  would  be  spared  if 
they  yielded,  but  not  more  than  live  hundred 
availed  themselves  of  the  offer.  Altogether 
not  fewer  than  fifteen  hundred  of  the 
Chinese  fell  in  this  one-sided  engagement. 
While  this  land  encounter  was  proceeding 
Ihe  ships  were  engaged  in  bombarding  the 
town  defences  on  the  sea  side  and  driving 
the  soldieis  out  of  the  town.  The  effect 
of  the  combined  operations  was  to  convince 
the  Chinese  commander,  Yukien,  that  the 
day  was  lost.  In  his  despair  he  attempted 
to  drown  himself,  and,  foiled  in  this  effort, 
he  fled  to  the  country,  where  he  terminated 
his  existence  in  another  manner.  His 
determination  not  to  survive  his  discom- 
fiture was  in  keeping  with  high  Chinese 
traditions,  which  regard  suicide  as  a  legitimate 
means  of  escape  from  the  dishonour  of  defeat. 
It  is  not  improbable,  liowever,  that  a  fear  of 
falling  into  the  hands  of  Ihe  British  had 
some  influence  in  bringing  about  his  decision, 
for  he  had  put  himself  beyond  the  pale  by 
his  ferocious  brutality  towards  two  foreign 
pri-soners  who  by  his  orders  had  been  done 
to  death,  one  by  Haying  and  the  other  by 
burning  alive. 

As  soon  as  the  occupation  of  Chinhai  had 
been  made  effective,  the  British  connnaiiders 
turned  their  attention  towards  Ningpo,  a 
city  of  great  counnercial  importance  12  miles 
away.       The    place    fell     williout    opposition. 


2l  A 


W:...^  ,^ 




['  -^,^SM 

(From  Allom  &  Wright's  "China.") 


Indeed,  the  inhabitants  were  so  anxious  to 
avoid  giving  offence  that  they  helped  the 
British  soldiers  to  scale  the  walls,  and  when 
the  troops  entered  the  streets  they  found 
painted  on  the  doors  of  the  houses  the  words 
Slinii  mill,  meaning  "submissive  people." 
Ningpo  offered  such  advantages  that  Sir 
Hugli  Gough  determined  to  occupy  it  as  the 
winter  quarters  of  his  troops.  The  people 
continued  to  be  friendly  and  there  was  no 
difficulty  in  obtaining  supplies  for  the  large 
and  ever  increasing  British  force.  But  that 
the  townsmen  were  not  quite  happy  in  the 
presence  of  their  foreign  visitors  was  shown 
by  a  paper  which  one  day  was  thrown  over 
the  wall  addressed  to  the  British.  This 
document  adduced  many  arguments  to  show 
how  much  belter  it  would  be  for  the  invaders 
if  they  would  only  return  home,  and  wound 
up  with  this  curious  appeal  :  "  You  have  been 
away  from  your  country  long  enough  ;  your 
mothers  and  sisters  must  be  longing  for 
your  return.  Go  back  to  your  families,  for 
we  do  not  want  you  here." 

The  successive  British  victories  ought  to 
have  convinced  the  Emperor  that  the  lime 
had  come  for  concessions,  but  Taoukwang's 
obsti[iate  determination  to  rid  his  country  of 
the  detested  foreigner  was  unshaken.  At 
his  command  extensive  preparations  were 
made  all  over  the  empire  for  a  renewal  of 
the  struggle.  Meanwhile,  fresh  edicts  were 
issued  calling  for  the  extermination  of  the 
barbarians.  In  March,  1842,  desperate  efforts 
were  made  to  recover  Chinhai  and  Ningpo. 
The  attacks  were  repulsed,  but  the  Chinese 
forces  only  retired  to  establish  themselves  at 
a  point  about  Ii  miles  out  of  Ningpo, 
from  which  they  endeavoured  to  cut  off  the 
supplies  to  the  British  forces.  Their  encamp- 
ment was  promptly  attacked  and  the  imperial 
forces  were  put  to  flight  with  the  loss  of  six 
hundred  of  their  number.  At  about  this  time 
heavy  reinforcements  of  the  British  forces 
arrived  from  India.  Lord  Ellenborough,  the 
new  Governor-General,  sent  with  them  fresh 
instructions  which,  subsequently  adopted,  had 
a  marked  effect  on  the  course  of  events. 
Lord  Ellenborough's  view  was  that  attacks 
of  positions  along  the  coast  were  by  them- 
selves of  little  use,  and  that  if  the  Chinese 
authorities  were  to  be  brought  to  reason  the 
operations  must  be  extended  to  the  interior. 
The  Yangtse-Kiang,  one  of  the  noblest  of  the 
world's  great  rivers,  suggested  the  direction 
in  which  the  British  forces  should  carry 
anew  the  fiame  of  war.  Evacuating  the 
positions  at  Ningpo  and  Chinhai  the  expedi- 
tionary force,  on  the  7th  of  May,  sailed 
northwards.  The  plan  of  campaign  was  to 
proceed  to  Nanking  and  capture  that  city  as 
a  prelude  to  an  advance  on  Peking,  in  the 
event  of  the  Emperor  declining  to  come  to 
terms.  Before,  however,  the  objective  could 
be  reached  it  was  necessary  to  reduce  several 
places  cii  route.  The  first  of  these  was 
bhapoo,  the  authorised  port  and  landing-place 
for  vessels  coming  from  Japan.  Extensive 
measures  of  defence  had  been  taken  here, 
and  it  seemed  that  the  struggle  would  be  a 
severe  one,  but  under  Sir  Hugh  Gough's 
able  direction  a  landing  force  of  two 
thousand  men  made  a  completely  successful 
attack  on  the  defending  force,  driving  them 
from  their  positions  and  scattering  them  in 
all  directions.  One  body  of  desperate  men, 
three  hundred  in  number,  took  refuge  in  a 
temple,  and  under  the  mistaken  idea  that 
they  would  be  given  no  quarter  if  they  sur- 
rendered fought  determinedly  until  they  had 
all  been  killed  but  forty.  This  remnant  of 
the  gallant  b.ind  finally  surrendered,  and 
after  a  period  of  detention  were  sent  home 
to   their   families.     In   the  town,   the  women 

of  the  men  who  were  killed  in  the  temple, 
fearing  that  if  caught  they  would  be  subjected 
to  a  life  of  perpetual  slavery,  threw  their 
infants  into  the  tanks  and  wells  and  jumped 
in  after  them.  Many  of  the  poor  creatures 
were  rescued  by  the  British  troops,  but  there 
were   melancholy  evidences   all    around    that 

The  arrangements  for  the  attack,  however, 
were  so  skilfully  made  by  the  naval  com- 
mander that  the  shore  batteries  were  soon 
silenced,  and  a  landing  was  effected  on  June 
i6th  without  serious  loss.  Subsequently  the 
troops  advanced  to  the  important  native  city 
of   Shanghai  which  was   taken  after  a  slight 

(From  a  print  after  Sir  T.  I-a\vieiicc  in  the  Print  Koom,  British  Museum.) 

the   loss   of   life   from   this   cause   alone   was 
very  great. 

Leaving  Shapoo  with  its  bitter  memories 
of  disaster  behind,  the  expedition  proceeded 
to  Woosung,  the  port  of  Shanghai.  Strong 
batteries  guarded  the  approach  to  the  port, 
and  the  intricacy  of  the  channel  presented 
serious    difficulties     to    the     invading     force. 

resistance.  The  place  was  occupied  only  to 
be  evacuated.  The  more  important  work  in 
hand  claiined  the  service  of  the  troops  and 
they  marched  back  to  Woosung  and  were 
re-embarked.  Not  inany  days  later  the  fleet 
entered  the  Yangtse-Kiang— "  the  child  of 
the  ocean."  As  the  imposing  flotilla  passed 
up   the,  great   waterway  the   Chinese  flocked 



in  crowds  lo  the  shore  to  gaze  on  the 
then  novel  spectacle  of  steamers  progressing 
against  tlie  current.  On  the  joth  of  July  the 
Beet  diopix-d  anchor  off  Chinkiang-foo,  a 
striHigly  fiMlitied  town,  which,  havinj;  rejpird 

August  the  fleet  arrived  off  the  city,  which 
is  one  of  the  most  important  commercial 
centres  in  the  Empire.  The  place  was 
garrisoned  by  fourteen  thousand  troops,  and 
there     were     expectations     of     another     san- 

.//,    t,  /.-i //.///,  .7,/,;/  ,/  '/-,///'•.  Y  r. 
^  A/.  1  f' 

.  /{ft/zA^/t  /, //if/f^  ///  .)■'<•'* 

(From  an  old  drawing  in  the  M.-inuscript  lioom  at  the  British  Museum.) 

lo  its  commanding  position  at  the  entrance 
to  the  river,  is  looked  upon  as  one  of  the  keys 
of  the  empire.  A  strong  Tartar  garrison 
held  the  town,  and  the  hills  above  the  river 
were  covered  with  encampments  of  Chinese 
troops.  After  a  careful  recomiaissancc  it  was 
decided  lo  attack  the  two  sections  of 
the  opposing  Chinese  forces  simultaneously. 
The  work  of  dealing  with  the  hill  encamp- 
ments was  entrusted  to  a  brigade  under 
Lord  Saltoun,  and  the  assault  on  the  town 
was  conducted  by  the  remaining  troops 
under  Sir  Hugh  Gough's  personal  command. 
Ix>rd  Saltoun's  force  met  with  very  little 
resistance,  the  bulk  of  the  Chinese  fleeing 
immediately  they  observed  the  British  force 
approaching.  In  the  town  greater  resistance 
was  offered  by  the  sturdier  Manchu  soldiery, 
who  sold  their  lives  dearly  in  street  fighting 
which,  with  the  severe  heat  of  the  day, 
severely  tried  our  troops.  Only  as  the  day 
closed  was  the  position  completely  occupied, 
and  by  that  time  our  men  were  so  exhausted 
by  their  exertions  that  they  were  unable  to 
push  home  their  viciory.  The  defenders  on 
their  part  scorned  in  many  instances  to 
take  to  flight.  They  salved  their  wounded 
honour  by  self  destrudion.  The  method  of 
the  brave  Tartar  general's  exit  from  the 
world  was  characteristic.  When  he  found 
that  the  battle  had  gone  against  him  he 
retired  to  his  house,  and  taking  his  seat  in 
his  favourite  arm  chair  ordered  his  servants 
lo  fire  the  building.  The  next  day  his  body 
was  found  much  burned,  but  retaining  the 
sitting  posture  in  which  he  had  placed  him- 
self. The  British  dropped  a  sympathetic 
tear  over  their  g.illani  enemy,  whose  defence 
they  had  reason  to  retnembcr,  for  their  losses 
here  were  greater  than  in  any  engagement 
during  the  war.  After  a  fortnight's  interval 
to  rest  and  reiTuit  the  troops,  the  advance 
on   Nanking  was  resumed.     On  the   sth  of 

guiiiary  battle  wlien  the  ships  hove  in  sight 
of  the  far-spreading  quarters  of  the  great 
centre  of  Chinese  power  and  caught  a 
glimpse    of    the    picturesque    outlines    of   the 

was  about  to  deliver  its  attack,  letters  ar- 
rived for  the  British  commander  informing 
him  that  three  imperial  delegates  were  on 
their  way  for  the  purpose  of  negotiating  a 
peace.  Confirmation  of  tlie  satisfactory  news 
was  forthcoming  shortly  .afterwards  in  the 
arrival  of  the  members  of  the  mission. 
They  were  men  of  high  distinction  in  the 
empire.  Elepoo,  the  head,  was  a  former 
governor  of  Chekeang  ;  Keying,  the  second, 
was  an  uncle  of  the  Emperor ;  while  the 
third  delegate,  Niti  Kieu,  was  Viceroy  of  the 
Two  Kiang.  There  was  a  protracted  dis- 
cussion of  the  preliminaries  of  peace,  in 
which  Sir  Henry  Pottinger  took  up  a  very 
firm  attitude.  The  Emperor  found  it  hard 
to  swallow  the  bitter  pill  offered  him,  but 
eventually  he  was  reluctantly  persuaded  by 
irrefragable  arguments  to  assent  to  an 
arrangement  on  the  lines  set  out  by  the 
British  Plenipotentiary.  The  demands  which 
were  subsequently  incorporated  in  the  Treaty 
of  Nanking,  were  certainly  of  a  character  to 
cause  not  a  little  misgiving  and  even  con- 
sternation in  the  imperial  circle.  They 
were  the  payment  of  an  indemnity  of 
$21,000,000;  the  opening  of  the  five  ports  of 
Canton,  Amoy,  Koochow,  Shanghai,  and 
Niiigpo  to  British  trade,  with  right  of  ap- 
pointing consuls  to  reside  in  them  ;  the 
cession  of  Hongkong  ;  the  estahlislunent  of 
regular  tariffs  of  import  and  export  dtjties  ; 
the  unconditional  release  of  all  British  sub- 
jects detained  as  prisoners  ;  and  the  granting 
of  a  free  pardon  by  the  Emperor  to  all 
those  of  his  own  subjects  who  had  incurred 
penalties  by  holding  intercourse  with  the 
British  officers.  On  the  20th  of  August  the 
delegates  paid  a  formal  visit  to  the  Com- 
ti'iillis,  the  admiral's  flagship,  to  discuss  the 
terms  of  peace.  They  were  received  with 
every  mark  of  courtesy,  but  in  order  that 
they  might  be  left  in  no  doubt  as  to  the 
intentions  of  the  British  in  the  event  of  the 
failure    of    tlie    negotiations    they    were    con- 

(From  Allom  &  W 

historic  Porcelain  Tower  which  was  then 
a  dominating  feature  of  the  landscape. 
Happily,  however,  these  expectations  were 
not  realised.     Just  as  the  expeditionary  force 


ri(!ht's  "China,") 

fronted  with  an  iinposing  display  of  force, 
both  naval  and  military.  The  interview 
passed  off  very  satisfactorily,  and  there  was 
a  spirit  of  equal  harmony  manifested  on  the 


26tli  of  Auj^ust  when  Sir  Henry  Pottinycr 
returned  the  commissioners'  visit  and  re- 
newed asliore  the  negotiations  whicli  had 
opened  so  auspiciously  on  board  tlie  Corii- 
wnllis.  Three  days  later  the  signatures  weie 
appended  to  the  Treaty  on  the  Coriiwullis. 
The  three  commissioners  first  signed  and 
then  Sir  Henry  Pottinger  inscribed  his  name. 
The  running  up  of  the  flags  of  Great  Britain 
and  China  on  the  mast  of  the  Conncallis, 
and  the  firing  of  a  salute  of  tvventy-one  guns, 
announced  to  the  outer  world  the  comple- 
tion of  this  most  important  diplomatic  act. 
Immediately  after  the  signature  of  the  Treaty 
the  ships  began  to  leave  the  river,  and  on 
the  payment  of  the  first  instalment  of  the 
indemnity,  the  troops  were  withdrawn  from 
Chusan.  By  the  end  of  Octolier  the  expedi- 
tionary force  had  been  broken  up,  the 
various  units  having  returned  to  their  several 
stations  with  the  exception  of  a  body  of 
seventeen  hundred  troops  which  was  left  to 
garrison  Hongkong.  Several  unfortunate  in- 
cidents occurring  shortly  after  the   signature 

Keying,  the  Chinese  commissioner,  who  had 
conducted  the  elaborate  negotiations  with 
Sir  Henry  Pottinger,  that  henceforth  trade 
at  the  five  ports  named  in  the  Treaty  was 
open  to  "the  men  from  afar"  without  dis- 
tinction, and  the  hope  was  expressed  that 
"the  weapons  of  war  being  tor  ever  laid 
aside,  joy  and  profit  shall  be  the  perpetual 
lot  of  all."  There  was  one  important 
omission  in  the  settlement  which  was  thus 
completed.  No  reference  whatever  was 
made  in  the  Commercial  Treaty  to  the 
opium  trade.  Sir  Henry  Pottinger  had 
striven  to  obtain  from  the  Chinese  Govern- 
ment the  legalisation  of  the  traffic,  but  the 
Peking  authorities  had  steadily  declined  to 
entertain  any  proposal  of  the  kind,  and 
failing  this  the  British  Plenipotentiary 
deemed  it  advisable  to  leave  the  matter 
unsettled.  It  was  an  unfortunate  decision 
as  it  supplied  an  opening  for  fresh  trouble, 
and  trouble  was  not  slow  in  coming. 
Almost  before  the  ink  was  dry  on  the 
official    proclamations    announcing    the   corn- 

measures   to  prevent  the  importation   of  the 

With  all  its  imperfections  the  Treaty  of 
Nanking  was  an  instrument  of  enormous 
importance  to  the  commercial  interests  not 
of  Gieat  Britain  alone  but  of  the  civilised 
world.  It  ushered  in  a  new  era  of  trade — 
an  era  fraught  with  great  possibilities  for 
the  West  and  the  East  alike.  No  longer 
were  merchants  transacting  business  in 
China  at  the  mercy  of  a  corrupt  and 
capricious  officialdom,  carrying  on  their 
transactions  in  daily  and  almost  hourly 
dread  of  a  crisis  which  would  inflict 
disastrous  injury  upon  their  interests. 
Thanks  to  British  pertinacity,  reinforced  by 
the  cordial  good  will  and  moral  support  of 
the  United  States  and  France,  the  com- 
mercial relations  of  China  with  the  outer 
world  were  regulaiised,  and  an  assured  and 
protected  position  was  given  to  the  foreign 
connnercial  community  at  the  five  Treaty 
ports.  These  had  been  selected  with  an  eye 
to  the  establishment  of  the  new  trading  con- 




of  the  Treaty  imperilled  for  a  time  the 
peace  which  had  been  concluded.  In  one 
case  the  authorities  in  Formosa  massacred 
the  shipwrecked  crews  of  two  vessels 
mamied  mainly  by  British-Indian  subjects. 
Shortly  afterwards  a  Cantonese  mob  made 
an  attack  on  the  British  factory,  plundering 
it  and  setting  it  on  fire.  In  both  instances 
the  Chinese  Goverimient  showed  a  very 
commendable  spirit  in  punishing  the  offen- 
ders, and  the  episodes  were  overlooked. 
But  the  arrangements  consequential  upon 
the  Treaty  dragged  somewhat,  and  it  was 
not  until  June  4,  1843,  that  the  ratifications 
of  the  Treaty  were  exchanged  at  Hongkong, 
while  six  weeks  further  elapsed  before  Sir 
Henry  Pottinger  found  himself  in  a  position 
to  issue  a  proclamation  announcing  that  he 
had  signed  the  arrangements  for  the  conduct 
of  trade  which  were  the  moat  important 
provisions  of  the  Treaty.  Simultaneously 
with  the  publication  of  the  British  proclama- 
tion  a    formal    announcement    was    made   by 

pletion  of  the  Treaty  arrangements  an  acute 
controversy  arose  as  to  whether  opium  was 
admissible  under  the  Treaty  or  not.  The 
mercantile  class  held  that  it  could  be  im- 
ported under  the  final  clause  of  the  tariff, 
whicli  provided  that  all  articles  not  expressly 
named  should  be  admitted  at  aii  nd  vnlorcm 
duty  of  5  per  cent.,  but  this  view  was 
promptly  repudiated  by  Sir  Henry  Pottinger, 
who  issued  an  official  intimation  declaring 
in  emphatic  terms  that  such  a  construction 
was  untenable  as  "  the  traffic  in  opium  was 
illegal  and  contraband  by  the  laws  and 
imperial  edicts  of  China."  The  position 
taken  up  by  the  British  authority  was 
severely  criticised,  and  it  undoubtedly  ten- 
ded to  produce  an  unpleasant  impression 
not  only  amongst  the  British  traders,  but 
in  Chinese  official  quarters  where  there 
was  a  failure  to  comprehend  the  logic 
and  equity  of  a  policy  which  admitted 
the  illegality  of  the  opium  trade  as  far  as 
China     was     concerned,    and     yet     took     no 

ditions  on  the  broadest  foundations.  Instead 
of  being  confined  to  one  corner  of  the 
empire  trade  had  now  openings  in  five 
distinct  quarters,  each  of  considerable 
importance.  Canton  gave  access  to  the 
great  markets  of  Southern  China ;  Amoy 
was  an  historic  commercial  centre  with 
important  connections  with  an  extended 
populous  area  in  the  province  of  Fokien  ; 
P'oochow,  the  capital  of  the  province  of 
Fokien,  and  that  seated  on  the  Min,  one  of 
the  great  rivers  of  China,  was  well  placed 
for  the  tea  industry  ;  and  Shanghai  was  a 
centre  from  which  the  vast  Yangtse  trade 
could  be  tapped.  The  openings  thus  afforded 
were  calculated  to  extend  enormously  the 
operations  of  foreign  trade  provided  only  that 
the  Chinese  Government  had  accepted  the 
new  situation  in  good  faith.  Unfortunately 
it  had  not  done  so,  and  many  years  were  to 
pass  away  before  the  advantages  wrung  from 
the  Chinese  by  Sir  Hugh  Gough's  gallant 
force  reached  anything  like  their  full  fruition. 


TTie   Acquisition    of 
Free  Port— Dark    Da 


'•ing — Elarly    History  of   the    Island — The  building  of   Victoria — Hongkong  declared  a 
R.  M.  Martin's  Scathing    Denunciations   of   the  Colony — The  Select  Committee  of 
1847  and    Hongkong. 

From  llic  exclusively  British  standpoint  the 
great  central  fact  of  tlie  Nankin;;  Treaty  was 
the  fonnal  cession  of  Honj^konf*.  The  acqui- 
sition of  this  island  gave  Great  Britain  what 
no  <ither  Western  nation,  save  the  Portuguese, 
had  in  China,  a  national  //V*/  <i  tcrrc — a 
station  which  would  supply  a  tallying  centre 
for  her  trade,  and  a  strategic  point  for  her 
navy.  The  desirability  of  forming  a  settle- 
ment of  this  kind  had  long  been  contemplated. 
The  (KX'up.tlion  of  an  island  off  the  coast 
was,  as  we  have  seen  in  the  earlier  chapters, 
suggested  by  Chinese  traders  as  a  means  of 
overcoming  the  difficulties  which  in  the 
eighteenth  century  attended  the  conduct  of 
the  trade.  Coming  to  later  times.  Sir  George 
Staunton,  in  speaking  in  the  House  of  Commons 
in  1833,  expressed  the  view  that  when  the 
trade  was  thrown  open,  if  it  should  prove 
impracticable  to  give  it  the  K-nclit  of  a 
national  connection  emanating  directly  from 
the  Crown,  it  might  become  expedient  to 
withdraw  it  altogether  from  the  control  of 
the  Chinese  authorities  and  establish  it  in 
some  insular  position  upon  the  Chinese  coast. 
In  a  general  way  the  value  of  Hongkong 
harbour  as  an  anchorage  had  f>een  recog- 
nised for  a  great  many  years.  In  the  eigh- 
teenth century  ships  occisionally  visited  it, 
attracted  by  the  security  of  the  position  and 
the  admirable  facilities  offered  for  watering 
sliips  in  the  rivulet  of  purest  water — the 
"  Heang  Keang,"  or  fragrant  slieam — which 
in  old  time  was  perhaps  the  most  con- 
spicuous natural  feature  of  the  island.  These 
cisual  visits  familiarised  Briiish  commanders 
with  the  harbour,  and  during  the  prolr.icted 
war  with  France  at  the  end  of  the  eighteenth 
and  the  commencement  of  the  nineteenth 
century,  it  was  frequently  re.sorted  to  by 
vessels  of  our  squadrons.  The  place  came 
into  special  prominence  on  the  occasion  of 
Lord  Amherst's  mission  to  the  Peking  Court 
in  1816  17.  The  vessels  conveying  the 
members  of  the  mission,  as  has  been  already 
noted,  anchored  in  the  harbour  on  their 
arrival  in  China,  and  during  their  brief  stay 
a  careful  survey  was  made  of  the  harbour 
and  island-  the  former  by  the  na%'al  authori- 
ties and  the  latter  by  Dr.  Charles  Abel, 
who  accompanied  the  mission  as  medical 
officer.  When  the  mission  returned  to 
England  a  glowing  account  was  given  of 
the  great  natural  advantages  of  the  position. 
"In  all  points,  both  of  facility  of  egress 
and  ingress,  and  in  its  perfectly  land-locked 
situation,  this  harbour  can  hardly  have  a 
superior  in  the  world,"  wrote  the  olficial 
historian  of  the  mission.  These  words  of 
enthusiastic  commendation  bore  no  direct 
fruit,  perhaps  because  the  failure  of  the 
mission  did  not  tend  to  encourage  a  policy 
of  exploitation.  BuLwhen  the  opium  troubles 
occurred  at  Cantonjviongkong  harbour  be- 
came the  resort  of  all  British  shipping,  and 
ultimately  (in  1837)  a  settlement  was  formed 
on  the  rocky  shore.  And  so  when  Captain 
Klliot  got  into  difficulties  with  the  Canton 
authorities  in  1839,  and  found  the  officialism 
of  Macao  to  accord  ill  with  the  British 
constitution,  it  was  the  most  natural  thing 
in    the    world    that     he    should    withdraw 

to  Hongkong,  which,  though  remote  enough 
to  be  flee  from  Chinese  surveillance,  was 
sulTicicntly  near  Canton  to  allow  of  touch 
tx;ing  kept  with  the  authorities.  Probably  at 
lirst  the  idea  was  only  to  use  the  harbour 
temporarily,  but  when  Lin,  by  his  violent 
jMilicy,  forced  matters  to  an  issue,  the 
formation  of  a  permanent  settlement  became 
a  definite  object  of  policy.  During  the 
operations  which  cuhninatcd  in  the  attack  on 
the  Bogue  forts  in  1841,  the  island  was  only 
used  to  a  limited  extent,  Chusan  then  being 
the  principal  base  for  the  expedition  ;  but 
as  soon  as  Keshen  had  been  compelled  to 
sue  for  peace  in  the  early  weeks  of  the 
year,  the  cession  of  the  island  was  made  a 
prominent  condition  of  the  settlement,  and 
on  the  terms  put  forward  being  conceded 
by  tlie  Chinese  Connnissioner,  the  troops 
were  removed  from  that  place  to  Hongkong, 
and  its  incorporation  in  the  British  Empire 
was  formally  notified  by  Captain  Elliot  in  a 
proclamation  dated  January  29,  1841.  The 
act  of  taking  possession  occurred  four  days 
earlier.  It  is  thus  noticed  in  Sir  Edward 
Belcher's  "Voyage  of  H.M.S.  Sulphur"  :  "  We 
landed  on  Monday  the  25th  January,  l84t, 
at  fifteen  minutes  past  eight  a.m.,  and  being  the 
botiii  tide  first  possessors  Her  Majesty's  health 
was  drunk  witli  three  cheers  on  Possession 
Mount.  On  the  26tli  the  squadron  arrived  ; 
the  marines  were  landed,  the  Union  Jack 
hoisted  on  our  fort,  and  formal  possession 
taken  of  the  island  by  Commodore  Sir  J.  G. 
Bremer,  accompanied  by  the  four  officers  of 
the  squadion,  under  a  feu  dc  joic  from  the 
marines  and  the  royal  salute  from  the 
ships  of  war.  On  the  Kowloong  Peninsula 
were  situated  two  batteries,  which  nnght 
have  commanded  the  anchorage,  but  wliicli 
appeared  but  thinly  manned  ;  these  received 
due  notice  to  withdraw  their  men  and 
guns  as  agreed  by  the  late  Treaty." 
Nearly  two  years  were  to  elapse  before  the 
final  notification  of  the  Treaty  of  Nanking 
placed  the  occupation  of  the  island  on  a 
thoroughly  legal  basis,  but  practically 
January  26,  1841,  marks  the  commencement 
of  the  organised  life  of  the  settlement. 

The  important  island  which  had  thus 
become  British  territory  was  formerly  a  part 
of  the  Chinese  district  of  Sin-ngan.  It  was 
mainly  owned  by  an  ancient  family  of  the 
name  of  Tang,  whose  title  deeds  extended 
back  several  centuries.  The  representatives 
of  this  family  had  paid  the  land  tax  for  the 
island  for  two  centuries  prior  to  the  occupa- 
tion to  the  Chinese  Government,  and  they 
were  recognised  by  the  authorities  as  the 
landlords.  In  the  arrangements  for  the 
transfer,  however,  no  provision  was  made 
for  the  rights  of  these  proprietors,  and 
though  a  sum  of  eight  or  ten  thousand 
dollars  was  disbursed  amongst  the  occupants 
of  certain  fields,  the  members  of  the  Tang 
family  do  not  appear  to  have  benefited.  Be- 
fore the  advent  of  the  British  the  population 
of  the  island  was  confined  to  a  few  thousand 
souls  who  obtained  a  precarious  living  by 
fishing  or  tilling  the  rocky  soil.  In  1837  the 
site  of  the  town  of  Victoria  was  a  mere 
rugged  slope  of  rock  shelving  in  most  places 

precipitously  to  the  water's  edge,  with  a 
narrow  pathway  winding  along  the  cliff  to 
which  the  fanciful  name  Kiin-Tai-Lu,  or 
Petticoat  String  Path,  was  given  by  the  in- 
habitants. To  the  eye  the  island  was  more 
picturesque  than  pleasing.  There  was  little 
or  no  vegetation,  and  the  only  buildings 
were  a  number  of  ramshackle  habitations  on 
the  shore  constructed  out  of  old  junks.  The 
inhabitants  were  friendly,  and  they  seemed 
industrious,  but  there  were  strong  grounds 
for  believing  tliat  they  took  a  very  free 
hand  in  the  piracy  that  at  that  time  was 
rife  at  the  mouth  of  the  Canton  Kiver. 

When  Hongkong  was  formally  occupied  in 
1841,  in  the  circumstances  described,  tliere 
was  not  a  single  European  house  in  existence. 
The  buildings  scattered  about  the  foreshore 
were  either  the  quaint  improvised  huts  just 
referred  to  or  houses  of  the  usual  native 
type.  As  soon,  however,  as  it  became  evident 
tliat  the  British  had  come  to  stay  a  change 
came  over  the  aspect  of  affairs.  On  June 
14,  1841,  the  first  land  sale*  took  place,  51 
plots  being  sold  at  prices  which,  compared 
with  modern  rales,  appear  ridiculously  low. 
Thereafter  building  operations  were  prose- 
cuted with  an  energy  born  of  the  belief  that 
Victoria,  as  the  new  settlement  had  been 
christened  in  honour  of  the  Queen,  was 
destined  to  be  no  mean  city.  Dr.  Eitel 
states  in  his  book  on  the  authority  of  Mr. 
W.  Kawson  that  the  first  buildings  erected 
in  Hongkong  were  the  so-called  Albany 
Godowns  (near  Spring  Gardens)  of  Lindsay 
&  Co.  "Next  rose  up  the  buildings  at  East 
Point,  where  jardine,  Matheson  &  Co.  estab- 
lished themselves.  Later  on  buildings  were 
erected  in  the  Happy  Valley  and  here  and 
there  along  the  hillside  as  far  as  the  present 
centre  of  the  town.  While  the  military  and 
naval  authorities  commenced  settling  at  West 
Point,  erecting  cantonments  on  the  hillside 
(over  the  site  of  the  present  Reformatory  and 
later  on  above  Fairlea)  and  large  naval  stores 
(near  the  shore  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
present  Gas  Company's  premises),  the  Happy 
Valley  was  at  first  intended  by  British 
merchants  for  the  principal  business  centre. 
However,  the  prejudices  of  the  Chinese 
merchants  against  the  Fungshin  (geomantic 
aspects)  of  the  Happy  Valley  and  the 
peculiarly    malignant     fever     which    emptied 

•  I^eferrinj*  to  tliis  sale,  Dr.  Eitel  says :  Tlie  purcliasers 
of  those  lots  who  may  be  considered  as  the  first  IJritish 
settlers  in  H<jn^koii'ji  were  the  following*  firms  or 
individuals,  viz.,  Jard  ne,  Matheson  &  Co. ;  tieerjeebhoy 
Rustomjee  ;  Dent  &  Co. ;  Macrica  &  Co. :  Gcmmell  &  Co. ; 
John  Smith  ;  D.  Kustomjee  :  Gribble,  HutJhes  &  Co. ; 
Lindsay  &  Co.  ;  Hooker  &  Lane  ;  Holliday  &  Co.  ;  F. 
Leijihton  &  Co.  ;  Innes,  Fletcher  &  Co. ;  Jamieson  &  How  : 
F(»x,  Kawson  &  Co.  ;  Turner  &  Co. ;  iiobcrt  Webster  ; 
\<.  Gully  :  Charles  Hart ;  Captain  Larkins  ;  1'.  F.  Robertson  ; 
Captain  Morgan  :  Dirom  &  Co. :  I'estonjee  Cowasjee, 
and  Franijee  Janisetjee.  This  sale  was  followed  by  the 
erection  of  godowns  and  houses,  and  the  building  of  a 
sea  wall,  the  road  alongside  of  which  was  thenceforth 
(in  imitation  of  Macao  parlance)  called  the  I'raya.  'I'he 
following  places  were  the  first  to  be  utilised  for  com- 
mercial tmildings  and  private  residences  of  merchants, 
vij:,,  West  Point,  the  Happy  Valley,  Spring  Gardens, 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  present  Naval  Yard  (Canton 
Ilazaar),  the  sites  now  occupied  by  Uutterfield  !k  Swire, 
the  Hongkong  Hotil,  by  the  China  Mail,  the  Hongkong 
Dispensary,  the  slope  below  Wyndham  Street,  I*<»tlinger 
Street,  Queen's  Road  Central  (the  liazaar).  etc. 

I.    Bamboo  AyiKDi'CT.  2.    Harbolk. 

3.    Houses  ok  Boats,  Bay  ok  Kowloon.  4.    Village,  Bay  ok  Hoxukokg. 


every  Earopwn  house  in  that  nciglibourhood 
^most  as  soon  as  it  was  tenanted,  caused 
the  business  settlement  to  move  gradually 
westwards.  Hill  sites,  freely  exjxised  to- 
wards the  si>uth-west  and  south-east,  as  well 
as  to  the  north,  were  soon  discovered  as 
being  le«s  subject  to  the  worst  type  of 
malarial  fever,  and  were  accordingly  studded 
with  frail  European  houses,  mostly  covered 
at  first  with  palm  leaves.  A  number  of 
wooden  houses  were  imported  from  Singa- 
pore and  erected  on  lower  stories  of  brick 
or  stone.  But  at  first  the  only  substantial 
buildings  erected  by  private  parties  were  a 
house  and  godowns  built  at  East  Point  by 
order  of  Mr.  A.  Matheson,  who  foresaw  the 
permanency  of  the  colony  at  a  time  when 
most  people  doublet!  it.  The  native  stone- 
masons, bricklayers,  carpenters,  and  scaffold 
builders,  required  for  the  construction  of 
roads  and  txirracks  (by  the  Engineer  Corps 
of  the  Expedition)  and  for  the  erection  of 
mercantile  buildings  were  immediately  fol- 
lowed  by  a  considerable   influx    of    Chinese 

vided  and  a  cemetery  laid  out.  While  this 
infant  Hongkong  growing  up  steps  were 
taken  to  perfect  the  olVicial  organisation. 
Captain  Elliot  continued  to  discharge  tlie 
duties  of  Chief  Superintendent  of  Trade,  and 
he  added  to  them  those  of  c.v  officio  Governor 
of  the  island.  He  appointed  Captain  Caine 
Chief  Magistrate,  and  Mr.  Johnson  was  made 
Deputy  Superintendent  of  the  Colony.  On 
the  1st  of  May  appeared  for  the  first  time 
the  Goivriiiiiciit  GnzclU;  a  weekly  oriicial 
publication  which  has  continued  to  this  day. 
Its  first  number  contained  a  warrant  ap- 
pointing Captain  Caine,  and,  amongst  other 
notifications,  rules  for  shipping  frequenting 
the  port.  The  second  issue  gave  a  list  of 
the  villages  and  hamlets  on  the  island,  from 
which  it  appears  that  there  were  twenty 
places  oflicially  recognised  by  the  authoiities. 
At  the  time  of  the  ofticial  occupation  Chek-chu 
was  the  most  important  of  these  places,  and 
Wong-nei-chung  was  the  next.  Hongkong 
itself,  a  hamlet  of  only  two  hundred  inliabi- 
tants,   stood   third  on   the   list.     The   relative 


(From  Borget's  "Sketches  of  Cliina.") 

provision  dealers  (who  settled  near  the  site 
of  the  present  central  market,  soon  known 
as  the  Bazaar),  and  by  Chinese  furniture 
dealers,  joiners,  cibinet  makers,  and  curio 
shops,  congregating  opposite  the  present 
naval  yard,  and  along  the  present  Queen's 
Koad  East,  then  known  as  the  Canton  Bazaar. 
The  day  labourers  settled  down  in  huts  at 
Taipingshan,  at  Saiyingpan,  and  at  Tsim- 
shatsin.  But  the  largest  proportion  of  the 
Chinese  population  were  the  so-called  Tanka, 
or  boat  people,  the  pariahs  of  South  China, 
whose  intimate  connection  with  the  .social 
life  of  the  foreign  merchants  in  the  Canton 
factories  used  to  call  forth  an  annual  proc- 
lamation on  the  part  of  the  Cantonese 
authorities  warning  foreigners  against  the 
demoralising  influences  of  these  people." 

To  these  interesting  details  may  be  added 
the  facts  that  the  first  official  building  to  be 
erected  was  the  Court  H<juse,  which  came 
into  existence  within  the  first  ye:ir  of  the 
occupation,  and  that   a   gaol    was   also  pro- 

insignificance  of  the  material  inlerests  existing 
in  the  island  when  the  British  took  posses- 
sion may  be  gauged  from  the  fact  that  only 
250  acres  of  the  entire  area  was  under 

By  far  the  most  important  .step  taken  in 
the  second  year  of  the  occupation  was  the 
issue  of  a  proclamation  by  Sir  H.  Potlinger 
declaring  Hongkong  a  free  port.  The 
experience  gained  at  Singapore  had  no 
doubt  suggested  the  advisability  of  this  step, 
but  even  the  most  sanguine  of  those  who 
assisted  in  the  founding  of  the  Colony  could 
not  have  foreseen  the  remarkable  results 
which  would  follow  from  the  adoption  of 
this  policy.  At  the  they  probably  only 
hoped  to  establish  an  entrepot  which,  while 
it  would  pay  its  own  way  would  allow 
trade  to  be  conducted  without  interruption. 
However,  it  was  by  no  means  all  plain  sail- 
ing in  the  early  days  of  tlie  occupation. 
Amongst  the  thousands  of  Chinese  wiio 
flocked   across   the   channel   from    the    main- 

land as  soon  as  the  British  flag  was  hoisted 
was  a  large  proportion  of  bad  characters. 
They  came  attmctcd  by  the  hope  of  gain  or 
plunder,  and  they  were  so  protected  by 
secret  compact  as  to  defy  the  ordinary  regu- 
lations of  police  for  detection  or  prevention. 
Tlie  respectable  shopkeepers  who  did 
niigr.ate  left  the  bulk  of  their  property  and 
their  families  behind,  and  so,  while  working 
in  Hongkong,  they  were  almost  as  much 
under  the  control  of  the  Mandarins  as  if 
they  were  in  China.  These  circumstances 
all  militated  against  the  smooth  conduct  of 
the  administration  in  the  infant  days  of  the 
settlement,  and  it  did  not  tend  to  increase 
confidence  in  the  stability  of  the  occupation 
that  in  March  of  1842  a  despatch  was 
received  from  Sir  Kobert  Peel  intimating 
that  Her  Majesty's  Government  had  not 
decided  upon  the  tenure  upon  which  land 
should  be  held  in  the  island.  Hut  perhaps 
the  most  unpleasant  factor  of  the  situation 
of  all  was  the  unhealthiness  of  the  island. 
Disease  was  rife  amongst  the  troops  and  the 
mortality  reached  an  alarming  figure.  The 
outbreaks  were  attributable  to  some  extent 
to  inadequate  attention  to  sanitation,  a  not 
unnatural  result  of  the  bringing  together  of 
large  bodies  of  people,  the  vast  majority  of 
them  possessing  the  most  rudimentary  ideas 
of  hygeia.  But  tlie  trouble  was  chiefly  due 
to  local  causes  which  at  the  outset  were 
very  imperfectly  understood. 

Hongkong  beyond  doubt  acquired  a  terribly 
bad  reputation  in  its  earliest  years.  When 
the  freshness  of  the  occupation  had  worn  off, 
and  when  further  the  stream  of  Government 
money  which  had  flowed  so  generously  at 
the  outset  had  been  reduced  to  more  modest 
proportions,  the  inevitable  reaction  set  in. 
People  who  had  been  loud  in  their  commen- 
dations of  the  annexation  now  could  not  see 
anything  good  in  the  settlement.  The  land 
regulations  caused  great  discontent,  and  there 
was  much  grumbling  at  the  revenue  arrange- 
ments, which,  based  as  they  were  on  a  system 
of  licence  fees  on  salt,  opium,  bhang,  and 
other  articles  in  common  use,  were  extremely 
unpopular  with  the  Chinese,  and  tended  to 
keep  away  respectable  traders.  These  various 
complaints  found  vent  in  the  proceedings  of 
a  House  of  Commons  Select  Commillee 
which  sat  in  1847  to  consider  the  question 
of  the  Chinese  Trade.  Several  leading 
Hongkong  merchants  gave  evidence  testify- 
ing to  the  highly  unsatisfactory  condition  of 
the  settlement.  One  of  the  number  stated 
that  most  of  the  firms  which  had  purchased 
land  originally  were  thinking  of  relinquishing 
their  premises  and  returning  to  Canton. 
Another  mercantile  witness  described  the 
Colony  as  in  "a  condition  of  extreme  decay." 
But  the  blackest  picture  of  all  was  drawn  by 
an  official — Mr.  R.  Montgomery  Martin.  This 
gentleman,  who  filled  the  ollice  of  Colonial 
Treasurer,  seems  to  have  conceived  a  per- 
fectly insane  hatred  of  the  island.  He 
penned  a  report  in  which  he  piled  up  horror 
upon  horror  and  scandal  upon  scandal  in 
order  to  impress  the  home  public  with  the 
ruinous  blunder  that  had  been  perpetrated 
in  the  occupation.  The  document,  which 
was  sent  home  in  July,  1844,  described  the 
formation  of  the  island  as  of  "rotten  granite 
strata,"  and  said  that  the  material  excavated 
in  the  course  of  building  operations  "  ap- 
peared like  a  richly  prepared  compost  "  ;  it 
emitted  "  a  fcetid  odour  of  the  most  sickening 
nature,  and  at  night  must  prove  a  deadly 
poison."  He  likened  the  town  to  the  bottom 
of  a  crater,  and  stated  that  this  formation 
effectually  prevented  the  dissipation  of  the 
poisonous  gases.  The  Chinese  had  ever 
deemed  Hongkong  as  injurious  to  health  and 


fatal  to  life.  As  for  the  Europeans,  those 
who  survived  a  brief  residence  in  the  climate 
"  generally  got  a  lassitude  of  frame  and  an 
irritability  of  fibre  which  destroyed  the 
spring  of  existence."      In  the   previous   year 

on  the  island.  "  The  European  inhabitants, 
independent  of  those  in  the  employ  of 
Government,  consist  of  the  members  of  about 
12  mercantile  houses  and  their  dealers, 
together  with  several   European  shopkeepers. 


(1843),  though  the  troops  only  numbered 
1,526,  the  admissions  to  hospital  reached  the 
high  figure  of  7,893.  In  other  words,  on  an 
average  each  man  went  through  the  hospital 
more  than  five  times.  The  total  deaths  were 
440,  or  I  in  3i.  "  Her  Majesty's  98th  Regi- 
ment lost  at  Hong  Kong  in  21  months  257 
men  by  disease.  One  half  the  men  of  a 
company  are  frequently  unable  to  attend  the 
parade  ;  out  of  100  men  there  are  sometimes 
not  more  than  five  or  six  men  fit  for  duty. 
.  .  .  General  D'Aguliar  (in  command  of  the 
troops)  says  that  the  maintenance  of  a 
European  garrison  at  Hong-Kong  would  cost 
the  Crown  one  regiment  every  three  years." 
While  the  deadly  climate  was  creating  this 
havoc  the  commercial  prospects  of  the  island 
were  as  bad  as  they  could  be.  "There  is 
scarcely  a  firm  in  the  island,"  continued 
this  very  candid  chronicler,  "  tint  would,  I 
understand,  be  glad  to  get  back  half  the 
money  they  have  expended  in  the  colony 
and  retire  from  the  place.  A  sort  of  halluci- 
nation seems  to  have  seized  those  who  built 
houses  here  ;  they  thought  that  Hong-Kong 
would  'rapidly  outrival  Singapore  and  be- 
come the  Tyre  or  Carthage  of  the  Eastern 
hemisphere.'  Unfortunately  the  Government 
of  the  colony  fostered  the  delusion  respecting 
the  colony.  The  leading  Government  officers 
bought  land,  built  houses  or  bazaars  which 
they  rented  out  at  high  rates,  and  the  public 
money  was  lavished  in  the  most  extraordinary 
manner  in  building  up  and  pulling  down 
temporary  structures,  making  zig-zag  bridle 
paths  over  hills  and  mountains,  and  forming 
the  Queen's  Road  of  three  or  four  miles  long 
on  which  about  180,000  dollars  have  been 
expended,  but  which  is  not  passable  for  half 
the  year.  The  straggling  settlement  called 
Victoria  built  along  the  Queen's  Road  was 
dignified  with  the  name  of  city,  and  it  was 
declared  on  the  highest  authority  that  Hong 
Kong  would  contain  a  population  'equal  to 
that  of  ancient  Rome.' "  After  three  and  a 
half  years'  uninterrupted  settlement  there 
was  not  one   respectable   Chinese   inhabitant 

A  few  persons  have  arrived  here  from  New 
South  Wales  to  try  and  better  their  fortune, 
many  of  whom  would  be  glad  to  return 
thither."  p'inally  Mr.  Montgomery  Martin 
delivered  himself  of  a  confident  declaration 
that  there  did  not  appear  to  be  "  the  slightest 
probability     under     any    circumstances     that 

Martin's  survey  undoubtedly  as  a  whole  pro- 
duced upon  the  mind  an  overpowering  im- 
pression of  the  unsuitability  of  the  choice 
that  had  been  made  of  a  settlement.  In 
summing  up  their  conclusions  the  Committee 
made  this  reference  to  the  subject : — 

"  From  Hongkong  we  cannot  be  said  to 
have  derived  directly  much  commercial  ad- 
vantage, nor,  indeed,  does  it  seem  to  be 
likely  by  its  position  to  become  the  seat  of 
an  extended  commerce.  It  has  no  consider- 
able population  of  its  own  to  feed  or  clothe, 
and  has  no  right  to  expect  to  draw  away  the 
established  trade  of  the  populous  town  and 
province  of  Canton,  to  which  it  is  adjacent. 
From  (he  only  trafiic  for  which  it  is  fitted, 
that  of  a  depot  for  the  neighbouring  coasts, 
it  is  in  a  great  degree  detiarred,  except  in 
regard  to  the  five  ports,  by  treaties,  which 
stipulate  distinctly  for  the  observance  of  this 
restriction.  In  addition,  however,  to  these 
natural  and  necessary  disadvantages  it  appears 
to  have  laboured  under  others  created  by  a 
system  of  monopolies  and  forms  and  petty 
regulations,  peculiarly  unsuited  to  its  position 
and  prejudicial  to  its  progress." 

By  the  time  the  Committee's  report  reached 
China  the  condition  of  things  which  had  led 
to  the  expression  of  the  unfavourable  views 
cited  in  the  foregoing  paragraph  had  passed 
away.  The  period  of  reaction  had  spent 
itself,  and  with  the  improvement  of  trade  a 
healthier  spirit,  both  moral  and  physical, 
pervaded  the  settlement.  Sir  John  Davis,  in 
some  observations  upon  the  Committee's 
report,  penned  on  January  21,  1848,  was  able 
to  show  how  very  inadequate  a  notion  the 
Committee  had  formed  of  the  Colony's  con- 
dition and  prospects.  "  The  population,  ex- 
clusive of  troops,"  he  wrote,  "has  gradually 
increased  from  less  than  5,000  on  its  first 
occupation  in  1842  to  23,872.  This  popula- 
tion, instead  of  consisting  of  mere  vagabonds, 
comprises   in   its   number  contractors  for  ex- 


(Krom  Allom  &  Wrifiht's   'China.") 

Hong-Kong    will    ever    become    a    place    of 

It  is  not  remarkable  that  the  report  of  the 
Select  Committee  was  influenced  by  these 
gloomy  vaticinations.  The  facts  were  in 
many    instances     uncontrovertible,    and     Mr. 

pensive  works,  executed  (by  the  testimony  of 
the  engineer  officers)  as  well  as  they  would 
be  i[i  England,  and  of  numerous  owners  of 
respectable  shops,  where  almost  any  of  the 
productions  of  China  can  be  obtained.  Life 
and   property  are    now   acknowledged  to   be 


•ecore.  The  revenue,  with  a  sitijile  tax  upon 
caoinieTcc,  has  progressively  increased  snue 
my  arrival  from  iQ,534  '»  i^'Ji.O/S  ">  "*47  ; 
and  the  civil  ex|H.-nditure  diminished  from 
;^66,ooo  Jo  i'50,()5g  in  the  same  year,  of  ihis 
;^I5,i6q  has  been  for  public  works  incidental 
lo  a  new  colony,  which  beiiij;  deducted  from 
the  total  charge  for  the  year  leaves  ;t'35,790 
for  the  fixed  expenditure,  being  only  i"4,7l2 
beyond  the  reveime.  The  shipping  return 
for  1847  amounts  to  229,465  tons  for 
European  vessels,  and  for  Chinese  junks 
840,9^0   piculs." 

Alter  the  conclusion  of  the  Treaty  of 
Nanking  steps  were  taken  by  the  Home 
Government  to  organise  a  district  Colonial 
Government  at  Hongkong  by  transferring 
the  management  of  local  affairs  from  the 
Foreign  Office  to  the  Colonial  Oflice.  The 
superintending  of  trade  and  the  direction  of 
the  new  Consular  service  in  China  were, 
howex-er,  for  the  present  combined  with  the 
office  of  Governor  and   Commander-in-Chief 

of  the  Colony.  On  this  basis  an  Order  in 
Council  was  issued  (January  4,  tS43)  eslab- 
lishing  in  Hongkong  the  Court  of  Justice 
with  criminal  and  Admiralty  jurisdiction, 
which  nominally  had  existed  since  the  time 
of  I^rd  Napier  in  Chinese  waters  under  an 
Order  of  the  Privy  Council  of  December  9, 
1833.  This  court  was  now  endowed  with 
jurisdiction  over  British  subjects  residing 
within  the  Colony  or  on  the  mainland  of 
China  or  on  the  high  seas  within  100  miles 
of  the  coast  thereof.  Three  months  later 
(.\pril  5,  1843)  the  Privy  Council  issued 
letters  patent  under  the  Great  Seal  of  tlie 
United  Kingdom  creating  the  settlement  on 
the  island  of  Hongkong  into  a  Crown 
Colony  by  charter,  and  on  the  same  day 
a  Koyal  Warrant  was  issued  under  the 
Queen's  Signet  and  Sign  Manual  appointing 
the  Chief  Superintendent  of  Trade,  Sir  Henry 
Pottinger,  Bait.,  K.C.B.,  as  Governor  and 
Commander-in-Chief.  When  the  ratitications 
of  the   Nanking  Treaty   were   exchanged   on 

June  26,  1843,  between  Sir  Henry  Pottinger 
and  the  Cliinesc  commissioners,  who  had 
come  to  Hongkong  for  the  purpose,  the 
Cliarter  of  Hongkong  and  the  Koyal  Warrant 
were  read  out  at  Government  House  before 
a  large  assembly  of  residents,  and  sub- 
sequently published  (June  29,  1843)  by 
proclamation  in  the  Gazette.  It  is  noted  by 
Dr.  Eitel  as  an  interesting  fact  that  this 
proclamation  fixed  the  name  of  the  settle- 
ment as  "the  Colony  of  Hongkong  (not 
Hong  Kong  as  previously  used)  and  the 
name  of   the  city  as  Victoria." 

The  newly  established  Legislative  Council 
was  somewhat  late  in  getting  to  work,  for 
it  was  not  until  January  II,  1844,  that  it 
assembled.  I5ut  it  fully  atoned  by  its  activity 
when  it  did  meet  for  any  lack  of  expedition 
there  may  have  been  in  bringing  it  together. 
In  the  lirst  (our  months  of  its  existence  it  com- 
piled, considered,  and  passed  no  fewer  than 
twelve  colonial  and  five  consular  ordinances, 
some  of  them  of  an  important  character. 


The  Five  Treaty  Ports — Elarly  History  of  Shanghai — Growing  Trade  of  the  Settlement — First  Consular 

Appointments — Difficulties  at  Foochow  and  Amoy. 

We  may  leave  the  early  history  of  Hongkong 
at  this  point  and  turn  to  survey  the  five 
ports  thrown  open  to  trade  by  the  provisions 
of  the  Treaty.  Gmton,  the  oldest  and  at  that 
time  most  important  seat  of  European  trade 
in  Far  Eastern  seas,  demands  first  notice. 
Recalling  the   history   of  the   place   and   the 

in  an  emphatic  way  the  feelings  they  enter- 
tained on  the  subject.  F'irst  there  was  a 
serious  attack  by  a  riotous  mob  on  the 
British  factory,  culminating  in  the  plundering 
and  burning  of  the  building.  Afterwards 
there  was  an  active  agitation  set  on  foot 
by    the    secret   societies    with    the    deliberate 


unvarying  hostility  of  the  official  classes  to 
trade,  it  is  not  a  matter  for  surprise  that  the 
concessions  wrung  from  the  Govermnent 
under  the  Treaty  gave  intense  m.ortification 
to  the  ultra  patriotic  inhabitants  of  Ihis  City 
of  Unrest.    They  were  not  slow  in  showing 

aim  of  inflaming  the  populace  against  the 
foreigners.  An  outcome  of  this  movement 
was  the  issue  of  incendiary  proclamations 
calling  upon  the  inhabitants  to  wreak  their 
vengeance  on  the  insolent  barbarians.  One 
of    these   productions,   which    was    approved 

at  a  great  public  meeting  held  with  the  cog- 
nisance if  not  the  approval  of  the  Mandarins, 
after  a  reference  to  the  grealness  of  the 
empire,  said  :  "  But  there  is  that  vile  English 
nation  !  its  ruler  is  now  a  woman  and  then  a 
man,  and  then,  perhaps,  a  woman  again  ;  its 
people  are  at  one  time  like  birds,  and  then 
they  are  like  wild  beasts,  with  dispositions 
more  fierce  and  furious  tlian  the  tiger  or  wolf 
and  hearts  more  greedy  than  the  great  snake 
or  the  hog.  These  people  have  ever  stealthily 
devoured  all  the  western  barbarians  and  like 
the  demon  of  the  night  they  now  .suddenly 
exalt  themselves.  During  the  reigns  of  the 
Emperors  Kien-lung  and  Kiaking  these 
English  barbarians  humbly  besought  an 
entrance  and  permission  to  deliver  tribute 
and  presents  ;  they  afterwards  presumptu- 
ously asked  to  have  Chusan  ;  but  those  divine 
personages,  clearly  perceiving  their  traitorous 
designs,  gave  them  a  peremptory  refusal. 
From  that  time,  linking  themselves  with 
traitorous  Chinese  traders,  tliey  liave  carried 
on  a  large  trade  and  poisoned  our  brave 
people  with  opium.  Yes,  the  English  bar- 
barians murder  all  of  us  that  they  can  ;  they 
are  dogs  wliose  desires  can  never  be  satisfied  ; 
and,  therefore,  we  need  not  inquire  whether 
the  peace  they  have  now  made  be  real  or 
pretended.  Let  us  all  rise,  arm,  unite  and 
go  against  them.  Yes,  we  here  bind  ourselves 
to  vengeance  and  express  these  our  sincere 
intentions  in  order  to  exhibit  our  high  prin- 
ciples and  patriotism  !  The  gods  from  on 
high  clearly  beliold  us  :  let  us  not  lose  our 
first  and  firm  resolution  !"  A  counter  agitation 
was  attempted  by  a  body  of  merchants  and 
others  who  plainly  realised  the  folly  of  these 
violent  courses  ;  but  this  peace  parly  was  small 
in  numbers  and  it  was  soon  overwhelmed  by 
the  spread  of  the  spirit  of  fanaticism  which 
the  emissaries  of  the  secret  societies  had 
so  assiduously  fanned.  Outrages  were  of 
common  occurrence,  and  property  became 
far  less  secure  than  before  the  war.  With 
strange   unwisdom    the    British    Government 


left  the  Canton  ineicliants  for  considerable 
periods  without  the  protection  of  a  single 
man-of-war.  On  one  occasion  in  July,  1844, 
the  British  community  owed  their  safety  to 
an  American  brig  of  war  which,  on  a  riot 
occurring  at  the  factory,  promptly  went  to 
their  assistance  from  Whampoa.  At  another 
period  of  emergency  the  situation  was  saved 
by  the  accidental  arrival  of  a  Danish  man- 
of-war.  Remonstrances  were  made  by  the 
British  Cantonese  against  the  apparent  lack 
of  consideration  shown,  but  without  much 
effect.  The  mot  d'oriiye  at  the  time  was  to 
do  nothing  to  arouse  Chinese  resentment, 
and  so  the  little  society  of  Britishers  at 
Canton  were  left  for  a  period  very  much  to 
their  own  devices.  That  they  could  at  a 
pinch  very  well  take  care  of  themselves  was 

found    it    easier    to   ride    the   storm    than    to 
direct  it. 

Happily  the  turbulent  spirit  so  conspicu- 
ously manifested  at  Canton  found  little  or  no 
expression  at  other  centres  affected  by  the 
Treaty.  There  were  difiiculties,  but  they  were 
not  of  a  serious  character,  and  were  over- 
come by  the  exercise  of  tact  and  goodwill 
on  both  sides.  Next  to  Canton,  Shanghai 
was  the  port  to  which  most  importance 
was  attached  by  the  mercantile  community. 
Though  few  at  the  time  foresaw  the  great 
position  it  was  ultimately  to  reach,  traders 
were  not  slow  to  appreciate  the  splendid 
facilities  for  the  extension  of  trade  in  the 
interior  of  China  which  the  situation  offered. 
A  brief  summary  of  its  history  may  be  appro- 
priately given  here.     Shanghai,  or  Shanghae, 

Company's  ship  Lord  Amherst,  but  with  such 
unsatisfactory  results  that  when  Sir  James 
Brabazon  Urmston,  president  of  the  Company's 
factory,  in  1833  published  his  "Observations 
on  the  China  Trade  and  the  importance  of 
removing  fro;ii  Canton,"  he  made  no  reference 
to  Shanghai.  It  remained  for  Admiral  Parker 
and  Sir  Hugh  Gough  in  their  Yangtse  cam- 
paign of  1 84 1  to  discover  the  advantages  of 
the  situation.  These  officers  were  greatly 
struck  with  the  position  of  Shanghai  in  its 
relation  to  the  vast  trade  of  the  Yangtse,  and 
its  inclusion  amongst  the  ports  to  be  opened 
to  British  trade  under  the  provisions  of  the 
Treaty  of  Nanking  followed  almost  as  a 
matter  of  course.  When  the  ratifications  of 
the  Treaty  had  been  exchanged  Captain 
Balfour  was  sent  as  British  Consul  to  establish 


(From  the  Chinese  Miscellany.) 

(From  the  Chinese  Miscellany.) 

shown  on  July  8,  1846,  when  a  vigorous 
attack  was  made  by  the  mob  on  the 
factories.  The  merchants  promptly  stood  to 
their  arins,  and,  by  shooting  down  about 
twenty  of  their  assailants,  carried  terror  into 
the  ranks  of  the  attacking  party  and  saved 
the  factory  from  destruction.  But  the  policy 
of  allowing  outrages  to  continue  practically 
without  check  was  a  mistaken  one  and  bore 
its  inevitable  fruit  afterwards.  The  difticulty 
no  doubt  was  the  weakness  of  the  Chinese 
authority  at  this  period.  The  local  govern- 
ment was  powerless  against  the  wave  of 
anti-foreign  sentiment  which  under  the  stimu- 
lating influences  of  the  secret  societies  was 
sweeping  the  province.  It  probably  would 
have  wished  in  its  own  interests  to  do  nothing 
to  arouse   British    anger  ;    but   in   practice   it 

the  foreign  settlement  and  treaty  port,  is 
included  in  the  district  of  Shanghai  in  the 
province  of  Keeang-so.  For  a  long  period 
before  the  place  attracted  European  notice  it 
was  an  important  centre  of  trade.  Native 
vessels  discharged  here,  and  their  cargoes 
were  taken  inland  to  the  great  einporium  of 
Soochow,  and  were  thence  transhipped  to  the 
interior  by  way  of  the  Grand  Canal.  The 
earliest  British  notice  of  the  place  is  to  be 
found  in  a  memorandum  drawn  up  in  1756 
by  Mr.  Frederick  Pigou,  one  of  the  members 
of  the  East  India  Company's  service.  At  that 
time  the  Company  wei'e  looking  out  for  con- 
venient outlets  in  the  P'ar  East  for  their  trade, 
and  Mr.  Pigou  recommended  this  port  as  one 
well  deserving  of  attention.  A  good  inany 
years    later    the    place     was    visited   by    the 

the  new  settlement.  "  At  this  time,"  says  a 
well  known  writer,  "  the  native  city  and  its 
suburbs  lying  on  the  W.  bank  of  the  river 
were  separated  by  an  expanse  of  some  two 
miles  of  reedy  marshland,  partially  cultivated 
and  sparingly  built  upon,  froin  a  stream 
running  into  the  Hwang-fu  from  the  East, 
just  at  the  point  where  the  river  makes  an 
abrupt  curve  to  the  Eastward.  This  streain, 
known  to  foreigners  as  the  Soochow  Creek, 
was  adopted  by  the  British  Consul  as  the 
boundary  of  the  British  Settlement  which 
extended  Southward  for  three-fifths  of  a  mile 
to  a  narrow  canal  called  the  Yang-King-pang 
running  parallel  to  the  Northern  boundary 
stream.  The  river  formed  the  Eastern  limit 
of  the  Settlement,  whilst  inland  no  boundaries 
were   defined.    A    tract    of    land   within    the 


dhow  formed  bv  the  junction  of  the  Soochow 
Creek  with  the  Hwang-fu  «-as  leased  as  the 
site  of  tlie  British  i.x>nsiilatc,  whilst  British 
subjects  generally  were  authorised  to  purchase 
the  buildings  of  native  landowners  within 
the  limits  described  ;  but  for  several  ensuing 
Years  there  was  little  encouragement  for 
foreigners  to  establish  themselves  at  this  port 
and  the  number  of  residents  remained  ex- 
tremely small.  As  trade  developed  in  later 
\tars  a  French  settlement  was  established 
on  the  south  side  of  the  Yang-King-pang 
Creek,  stretching  thence  to  the  city  walls, 
whilst  titer  still,  a  consul  was  appointed  by 
the  United  States  and  a  settlement  planned 
for  I'nited  Stxites  citizens  upon  the  bank  of 
the  river  cast  of  the  Soochow  Creek. 
Several  years  elapsed,  however,  before  the 
expectations  that  had  been  formed  of  a 
prosperous  commerce  at  Shanghai  were 
fullilled.  Foreign  merchants  were  slow  to 
remove  to  so  great  a  distance  from  their 
establishments  then  centred  at  Canton  and 
Hongkong  ;  whilst  the  dull  apathetic 
character   of    the   natives   of    the   place    dis- 

such  as  the  maintenance  of  a  police  force 
and  the  formation  of  roads  and  trams,  could 
be  voluntarily  conducted  by  subscriptions 
which  the  Consul  for  Great  Britain  was  not 
empowered  to  levy  upon  subjects  of  other 
nationalities  than  his  own,  and  a  committee 
of  residents  was  elected  by  the  votes  of  all 
the  renters  of  land,  for  the  purpose  of  super- 
intending the  interests  of  the  community  in 
respect  of  the  above  mentioned  necessary 
matters.  From  this  germ  has  sprung  the 
complicjited  system  of  municipal  government 
which  now  administers  the  internal  affairs 
of  the  vast  and  heterogeneous  city  into 
which  the  British  Settlement  at  Shanghai 
has   developed." 

In  the  foregoing  description  we  have  an 
admirable  summary  of  the  history  of  the 
Treaty  Port  of  Shanghai  in  its  earliest  days. 
The  successful  and  entirely  harmonious  estab- 
lishment of  the  settlement  was,  as  we  have 
indiaited,  in  a  considerable  measure  due  to 
the  cordial  relations  which  existed  between 
the  British  and  the  Chinese  authorities.  The 
Taoutai — the    chief     Mandarin — was    a    man 

XHi.    uOi^iuiiE    AND    PREPARATION    OF    TEA. 
(From  AUom  &  Wright's   ■Chin.i") 

qualified  them  from  the  bustle  and  energy 
inseparable  from  European  commerce.  At 
the  end  of  the  first  year  of  its  history  as  an 
open  port  Shanghai  could  count  only  23 
foreign  residents  and  families,  the  consular 
flag,  II  merchants'  houses  and  2  Protestant 
missionaries.  Only  44  foreign  vessels  had 
arrived  during  the  same  period." 

"The  fac-ilities  which  the  port  offered, 
notwithstanding,  for  the  growing  trade  in 
silk  gradually  attracted  more  and  more  resi- 
dents to  the  spot,  and  the  marshy  waste 
ground  along  the  t)ank  of  the  river  was 
bought  up  at  low  prices  from  the  Chinese 
owners,  on  whose  former  holdings  of  reed 
beds,  paddy  fields  or  garden  patches,  the 
residences  of  large  British  firms  were  succes- 
sively ereticd  in  a  style  of  mingled  solidity 
and  elegance  which  has  almost  entitled 
Shanghai  to  contest  with  Calcutta  the  desig- 
nation of  the  City  of  Palaces.  The  influx 
of  foreigners  other  than  British  within  the 
limits  of  territory  officially  assigned  as  the 
British  Settlement,  led  at  an  early  date  to 
the  necessity  of  devising  some  method  by 
which    undertakings    for    the    public    good, 

of  honour  and  good  feeling.  He  frequently 
exchanged  visits  with  Captain  lialfour,  and 
his  example  was  followed  by  the  lesser 
officials.  The  native  population  also  were 
very  friendly.  The  British  occupation  of 
1842  was  conducted  with  such  tact  that  It 
left  no  resentment  behind.  Moreover,  the 
inhabitants  were  naturally  of  a  more  peace- 
ful type  than  the  turbulent  Cantonese  with 
whom  the  foreign  element  had  formerly 
mainly  had  to  deal.  The  only  interruptions 
to  peace  came  from  an  occasional  scrimmage 
between  Intoxicated  foreign  sailors  and  the 
junkmen  from  Fokeen — a  noisy  and  Irascible 
class  of  native  visitors  who  from  Iheir  readi- 
ness to  enter  a  quarrel  were  given  the  name 
of  the  Irishmen  of  China.  But  these  Incidents 
were  never  allowed  to  interfere  with  the 
general  course  of  trade  or  to  become  a  source 
of  bickering  and  strife  between  the  British 
representatives  and  the  Chinese  officials. 

Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  Rutherford  Alcock,  who 
succeeded  Captain  Balfour  as  consul,  in  a 
report  on  the  trade  of  Shanghai  for  1847 — the 
first  of  its  kind  issued — gave  some  extremely 
interesting  details  relative  to  the   growth   of 

the  port.  The  shipping  had  increased  by 
one-fourth  since  the  previous  year,  but  It 
was  noted  as  a  rather  disquieting  feature  of 
the  trade  operations  that  there  was  the 
large  balance  of  ;£54i,i43  In  favour  of  the 
Chinese.  The  total  imports,  however,  reached 
^'1,066,172  in  value,  and  of  these,  goods 
worth  £^898,228,  were  brouglit  out  in  British 
vessels,  chiefly  sailing  direct  from  England. 
The  export  trade  amounting  in  value  to 
;ti,5i7,29g  was  also  mainly  in  British  hands. 
For  example,  of  15,863,482  lbs.  of  tea  exported 
no  less  than  13,313,519  lbs.  went  to  Great 
Britain.  The  United  States  stood  next  In  the 
order  of  importance  In  the  trade  returns. 
More  than  a  fifth  of  the  total  tonnage  entering 
the  port  sailed  under  the  American  Hag.  The 
development  of  the  settlement  showed  even 
more  than  the  trade  returns,  the  confidence 
reposed  by  the  mercantile  community  in 
Shanghai's  future.  In  the  four  years  which 
had  elapsed  since  the  opening  of  tlie  port, 
Mr.  Alcock  remarked,  a  little  town  had  .sprung 
up  on  the  banks  of  Hwang-fu  which  presented 
the  appearance  of  a  British  colony  rather 
than  the  settlement  of  foreigners  on  Chinese 
territory.  "  The  residences  of  the  principal 
merchants  extend  a  quarter  of  a  mile  along 
the  river  front  from  the  consulate  site,  and 
backwards  twice  that  distance,  with  gardens, 
burial  ground  and  racing  ground  intervening. 
There  are  now  located  at  Slianghai  twenty- 
four  mercantile  firms  within  the  British  limits 
(three  of  which  are  American),  and  twenty-five 
private  residences  have  also  been  built  on  the 
ground  ;  live  shopkeepers'  stores,  an  hotel 
and  clubhouse  have  all  been  erected  within 
the  last  year,  showing  a  degree  of  prosperity 
and  activity  which  I  trust  each  year  will 
make  more  apparent."  Mr.  Alcock  further 
mentioned  that  public  jetties  and  roads  had 
been  completed  along  tlie  whole  river  front 
and  throughout  the  settlement  by  a  committee 
of  residents  appointed  at  a  public  meeting, 
a  church  had  in  like  manner  been  built  with 
assistance  from  Her  Majesty's  Government, 
and  a  new  burial  ground  had  been  procured 
—  further  removed  from  the  residences. 
Finally,  a  beginning  had  been  made  of  the 
effective  lighting  of  the  port  by  the  erection 
of  a  beacon  on  the  most  dangerous  part  of 
the  shoal  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Yangtse- 
Kiang.  A  return  appended  to  tliis  interesting 
report  showed  that  at  the  time  British  subjects 
held  within  the  limits  of  the  settlement  140 
acres  of  land,  which  was  purchased  at  an 
average  cost  of  ;^8s  per  acre.  Upon  the 
sites  thus  acquired  buildings  had  been  erected 
to  the  estimated  value  of  ;^I3 1,836.  Title 
deeds  were  issued  In  January,  1847,  for  the 
land  thus  disposed  of.  They  were  signed  by 
the  Taoutai  and  the  British  Consul  jointly, 
and  copies  were  placed  in  the  Chinese  and 
British  archives  respectively  for  future 

A  reference  must  be  made  in  dealing  with 
the  establishment  of  Shanghai  to  the  important 
part  that  the  tea  and  silk  trade  played  in  build- 
ing up  the  early  prosperity  of  the  settlement. 
In  1844  the  export  of  the  former  amounted 
to  1,558,453  lbs.  The  next  year  saw  an 
extraordinary  advance  to  9,338,422  lbs.  In 
1846,  owing  to  a  native  bankruptcy  which 
dislocated  business,  a  check  was  given  to  the 
trade,  but  the  export,  nevertheless,  amounted 
to  10,073,578  lbs.  Hy  1847  the  consignments 
of  the  commodity  reached,  as  we  have  already 
noted,  the  high 'figure  of  13,313,599  'bs.,  or 
about  one-fourth  of  the  total  export  of  tea. 
Such  was  the  recognition  of  the  splendid 
facilities  offered  by  the  port  for  the  trade 
that  native  merchants  at  this  time  set  up  in 
Shanghai  premises  for  the  preparation  of 
the  leaf  for  export.     Arrangements  were  also 





made  for  the  sending  out  of  European 
agents  to  the  tea  districts  to  buy  teas  direct 
from  the  growers — a  remarkable  innovation 
on  the  additional  methods  of  transacting 
foreign    business  in  China.      As  regards   silk 

constituted  in  every  way  an  agreeable  con- 
trast to  the  ill-placed  building  at  first  set 
apart  for  the  Consulate.  After  the  transfer 
a  better  feeling  appears  to  have  arisen  for  a 
time   between   the    British    and    the    Chinese 



striking  results  were  also  manifested  in  the 
earliest  returns  of  Shanghai  trade.  The 
shipments  increased  from  5,087  bales  in  1844 
to  18,158  bales  in  1847.  The  value  of  the 
trade  in  1847  was  upwards  of  a  million 

While  Shanghai  was  developing  apace  in 
the  manner  described,  the  new  system 
was  making  more  moderate  piogress  at 
other  ports.  Consular  representatives  were 
appointed  at  an  early  date.  Captain  Balfour, 
as  has  been  stated,  was  sent  to  Shanghai  ; 
Mr.  G.  T.  Lay  was  appointed  to  Canton  ; 
Mr.  Henry  Gribble  to  Amoy,  and  Mr.  Robert 
Thorn  to  Ningpo.  The  interpreters  chosen 
for  the  ports  in  the  order  given  were 
Mr.  W.  H.  Medhurst,  jun.,  Mr.  Thomas 
Meadows,  Lieut,  (afterwards  Sir)  Thomas 
Wade,  and  Mr.  Charles  Sinclair.  Mr.  (after- 
wards Sir)  Harry  S.  Parkes  was  at  the  time 
an  assistant  of  the  Rev.  Charles  Gutzlaff, 
who  filled  the  post  of  Chinese  Secretary. 
No  appointment  was  made  immediately  to 
Foochow.  It  was  not,  indeed,  until  the 
latter  part  of  1844  that  steps  were  taken  to 
introduce  the  Consular  system  there.  The 
duty  was  then  entrusted  to  Mr.  Lay,  who  as 
an  experienced  official  was  well  equipped 
for  what  was  realised  would  be  a  difficult 
and  delicate  work  owing  to  the  fact  that 
the  Emperor  had  only  with  the  greatest 
reluctance  allowed  Koochow  to  be  included 
in  the  list  of  Treaty  ports.  The  anticipa- 
tions of  trouble  were  abundantly  realised. 
Mr.  Lay,  on  landing,  found  the  officials  in- 
disposed to  grant  him  a  suitable  place  for 
residence,  and  he  noticed  symptoms  of  a 
disposition  to  slight  his  authority.  At  the 
outset  he  had  to  be  content  with  a  site  in 
the  insalubrious  vicinity  of  the  river  suburb. 
But  by  tactful  negotiations  he  was  ultimately 
able  to  acquire  the  lease  for  resident  pur- 
poses of  a  temple  on  an  eminence  known 
as  Black  Stone  Hill,  overlooking  the  city. 
This  temple  was  beautifully  situated  amid 
pleasant  groves  and  terraced  gardens  and  it 

officials.  Of  their  own  accord  the  Mandarins 
introduced  into  the  contract  for  the  execu- 
tion of  work  at  the  temple  to  fit  it  for 
residential  purposes  a  clause  prohibiting 
work   on    Sunday,    and    in    the    same    spirit. 

character  of  head  gardener,  might  be  seen 
eveiy  day  busily  superintending  the  requisite 
alterations  and  repairs.  The  Abbot,  also,  of 
an  adjoining  Taouist  temple,  with  a  remark- 
able absence  of  bigotry,  for  a  small  monthly 
sum  willingly  admitted  one  of  the  oflicers 
of  the  Consulate  as  a  tenant  of  a  portion  of 
the  sacred  building.*  There  was  a  tem- 
porary break  in  these  pleasant  relations 
towards  the  end  of  1845,  when  a  Consulate 
interpreter  was  attacked  and  pelted  with 
stones  as  he  was  walking  on  the  wall  of 
the  city  near  the  Manchu  quarter.  A  grave 
remonstrance  was  made  to  the  authorities 
in  consequence  of  the  incident,  and  the 
threat  was  held  out  that  if  satisfaction  was 
not  granted  a  man-of-war  would  be  called 
up  to  exact  reparation.  At  the  outlet  the 
Mandarins  were  disposed  to  treat  the  matter 
lightly,  but  when  they  found  that  the  Consul 
was  in  earnest  they  caused  six  Tartars  to 
be  arrested  for  the  offence,  and  had  three 
of  them  bambooed  while  the  other  three 
were  treated  to  the  degrading  punishment 
of  the  cangue  for  a  month.  The  novel  and 
unprecedented  event  of  a  Manchu  Tartar 
wearing  the  cangue,  from  which  mode  of 
punishment  they  had  hitherto  enjoyed  a 
prescriptive  immunity,  and  the  humiliating 
announcement  attached  as  usual  to  the 
wooden  plank  of  the  crime  for  which  they 
were  punished,  and  that,  too,  an  assault 
committed  on  a  newcomer  and  a  stranger 
were  doubly  mortifying  to  the  pride  of  this 
arrogant  class  of  inhabitants,  as  they  were 
also  a  subject  of  invidious  exultation  among 
the  purely  Chinese  portion  of  the  population. 
At  Amoy  there  were  also  difficulties  asso- 
ciated with  the  introduction  of  the  new 
regime.  The  troops  remained  in  occupation 
of  this  port  as  well  as  of  the  island  of 
Chusan,  pending  the  payment  of  the  in- 
demnity.    The   British    post   was   established 


(From  .111  engraving.) 

before   paying  the 
to  inquire  whether 

Consul  a  visit,  they  sent 
it  was  a  Sunday  or  not. 
The  temple  authorities  also  showed  an 
agreeable  disposition  to  make  their  tenants 
comfortable.  Supplies  of  all  sorts  were 
forthcoming,   and   the    Abbot    himself,   in    the 

on  the  island  of   Kulangsu,  and  the  guns  of 
their  fort  at  the  southern  end  dominated  the 

*  Narrative  of  .in  exploratory 
Cities  of  Cliina,  bj'  the  Kcv. 
P-   3.12- 

visit    to   tile  ConsiiL-ir 
George    Smith,    M.A., 


dty.  It  proved  tu  be  a  most  unlicalthy 
position,  rather  stranjjcly  so,  because  before 
the  advent  of  the  British  the  place  had  been 
rcjil.irded  as  salubrious.  The  island  was, 
h  .wcver,  associated  with  the  early  trading 
irjii>actions  of  the  British,  and  on  that 
aivount,  as  well  as  from  its  gixxl  siratefjic 
|x)sition,  seemed  to  be  marked  out  as  the 
site  of  the  future  settlement.  But  it  un- 
fortunately tiappened  that  Kulangsu,  for 
some  reason  or  other,  was  not  mentioned 
to  the  Emperor  when  the  provisions  of  the 
treaty  were  being  discussed,  and  strong 
opptwition  was  offered  to  its  permanent 
occupation  by  the  Chinese  authorities.  The 
British  representatives,  influenced  doubtless 
by  the  insanitary  condition  of  the  place,  did 
not  strongly  press  the  point.  In  the  begin- 
ning of  1845  the  occupying  force  was  with- 
drawn. The  few  British  residents  who 
remained  at  the  time  crossed  the  straits  and 
settled  in  the  city  of  Amoy,  where  they 
found  no  difficulty  in  obtaining  suitable 
houses.  The  Chinese  authorities  subse- 
quently took  drastic  measures  to  obliterate 
every  evidence  of  the  British  occupation. 
"The  barracks,  the  forts,  the  flagstaffs,  and 
even  the  framework  of  the  windows  and 
verandahs,  were  all  speedily  demolished,  and 

the  materials  ^inverted  into  firewood.  The 
work  of  destruction  continued  till  no 
remnants  of  the  foreigners  remained  and 
the  houses  were  restored  to  their  primitive 
condition.  The  work  of  purgation  was 
vigorously  persisted  in.  The  roads  were 
dug  up  and  the  fields  had  again  begun  to 
assume  the  appearance  of  cultivation.  The 
power  of  superstition  and  the  aid  of  heathen 
priests  were  duly  invoked.  Scarcely  a  clay 
passed  without  processions  of  idols,  which 
were  to  be  seen  passing  in  boats  througli 
the  harbour  amongst  the  fleet  of  junks,  each 
of  which,  with  loudly  sounding  gongs, 
saluted  the  deity  as  it  passed  under  the 
vessel  towards  the  island  on  the  opposite 
side.  The  fearful  mortality  which  carried 
off  so  many  of  the  liritish,  had  continued 
to  prevail  to  an  alarming  extent  during 
the  previous  summer,  notwithstanding  the 
gradual  resumption  of  tillage.  In  one 
family  known  to  the  missionaries,  and 
occupying  one  house,  out  of  nine  persons 
seven  had  fallen  victims  to  the  prevailing 
fever.  Even  those  %vho  tilled  the  ground 
generally  retuined  after  the  day's  labour  to 
the  less  insalubrious  residence  of  Anioy  to 
spend  the  night.  Tlie  fears  of  tlie  ignorant 
imputed    the    common    calamity    to   tlie    evil 

spirits  of  the  English  who  had  been  buried 
on  the  island.  The  superstitions  of  the 
people  magnified  every  little  event  ;  and  the 
villagers  were  to  be  heard  expatiating  on 
the  mysterious  scenes  whicli  they  had 
witnessed  of  the  gliosis  of  barbarians 
running  up  and  down  the  hills  at  night 
and   'talking   English   fearfully.'"* 

Ningpo  at  the  outset  attracted  very  little 
trade.  In  the  official  reports  for  1847  there 
is  a  record  which  shows  that  only  six  small 
vessels  visited  the  port  during  the  year.  The 
imports  reached  but  £11,785  i6s.  in  value, 
and  the  exports  stood  at  the  paltry  figure 
of  ;t"622  i8s.  4d.  At  the  whole  of  tlie  five 
ports  in  1847  the  number  of  foreign 
residents  was  only  470.  They  were  dis- 
tributed as  follows  :  Canton  312,  Amoy  20, 
Foochow  7,  Ningpo  15,  and  Shanghai  116. 
It  is  noted  that  at  Foocliow  the  British 
community  ashore  was  reduced  to  the 
members  of  the  Consulate.  The  captains 
of  the  opium  clippers  had  dwelling  houses 
at  Nantai,  but  they  seldom  resorted  to 

*  N:irrative  of  an  exploratory  visit  to  tlie  Consular 
Cities  of  China,  by  tlie  Rev.  Georj*e  Sniitti,  M.A., 
p.  384- 


Sir  J.  F.  Davis's  Ailministration — Mob  attack  on  Englishmen  at  Fatshan — British  Troops  occupy  Canton  Defences 

— Chinese  Authorities  agree  to  admit  Foreigners  to  Canton  City — Murder  of  six  young  Englishmen  near  Canton 

— Demand  for  Reparation — Execution  of  Murderers — Assassination  of  the  Portuguese  Governor  of  Macao — Death 

of  the  Ejnperor  Taoukwang — The  Taeping  Rebellion — Alarm  at  Shanghai — Formation  of  Volunteer  Corps. 

It  will  have  been  gathered  from  the  foregoing 
chapter  that  before  the  ratifications  of  the 
Treaty  of  Nanking  had  tieen  fairly  exchanged 
the  storm  clouds  had  once  more  begun  to 
gather  in  the  quarter  in  which  most  of  the 
disturbances  of  the  peace  had  hitherto  arisen. 
In  June,  1844,  Sir  Henry  Pottinger  left 
Hongkong,  handing  his  duties  over  to  Mr. 
(afterwards  Sir)  J.  K.  Davis.  The  new  British 
Superintendent  t)f  Trade  and  Governor  of 
Hongkong  was  an  experienced  Anglo-Chinese 
ohicial  whom  we  have  met  before,  first  as 
a  member  of  Lord  Amherst's  staff  on  the 
occasion  of  his  embassy  to  Peking  in  1816, 
and  later  as  successor  for  a  brief  period  to 
Lord  Napier  as  the  head  of  the  British 
Commission.  He  was  a  ripe  Chinese  scholar, 
a  writer  of  acknowledged  authority  on 
Chinese  questions,  and  a  gifted  man  of  affairs. 
From  every  point  of  view  his  selection  for 
the  principal  appointment  in  China  appeared 
to  be  an  excellent  one.  He  had  the  advan- 
tage of  the  assistance  in  the  post  of  Colonial 
Secretary  of  Mr.  Frederick  Bruce,  whose 
distinction  it  was  in  later  years  to  be  the 
first  to  fill  the  high  office  of  resident  minister 
at  Peking.  Mr.  Davis's  administration  at  the 
outset  was  largely  occupied,  as  has  been 
indicated  in  a  previous  chapter,  with  the 
pressing  work  which  he  found  awaiting  him 
at  Hongkong.  The  settlement  was  growing 
rapidly,  and  with  its  development  problems 
were  arising  which  called  for  the  exercise 
of  judicious  st;itesmanship.  Therefore,  while 
the  new  Governor  was  not  unmindful  of  the 
larger  interests  committed  to  his  care,  he  had 
no  temptation  to  look  outside  his  immediate 

environment  for  difficult  tasks  to  discharge. 
There  was  the  less  necessity  for  him  to  do 
so  as  the  policy  of  letting  sleeping  dogs  lie 
as  far  as  possible  was  the  one  which  had 
been  deliberately  entered  upon  in  view  of 
the  great  advantages  gained  under  the  Treaty 
of  Nanking  and  the  manifest  expediency  of 
introducing  the  new  system  at  the  earliest 
possible  moment  with  a  minimum  of  fi  iction. 
It  was  in  pursuance  of  this  principle  that 
the  ebullitions  at  Canton  were  not  treated 
with  that  seriousness  which  tliey  seemed  to 
demand.  The  reinonstrances  inade,  emphatic 
enough  as  far  as  the  language  used  was 
concerned,  lacked  the  one  thing  necessary 
to  make  them  really  effective — a  display  of 
force.  As  we  have  seen,  so  far  from  making 
demonstrations,  the  British  Government  at 
this  juncture  rather  ostentatiously  refrained 
from  sending  ships  to  the  Canton  River. 
Having  annexed  Hongkong  it  felt,  and  with 
reason,  that  the  ships  of  the  navy  were  in 
their  right  places  in  the  magnificent  harbour 
there  rather  than  in  Chinese  waters.  An 
untoward  incident  in  the  Canton  River  in 
the  early  part  of  1847  aime,  however,  to 
break  down  this  policy  of  masterly  inactivity. 
A  small  party  of  Englishmen  made  an  ex- 
cursion by  boat  from  Canton  to  Fatshan,  a 
large  manufacturing  town  situated  some 
little  distance  up  the  river.  On  landing  the 
visitors  were  received  in  a  disrtinctly  hostile 
inanner.  In  their  alarm  they  proceeded  to 
the  Yamen,  or  residence  of  the  chief  official, 
for  protection,  but  this  individual  unfortunately 
was  out  at  the  time,  and  the  move  instead 
of  allaying  the  popular  excitement  added  to 

it.  The  Mandarin,  on  returning  shortly 
afterwards,  readily  gave  prompt  assistance 
to  the  strangers.  He  not  only  drove  off  the 
crowd,  but  personally  conducted  the  party 
back  to  their  boat  and  shielded  them  at 
considerable  risk  to  himself  from  the  stones 
which  were  thrown  by  a  large  mob  which 
had  gathered  by  the  riverside  in  anticipation 
of  the  embarkation.  No  one  happily  was 
seriously  injured,  but  Sir  John  Davis  (as  he 
had  now  become)  took  such  a  serious  view 
of  the  episode  that,  collecting  all  the  available 
forces  at  Hongkong,  he  descended  on  Canton 
in  person  to  demand  satisfaction  for  what 
he  regarded  as  a  gross  violation  of  the 
Treaty  of  Nanking.  The  Bogue  forts  were 
seized  without  a  shot  being  fired  and  the 
outer  defences  of  the  city  also  fell  an  easy 
prey  to  the  British  force.  By  the  3rd  of 
April  Canton  was  once  more  completely  at 
the  mercy  of  the  British.  The  advantage 
gained  did  not  have  the  expected  effect  of 
reducing  the  population  to  submission.  On 
the  contrary  their  fanatical  hatred  of  the 
barbarian  was  aroused  to  fever  pitch  by 
the  spectacle  of  British  troops  occupying 
positions  near  the  city.  Ferocious  pioclania- 
tions  were  Issued,  calling  upon  the  people  to 
attack  the  insolent  strangers  and  denouncing 
Keying,  the  Imperial  Commissioner,  as  a 
traitor.  The  Chinese  authorities  on  their 
part,  while  probably  sympathising  with  the 
mob,  realised  that  if  graver  trouble  was  to 
be  averted  they  must  make  peace.  Accord- 
ingly they  accepted  the  British  demands, 
the  chief  of  which  were  that  the  city  of 
Canton    should    be    opened    to     the     British 



within  two  years  from  April  6,  1847,  and 
that  the  Queen's  subjects  should  be  at  liberty 
"to  roam  for  exercise  or  amusement"  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  city,  conditionally  on 
their  returning  the  same  day.  After  this 
the  troops  were  withdrawn  to  Hongkong. 
It  was  a  well  organised,  well  conducted  little 
expedition,  but  it  did  not  commend  itself  to 
the  Government  at  home,  who  were  ex- 
ceedingly apprehensive  lest  the  country 
should  be  dragged  into  another  costly  war. 
The  official  wigging  which  Sir  John  Davis 
received  on  this  occasion  led  him  to  turn 
an  even  deafer  ear  than  hitherto  to  the 
demands  constantly  forwarded  to  him  from 
the  British  community  at  Canton  for 
protective  measures.  Apart  from  this,  he 
seems  almost  to  have  been  persuaded  at  the 
time  that  the  situation  really  had  vastly 
improved  owing  to  the  steps  taken  in  April, 
1847,  for  %ve  find  him  on  November  20th  in 
that  year,  in  a  despatch  to  Lord  Palmerston, 
the  then  Foreign  Secretary,  quoting  with 
complacent  approval  some  peaceful  sentences 
from  a  communication  he  had  received  from 
Keying.  The  wily  old  Commissioner  had 
written  :  "  The  old  habits  of  the  Canton 
populace  are  now  gradually  improving,  and 
we  also  observe  that  the  (Chinese)  guard  of 
the  foreign  factories  proves  very  effectual 
so  that  in  this  quarter  no  calamity  will  take 
place.  If  there  are  one  or  two  loose  vaga- 
bonds who,  without  cause,  create  disturbance 
I  shall  order  them  to  be  punished.  You  the 
honourable  envoy  will  feel  no  uneasiness  on 
this  point.  War  is  disastrous,  but  peace  rich 
in  blessings.  If  we  henceforth  on  both  sides 
control  our  merchants  and  people,  we  shall 
ensure  a  lasting  peace  and  the  trade  will 
daily  become  more  flourishing."  The 
Governor  of  Hongkong,  while  endorsing 
these  sentiments  very  heartily,  took  occasion 
to  refer  to  the  exaggerated  statements  which 
had  been  sent  home  concerning  the  position 
of  affairs  at  Canton  by  the  British  merchants 
resident  there.  His  letter  adds  another  to 
the  many  examples  which  the  history  of 
foreign  trade  with  China  affords  of  the 
danger  of  optimism.  Seventeen  days  later 
Sir  John  Davis  received  at  Hongkong  a 
statement  from  Mr.  Macgregor,  the  British 
Consul  at  Canton  to  the  effect  that  six  young 
EnglishEnen,  clerks  to  merchants  at  Canton, 
had  been  murdered  while  on  an  up-river 
excursion.  The  reports  showed  that  the 
young  men  landed  near  the  village  of 
Hwang-chu-ke  and  were  surrounded  and 
attacked  by  the  inhabitants.  In  the  affray 
which  ensued  two  of  the  visitors  were  killed  ; 
the  others  fled  but,  after  a  hot  pursuit  by 
villagers,  they  were  at  last  overtaken  at  a 
place  called  Hang-Kaon,  where  they  were 
overpowered  and  put  to  death  after  a  mock 
trial.  Sir  John  Davis  proceeded  immediately 
to  Canton  and  peremptorily  demanded  from 
Keying  reparation  for  the  outrage  which  he 
described  as  "  perhaps  the  most  grievous 
that  England  has  experienced  from  the 
Chinese."  Keying  promised  redress,  but  as 
after  the  lapse  of  ten  days  the  demands  of 
the  British  tor  the  punishment  of  the  villagers 
and  the  destruction  of  their  villages  had  not 
been  complied  with  he  fixed  a  further  week 
as  the  limit  beyond  which  he  could  not 
continue  the  negotiations.  Eventually  four 
of  the  principals  implicated  in  the  murders 
were  executed  in  the  presence  of  Sir  John 
Davis,  who  was  attended  by  a  strong  guard 
of  British  soldiers.  Sir  John  Davis  considered 
this  very  inadequate  reparation  for  a 
grievous  and  unprovoked  outrage,  and  con- 
tinued to  press  Keying  for  a  more  extensive 
compliance  with  his  earlier  demands.  Keying 
temporised    after    the     manner     of     Chinese 

officialdom  and  under  various  pretexts  avoided 
any  further  concessions.  Meanwhile,  the 
Canton  merchants,  greatly  incensed  and 
alarmed  at  the  outrages,  had  memorialised 
Lord  Palmerston  to  give  them  the  protection 
which  they  were  entitled  to  under  the  Treaty. 
They  reminded  the  Foreign  Secretary  of 
their  request  in  1846  for  a  warship  to  be 
permanently  stationed  at  Canton,  and  they 
recalled  the  reply  they  received  that 
"  wherever    British    subjects    are    placed    in 

memorialists  asked  his  lordship  whether 
living,  as  they  did,  "among  a  people  who 
had  achieved  their  last  bloody  triumph  in  the 
slaughter  of  our  countrymen,"  they  did  not 
require  "the  efficient,  constant,  and  present 
protection  of  Her  Majesty's  forces."  Lord 
Palmerston  replied  to  the  memorialists  that 
he  did  not  see  how  a  steam  vessel  stationed 
in  front  of  the  factories  could  have  prevented 
the  outrage,  and  expressed  his  regret  that 
the   merchants   had   not   used   their  influence 


(From  an  engravinjj  in  the  I'rint  l^oom,  British  Museum.) 

danger  in  a  situation  which  is  accessible  to  a 
British  ship  of  war,  thither  a  British  ship  of 
war  ought  to  be  and  will  be  ordered."  "  It 
was,"  they  proceeded,  "  with  the  utmost  sur- 
prise and  regret,  therefore,  that  we  beheld 
that  officer  shutting  his  eyes  to  the  danger 
that  menaced  us,  overlooking  all  manifesta- 
tions of  the  ill-feeling  of  the  people  .  .  . 
disregarding  the  murderous  manifestoes 
of  the  banded  ruffians  by  whom  we  are 
surrounded,  and  withholding  the  protection 
he     had     been     directed     to     afford."      The 

amongst  the  young  men  of  their  establish- 
ments to  induce  them  to  desist,  at  least  for 
a  time,  from  excursions  which  were  known 
to  be  attended  with  personal  risk.  The  con- 
troversy arising  out  of  the  incident,  after 
continuing  for  some  time,  was  settled  after  a 
fashion  by  the  promulgation  by  the  Chinese 
of  a  series  of  regulations  designed  to  afford 
greater  protection  to  foreigners  at  Canton 
and  its  vicinity. 

Less      than     a     twelvemonth      after      the 
Fatshan     incident     another     outrage     of     a 


similar  character  nas  perpetrated  at  Tsingpu, 
a  town  about  30  miles  distant  iroin 
Shanghai.  A  paity  o(  missionaries,  three 
in  number,  left  the  British  settlement  one 
day  in  March,  iKt^^-  ^'>^  the  intention  of 
conducting  their  proselytising  work  at  the 
town.  On  arrival  they  cvmimenced  to  dis- 
tribute their  tracts  when  they  were  molested 
by  a  party  of  rowdies.  Soon  the  attack 
developed  into  a  serious  one  and  the 
missiorraries  thought  it  wise  to  take  to 
flight.  They  did  so,  but  were  pursued  and 
captured,  and  were  then  subjected  to  severe 
maltreatment.  The  officials  and  respectable 
classes  finally  rescued  them  from  their 
dangerous  position  and  they  were  helped 
tack  to  Shanghai,  sorely  wounded  and  with 
the  loss  of  all  their  possessions.  Mr.  Alcock 
on  hearing  of  the  occurrence  sent  a  war 
vessel  with  the  Vice-Consul,  and  Mr.  Harry 
Parkes  as  interpreter  on  board,  to  Nanking 
to  demand  satisfaction.  Meanwhile,  an 
embargo  was  laid  upon  the  sailing  of  the 
rice  btoats.  Li,  the  Viccioy,  on  being 
interviewed,   proved   most   anxious    to   settle 

opposed  to  any  concession  of  the  kind. 
There  W'as  no  desire  en  the  part  of  the 
British  to  carry  matters  to  extremes,  and 
when  the  Emperor's  decree  arrived  express- 
ing his  opposition  to  any  attempt  to  force 
the  populace  to  receive  foreigners  into  the 
city  against  their  will,  it  was  deemed 
expedient  to  acquiesce  in  the  imperial 
decision.  After  this  there  was  a  brief  lull, 
hut  the  atrocious  murder  of  the  Portuguese 
Governor  of  Macao  in  1850  proved  that  the 
Chinese  spirit  of  antagonism  to  foreigners 
was  as  potent  for  evil  as  ever.  The  outrage 
was  a  peculiarly  dastardly  one,  and  it  was 
committed  under  circumstances  which  left 
little  doubt  as  to  the  complicity  of  the 
Chinese  officials.  M.  Amaral,  the  unfor- 
tunate victim,  desirous  of  restoring  the 
prestige  of  his  country,  had  introduced 
several  changes  in  the  administration.  He 
did  nothing  that  was  not  in  keeping  with 
the  spirit  of  the  recently  concluded  agree- 
ment, but  the  Canton  authorities  were 
greatly  incensed  at  his  actioir  and  made  up 
their  minds  to  compass  his  death.     Placards 

(From  Allom  &  Wright's  "China.") 

the  matter  amicably.  He  gave  orders  for 
the  removal  of  the  Intendant  of  Soochow, 
and  appointed  another  official  with  special 
instructions  to  inquire  into  the  incident. 
Later,  ten  men  implicated  in  the  outrage 
were  punished  with  flogging,  the  cangue 
and  banishment.  In  this  way  what  had 
threatened  to  be  a  very  tiresome  and 
protracted  business  was  concluded  to  the 
complete  satisfaction  of  the  British  com- 

If  the  spirit  shown  by  the  officials  on  this 
occasion  had  been  manifested  in  the  south 
no  further  rupture  would  probably  have 
occurred,  at  all  events  for  a  good  many 
years.  But  Canton  would  not  have  been 
Canton  if  it  did  not  do  its  best  to  embitter 
the  relations  between  the  native  and  the 
foreign  elements.  It  will  be  recalled  that 
one  of  the  conditions  wrung  from  Keying 
by  Sir  John  Davis  in  1847,  was  that  the  ■ 
gates  of  Canton  should  be  opened  to 
British  subjects  on  April  6,  1849.  As 
the  day  approached  for  the  carrying  out 
of  this  clause  in  the  agreement  it  became 
evident    that    the    population    were    bitterly 

at  their  instigation  were  issued,  inflaming 
the  native  populace  against  him,  and  in  other 
ways  the  path  was  prepared  for  the  crime. 
The  blow  was  struck  swiftly  and  remorse- 
lessly. M.  Amaral  when  riding  out  one  day, 
accompanied  only  by  one  officer,  was 
attiicked,  on  the  outskirts  of  the  town,  by  a 
party  of  ruffians  who  lay  in  ambush.  He 
was  dragged  from  his  horse  and  put  to 
death  with  great  cruelty.  Afterwards  his 
head  was  cut  off  and  sent  to  Canton  as  a 
trophy.  There  it  was  received  with  every 
manifestation  of  delight.  Su,  the  Governor- 
General  of  the  province,  in  communicating 
the  fact  of  the  assassination  to  the  Emperor, 
said  that  the  barbarian's  crimes  merited 
public  punishment  of  the  most  fearful  kind, 
but  that  it  had  pleased  the  gods  to  interfere 
and  make  an  example  of  him,  by  allowing 
his  death  at  the  hands  of  some  men  who 
had  private  injuries  to  avenge.  To  throw 
dust  in  the  eyes  of  the  Portuguese,  the 
same  official  caused  a  criminal  to  be 
decapitated,  and  sent  his  head,  with  that  of 
the  Portuguese  Governor,  to  Macao,  with  an 
intimation  that  the  crime  had   been  avenged 

by  the  execution  of  the  principal  murderer. 
The  Portuguese  declined  to  accept  this  as 
adequate  reparation,  and  reinforcements 
were  summoned  from  Lisbon,  to  impress 
upon  the  Canton  oflicials  a  sense  of  the 
infamy  of  the  outrage  that  had  been  com- 
mitted. After  moiitlis  of  negotiation  several 
of  the  real  criminals  were  captured  and 
executed.  A  number  of  other  men  impli- 
cated in  the  crime  had  met  their  deserts 
previously  at  the  hands  of  British  forces 
engaged  in  suppressing  piracy  in  the  Canton 

The  death  of  the  Emperor  Taoukvvang  on 
February  12,  1850,  gave  a  new  turn  to 
the  course  of  events  in  China.  The  old 
despot's  declining  days  were  dogged  with 
misfortune,  and  he  left  to  his  successor, 
Hienfung,  a  legacy  of  internal  trouble  and 
international  complications  which  was  to 
shake  the  imperial  power  to  its  foundations. 
Hienfung  was  only  a  young  man  of  nineteen 
when  he  ascended  the  throne,  and  his  im- 
pressionable mind  seems  to  have  fallen  under 
the  spell  of  those  of  the  imperial  counsellors 
who  were  inimical  to  toreigners.  One  of  his 
first  acts  was  to  disgrace  Keying  and  another 
Mandarin  who  had  shown  in  their  official 
career  some  leaning  towards  the  British. 
Whether  intended  as  an  indication  of  hostile 
policy  or  not  the  action  taken  was  interpreted 
in  that  sense  by  the  great  majority  of  Chinese 
officials,  and  indications  were  soon  forth- 
coming of  the  change  in  sentiment.  At 
Foochow  difficulties  were  raised  against  the 
British  residing  in  the  city,  on  the  ground 
previously  taken  up  that  the  concession  of 
trading  facilities  referred  not  to  the  city  but 
to  the  landing  place  at  the  mouth  of  the 
river.  Lin,  the  old  enemy  of  the  British,  was 
in  residence  at  this  time  in  the  vicinity  of 
Foochow,  and  it  was  suspected,  not  prob- 
ably without  reason,  that  he  had  a  hand  in 
fomenting  the  agitation  which  arose  on  this 
question.  Whatever  the  truth  may  have  been 
on  that  point,  the  ebullition  was  thoroughly 
in  keeping  with  the  sentiments  which  had 
always  inspired  him.  Moreover,  the  selection 
of  ground  for  the  dispute  showed  the  mark 
of  his  cunning  hand  ;  for  the  British  were 
undoubtedly  in  the  wrong  in  their  interpre- 
tation of  the  terms  of  the  concession.  The 
Treaty  conferred  permission  to  the  British  to 
reside  in  the  Kiang-Kan,  or  mart  at  the  mouth 
of  the  river,  but  not  in  the  ching  or  town. 
Upon  this  fact  being  borne  in  upon  them 
the  British  officials  withdrew  their  preten- 
sions, leaving  the  question  open  for  adjust- 
ment afterwards  as  opportunity  might  offer. 

Hienfiing's  antagonism  to  foreigners  was 
peculiarly  ill-timed  in  the  circumstances  in 
which  he  commenced  his  reign.  Throughout 
the  vast  limits  of  his  empire  there  was  dis- 
content and  unrest.  The  formidable  secret 
organisation  known  as  the  Triads  had  raised 
the  standard  of  rebellion  in  alarming  fashion 
in  Kwangsi.  In  vast  bands  they  ravaged  the 
country,  laid  siege  to  towns,  and  fought 
pitched  battles  with  imperial  troops.  The 
imperial  authorities  were  powerless  to  make 
any  real  headway  against  the  movement. 
The  small  advantages  gained  were  more 
than  counterbalanced  by  crushing  defeats. 
At  length  the  rebels  had  the  audacity  to  put 
forward  their  chief,  Tien  Wang,  as  a  rival 
for  the  imperial  tlirone  itself.  Tien  Wang 
was  a  man  of  low  birth  and  inferior  educa- 
tional attainments,  but  he  had  unquestionable 
genius  as  a  leader,  and  the  common  people, 
impressed  by  his  successes,  pinned  their  faith 
in  his  destiny  with  remarkable  devotion.  He 
justified  the  popular  confidence  reposed  in 
him  after  his  assumption  of  royal  rank  by 
carrying  in  the  early  part  of   the   year  1851 


the  important  military  station  of  Nanning 
and  occupying  a  great  tract  of  country  about 
it.  Thereafter  he  proceeded  to  attaclj  Kvvei- 
ling,  the  provincial  capital  which  commands 
one  of  the  important  roads  into  the  interior 
of  China.  Frenzied  efforts  were  made  by 
the  Imperial  Government  to  cope  with  the 
situation,  but  by  this  time  the  Taeping  Re- 
bellion, as  it  was  to  be  kno%vn  in  history, 
had  assumed  such  proportions  as  to  be  almost 
beyond  the  powers  which  could  be  exercised 
from  Peking.  Instead  of  Tien  Wang  being 
suppressed  by  the  forces  sent  against  him 
he  derived  confidence  from  their  ill-directed 
efforts,  and  In  the  end  conceived  the  bold 
design  of  marchhig  his  forces  northwards 
into  Hoonan.  It  is  unnecessary  for  our  pur- 
pose to  follow  the  course  of  events  so  lucidly 
described  in  Mr.  Demetrius  Boulger's  great 
work  on  China.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  by  the 
month  of  April,  1853,  the  rebels,  after  a 
tiiumphal  march,  had  captured  and  occupied 
Nanking  and  firmly  established  themselves  in 
the  valley  of  the  Yangtse-Kiang. 

The  course  of  the  rebellion  had  been 
watched  with  intense  interest  by  foreigners 
in  China  and  by  none  more  closely  than  by 
the  British  community.  As  a  rule  sympathy 
was  strongly  enlisted  on  the  side  of  the  rebels. 
In  them  Britons  saw  a  people  struggling  for 
freedom  against  a  desolating  despotism,  and 
they  attributed  to  them  patriotic  virtues  which 
it  is  to  be  feared  they  never  possessed. 
After  the  astounding  successes  achieved  in 
the  valley  of  the  Yangtse  the  British  au- 
thorities deemed  it  advisable  to  take  special 
measures  to  discover  the  true  meaning  of  this 
wonderful  movement  which  seemed  to  be 
on  the  point  of  laying  the  proud  Manchu 
power  in  the  dust.  Consequently  in  April, 
1853,  Sir  George  Bonham,  who  had  suc- 
ceeded Sir  John  Davis  in  the  supreme 
charge  of  British  interests  in  China,  pro- 
ceeded to  Nanking  in  the  warship:  Hermes. 
The  vessel  was  fired  upon  by  the  batteries 
at  Chinkiang  and  Kwachow,  but  the  compli- 
ment was  ignored  and  in  due  course  the 
party  reached  Nanking.  After  a  week  spent 
in  interviews  and  negotiations  with  the 
Taeping  leaders.  Sir  George  Bonham  left  in 
the  Hermes.  His  mission,  there  can  be  no 
doubt,  was  a  mistake.  While  it  accomplished 
nothing  practical,  it  had  the  effect  of  instil- 
ling the  jealous  and  suspicious  minds  of  the 
Peking  authorities  with  the  belief  that  Britain 
was  for  her  own  purposes  fomenting  the 
rebellion.  After  Sir  George  Bonham's  visit 
to  Nanking  a  section  of  the  rebel  forces 
marched  northwards  with  the  intention  of 
attacking  Peking.  The  enterprise  failed  for 
various  reasons,  and  very  few  of  those  who 
left  Nanking  ever  returned  to  it.  But  signal 
as  were  the  imperial  successes  they  had  no 
decisive  result  on  the  course  of  the  rebellion. 
The  flame  of  revolt  continued  to  blaze  with 
fierce  intensity  at  many  and  widely  separated 
points,  and  occasional  outbreaks  in  quite 
new  centres  pointed  the  inevitable  results  of 
slackened  authority.  At  the  British  Treaty 
ports  the  continuance  of  the  rebellion  was 
regarded  with  a  feeling  almost  akin  to  con- 
sternation. The  effect  upon  trade  was  most 
disastrous,  and  the  proposal  was  seriously 
mooted  by  the  Shanghai  mercantile  com- 
munity that  the  custom  duties  should  no 
longer  be  paid.  Mr.  Rutherford  Alcock, 
however,  emphatically  declined  to  entertain 
any  such  idea,  pointing  out  that  the  pro- 
visions of  the  Treaty  of  Nanking  must 
be  upheld,  and  urging  that  it  behoved 
British  subjects  to  maintain  strict  neutrality 
in  the  crisis  through  which  China  was 
passing.  On  another  point— the  putting  of 
the    settlement    in   a    condition   of  defence — 

Mr.  Alcock  was  able  to  enter  into  hearty 
co-operation  with  the  mercantile  community. 
Under  his  auspices  an  influential  meeting  of 
the  residents  was  held  in  April,  1853,  to 
devise  a  plan  for  the  protection  of  the  com- 
munity. The  most  notable  decision  arrived 
at  was  that  the  British  residents  should  form 
a  volunteer  corps  under  the  direction  of 
Captain  Trowson,  an  officer  who  had  seen 
service  in  the  Bengal  Fusiliers,  and  that  the 
supreme  command  and  direction  of  the 
military  preparations  should  be  vested  in 
Captain  Fishbourne,  the  senior  officer  on 
the  station.  At  a  subsequent  meeting  the 
members  of  the  other  foreign  communities 
decided  to  associate  themselves  with  their 
British  confreres  in  these  protective  measures. 
Events  soon  proved  the  wisdom  of  the  action 
taken.  After  some  preliminary  threatenings 
the  rebels  in  September,  1853,  descended 
upon  the  native  city  and  with  the  aid  of  the 
local  disaffected  seized  the  Taoutai's  quarters, 
killed  a  number  of  officials,  and  assumed  the 
government.  The  occurrences  excited  great 
alarm    in    the    settlement,     which    from    its 

and  provided  daily  diversion  for  Shanghai 
people,  who  in  the  intervals  of  business  went 
out  to  watch  the  operations  of  the  contending 
forces.  In  the  interests  of  commerce,  which 
was  suffering  greatly  by  the  civil  distractions, 
attempts  were  vainly  made  to  induce  the 
rebels  to  surrender.  Short  of  intervention, 
however,  there  seemed  no  way  of  bringing 
the  siege  to  a  close.  The  British  authorities 
steadily  declined  to  entertain  all  proposals  to 
this  end.  But  the  French,  whose  settlement 
was  nearest  the  native  city  and,  therefore, 
most  liable  to  attack,  in  December,  1854, 
elected  to  throw  the  weight  of  their  influence 
into  the  imperial  scale  with  a  view  of  putting 
an  end  to  the  state  of  war  in  which  the 
district  had  been  involved  for  the  past  three 
months.  The  French  guns  did  a  good  deal 
of  damage  to  the  city  walls,  and  it  seemed 
that  the  Triads,  as  the  rebels  were  locally 
known,  were  in  for  a  very  bad  time.  When, 
however,  the  French  with  a  force  of  some 
four  hundred  sailors  and  marines  attempted 
to  assault  the  city  in  co-operation  with  the 
imperial   forces,  they  were  met  with  such  a 

(From  Allom  &  Wright's-^'\ China.") 

proximity  to  the  scene  of  the  disturbances 
and  its  open  character,  was  a  bait  calculated 
to  attract  the  lawless  mob  which  had  so 
dramatically  obtained  the  ascendency  in  the 
adjacent  Chinese  district.  Every  precaution 
was  taken  to  guard  against  surprise  and  to 
meet  an  attack.  The  men-of-war  in  port 
trained  their  guns  upon  the  approaches  to 
the  settlement  and  were  ready  to  land  armed 
parties  at  a  moment's  notice.  Meanwhile  the 
volunteer  force  patrolled  the  European  quarter 
day  and  night.  As  time  wore  on  it  became 
evident  that  the  rebels  had  no  intention  of 
provoking  an  encounter.  Apart  from  the 
inevitable  risks  which  thev  would  have  to 
face  there  was  the  certainty  that  interfer- 
ence with  Europeans  would  break  down  the 
policy  of  neutrality  which  had  been  steadily 
pursued  in  regard  to  them.  So  what  at  first 
had  been  regarded  as  a  menacing  danger 
assumed  the  aspect  of  a  somewhat  tedious 
but  not  entirely  uninteresting  struggle 
upon  which  foreigners  could  look  with  an 
air  of  detachment.  The  attempts  of  the 
imperial  forces  to  recover  possession  of  the 
city   were    ludicrous    in    their    ineff'ectiveness 

determined  resistance  that  they  were  com- 
pelled ultimately  to  fall  back  with  a  loss 
of  four  officers  and  si.xty  men  killed  and 
wounded.  This  unpleasant  reverse  had  the 
effect  of  killing  for  the  time  being  the  idea 
of  foreign  intervention.  The  contending  fac- 
tions were  left  severely  alone  and  the  siege 
went  on  in  its  old  desultory  way.  Before 
very  long  the  rebels,  feeling  the  pinch  of 
want,  made  a  desperate  effort  to  cut  their 
way  out.  The  bulk  of  them  fell  either  by 
the  sword  of  the  imperialists  or  later  at  the 
hands  of  the  executioners,  who  carried  out 
their  sanguinary  work  with  a  remorseless 
severity  characteristic  of  Chinese  methods. 
The  two  leaders.  Lew  and  Chin-ah-lin, 
escaped,  though  a  heavy  price  was  put  upon 
their  heads,  and  a  few  of  the  lesser  lights 
of  the  rising  also  got  away  by  taking  refuge 
in  the  foreign  settlement.  In  other  direc- 
tions at  this  period  the  imperial  authorities 
achieved  successes  over  the  rebels,  and  the 
circumstance  undoubtedly  tended  to  stiffen 
their  opposition  to  demands  which  shortly 
afterwards  were  made  upon  them  by  the 
British  Government. 



Sir  John  Bowling's  Administration— He  demands  an  Interview  with  the  Viceroy  Yeh — Refusal  to  grant  a 
Meeting  in  Canton — Outrage  on  the  British  Lorcha  "Arrow" — Sir  Michael  Seymour  bombards  Canton — Con- 
tinuance of  Hostilities— Troops  requisitioned  from  England — Lord  Elgin  appointed  Special  Envoy— Expeditionary 
Force  sent  out  but  diverted  to  India  to  deal  with  the  Mutiny  Crisis— Ultimate  advance  on  Canton — Bombardment 
of  the  City — Capture  and  deportation  of  Yeh — Allied  British  and  French  Fleets  capture  the  Taku  Forts  and 
enter  the  Peiho  Rivei — Conclusion  of  the  Treaty  of  Tientsin. 

Mr.  (afterwards  Sir  John)  Bowring  in  1853 
succeeded  Sir  George  Boiiham  in  the  chief 
control  of  British  interests  in  China.  He 
was  a  man  wlio  liad  had  a  remarkable  career. 
In  1832,  when  travelling  in  France,  he  was 
arrested  as  a  spy.  The  intimate  friend  of 
Jeremy  Bentham,  and  one  of  the  earliest 
school  of  philosophical  Radicals,  he  was  the 

instructions,  on  appointment,  were  to  avoid 
all  initatinj^  discussions  with  China,  aiui  when 
a  new  Government  came  into  power  in 
England  a  short  time  later  the  instructions 
were  repeated  with  emphasis.  In  strict  con- 
formity with  them  Sir  John  Bowring  (as  he 
became  soon  after  his  appointment)  souglit 
an  early  opportunity  of  entering  into  friendly 

(From  the  bronze  medallion  in  the  National  Portrait  Gallery.) 

first  joint  editor  of  the  Westminster  Review, 
and  wrote  largely  on  political  and  economic 
questions.  He  was  employed  by  the  Gov-. 
ernments  of  the  day  on  many  important 
commissions,  and  in  1841  entered  Parliament 
as  a  Radical.  Six  years  later  he  went  as 
Consul  to  Canton.  It  was  from  this  post 
tliat  he  was  transferred  to  Hongkong.      His 

communication  with  the  Chinese  authorities. 
The  Viceroy  Su,  in  acknowledging  his 
communication,  complimented  him  on  his 
appointment,  but  begged  to  be  excused  a 
personal  interview  on  the  ground  that  his 
hands  were  full  of  the  operations  against 
the  rebels.  Nothing  was  done  for  some 
little   time,   Sir  John  Bowring   deeming  that 

he  was  precluded  from  pushing  the  matter 
by  the  strict  injunctions  given  to  him  on 
appointment  and  several  times  repealed. 
When,  however,  in  the  early  part  of  1854, 
Lord  Clarendon,  who  had  succeeded  to  the 
office  of  Foreign  Secretary,  addressed  him 
a  despatch  in  which  an  admission  was  made 
of  the  desirability  of  securing  free  and  unre- 
stricted intercourse  with  the  Chinese  officials 
and  "admission  into  some  of  the  cities  of 
China,  especially  Canton,"  he  felt  that  he 
might  appropriately  venture  to  raise  afresh 
the  question  of  the  opening  of  Canton  to  the 
British.  The  opportunity  offered  on  the 
appointment  of  Yeh  as  Viceroy  in  succession 
to  Su.  Sir  John  Bowring  addressed  a 
communication  to  the  new  commissioner 
notifying  his  definitive  appointment  as 
Governor  of  Hongkong.  Receiving  no  reply 
to  this  he  sent  a  second  communication 
requesting  an  interview  but  intimating  that 
such  could  only  take  place  within  the  city 
of  Canton  at  the  oflicial  residence  of  the 
Viceroy.  Yeh  sent  an  evasive  reply, 
saying  that  though  he  would  be  pleased  to 
see  Sir  John  Bowring  if  possible  his  duties 
in  connection  with  the  management  of  the 
military  arrangements  in  tlie  province  were 
such  that  he  could  not  name  a  day.  The 
British  Governor,  not  to  be  put  off  in  this 
way,  sent  Mr.  Medhurst,  his  official  secre- 
tary, to  Canton,  charged  with  the  duty  of 
fixing  an  interview  with  Yeh  if  such  an 
arrangement  could  be  made.  Mr.  Medhurst 
speedily  found  that  his  mission  would  be  an 
abortive  one.  The  Mandarins  detailed  to 
meet  him  were  men  of  inferior  rank,  and 
he  could  get  no  satisfaction.  He  gathered, 
however,  that  the  arrangement  made  by 
Keying  for  the  opening  of  the  gates  of  the 
city  was  repudiated  by  the  Viceroy,  and 
that  the  utmost  concession  that  would  be 
made  was  that  a  meeting  should  take  place 
at  the  Jinsin  Packhouse  on  the  Canton  Kiver 
— a  position  outside  the  city  limits.  Sir 
John  Bowring  resolutely  declined  to  enter- 
tain this  proposal,  and  finding  that  Yeh  was 
obdurate  he  left  Hongkong  for  Shanghai 
with  the  view  of  getting  into  direct  com- 
munication with  the  Peking  authorities.  On 
arrival  at  the  northern  .settlement,  he  ad- 
dressed a  letter  to  Eleang,  the  Viceroy  of 
the  Two  Kiang,  making  a  complaint  of 
Yeh's  discourtesy  to  him  and  expressing  a 
desire  to  negotiate  either  with  him  or  some 
other  high  official  of  the  Empire.  Eleang 
replied  in  a  letter  which  is  a  masterpiece  of 
courtly  irony.  After  saying  that  he  could 
not  interfere  with  Commissioner  Yeh,  who 
was  a  high  official  specially  appointed  by 
the  Emperor  to  conduct  the  relations  with 
foreigners,  he  wrote  :  "  I  have  no  means 
of  knowing  what  kind  of  treatment  your 
Excellency  or  your  predecessors  received  at 
the  hands  of  the  Commissioner  at  Canton. 
It  is,  to  my  mind,  a  matter  of  more  con- 
sequence  that   we   of   the   central   and   other 


nations  have  made  fair  dealing  and  good 
faith  our  rule  of  conduct,  and  thus  for  a 
length  of  time  preserved  entire  our  amicable 
relations.  Familiarity  or  otherwise  in  social 
intercourse  and  all  such  triHes,  are,  in  my 
opinion,  to  be  decided  by  the  laws  of  con- 
ventionality. As  your  Excellency  cherishes 
such  a  dislike  to  discourteous  treatment,  you 
must  doubtless  be  a  most  courteous  man 
yourself — an  inference  which  gives  me  sin- 
cerest  pleasure,  for  we  shall  both  be  able  to 
maintain  Treaty  stipulations,  and  contiiaie  in 
the  practice  of  mutual  goodwill  to  your 
Excellency's  everlasting  honour."  Sir  John 
Bovvring  let  the  matter  sleep  for  the  best 
part  of  a  year  and  then  (in  June,  1855) 
prepared  an  explicit  demand  for  the  ofiicial 
reception  either  of  himself  or  of  Mr.  Ruther- 
ford Alcock,  who  by  this  time  had  been 
transferred  from  Shanghai  to  Canton.  Yeli, 
after  taking  a  month  to  reply,  sent  a  l^;tter 
saying  that  the  reception  of  a  consul  was  out 
of  the  question,  and  that  as  the  Governor 
himself  had  refused  the  meeting  outside  the 
city,  there  was  an  end  of  the  matter.  He 
added  that  though  the  rebel  movement  had 
been  got  well  under,  he  was  still  largely 
occupied  with  military  matters.  In  acknow- 
ledging this  communication  Sir  John  Bowring 
intimated  that  there  was  little  likelihood  of 
British  and  Chinese  relations  being  put  on 
anything  like  a  satisfactory  footing  until 
the  city  question  was  satisfactorily  settled. 
Here  for  the  present  the  controversy  ended. 
Mr.  Alcock  returned  to  his  old  post  at 
Shanghai,  and  his  place  at  Canton  was  filled 
by  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  Harry  Parkes.  Tlie 
altitude  of  the  Cantonese  meanwhile,  was 
such  as  to  cause  grave  anxiety.  Follow- 
ing upon  a  series  of  minor  insults  a  gross 
and    entirely    unprovoked    attack    was    made 

The  deadlock  which  had  been  reached 
might  have  continued  indefinitely  had  not, 
as  had  often  happened  before,  in  the  history 
of  foreign  trade  in  China,  an  event  occurred 
which  forced  matters  to  an  issue.  Early  in 
October,  1856,  a  lorcha,  or  fast   sailing  boat, 

no  right  to  interfere.  After  waiting  a  few 
days  for  an  apology  which  was  not  forth- 
coming it  was  decided  to  give  an  additional 
turn  to  the  screw  with  a  view  to  bringing 
Yeh  to  a  more  reasonable  frame  of  mind.  To 
Sir  Michael  Seymour,  the  Admiral  on  the  sta- 

SIR    HARRY    PARKES,    K.C.B. 

(From  "Tlie  Life  of  Sir  Harry  Parties."     By  Stantey 


By  Itiiid  permission  of  Messrs.  Macmillan  &  Co.) 

in  1856  in  the  outskirts  of  Canton  upon 
Mr.  Berkeley  Johnson  and  Mr.  Whittall,  two 
of  the  leading  British  merchants.  In  spite  of 
the  indignant  remonstrances  of  Mr.  Parkes, 
the  Chinese  authorities  took  no  action  what- 
ever to  punish  the  offenders.  The  utmost 
that  they  could  be  induced  to  do  was  to 
secure  the  withdrawal  of  an  inflammatory 
placard  directed  against  Europeans. 


,  (From  ail  engraving.) 

named  the  Arrmv,  British  owned  and  com- 
manded, and  flying  the  British  flag,  while 
lying  at  anchor  in  the  Canton  River  was 
boarded  by  a  party  of  Mandarins  attended 
by  a  substantial  escort.  In  spite  of  remon- 
strances the  intruders  hauled  down  the 
British  flag  and  carried  ofi^  the  Chinese  crew 
prisoners.  On  the  circumstances  of  the  in- 
cident becoming  known  to  Mr.  Parkes  he 
demanded  satisfaction  for  this  "  very  grave 
insult,"  and  as  a  preliminary  requested  that 
the  captured  crew  should  be  released.  Yeh 
sent  a  reply  which  was  a  vindication  of  the 
proceedings  of  the  officials.  His  explanation 
was  that  one  of  the  crew  was  a  criminal,  and 
that  the  others  were  required  as  witnesses 
against  him.  Moreover,  he  asserted  that  the 
Arrmv  was  not  a  foreign  lorcha — a  contention 
which  had  colourable  justification  in  the  fact 
that  through  an  oversight  the  boat  was  not 
at  the  time  of  the  affair  actually  registered 
at  Hongkong,  though  it  was  beheved  that 
she  was  so  registered,  and  in  any  event  she 
was  most  certainly  under  British  protection. 
Beyond  question  the  boarding  of  the 
and  the  carrying  off  of  her  crew  was  an 
unwarrantable  proceeding,  and  one  which 
could  not  possibly  be  overlooked  without 
grave  injury  to  British  prestige. 

Failing  to  obtain  redress  from  Yeh  the 
British  authorities  decided  to  institute  re- 
prisals. The  first  step  taken  was  the  seizure 
of  a  junk  believed  to  be  a  Chinese  Govern- 
ment vessel,  by  the  British  Naval  Commodore 
at  Canton.  When  this  move  had  lieen  carried 
out  Mr.  Parkes  wrote  to  Yeh  telling  him 
what  had  been  done,  and  reminding  him  that 
the  question  of  the  Arrow  still  remained 
unsettled.  The  Chinese  Commissioner  affected 
to  be  not  in  tlie  least  moved  by  the  British 
action.  The  junk  seized,  he  intimated,  was  not 
a  Government  vessel,  and  as  for  the  matter 
in  dispute  it  was  where  it  was,  the  lorcha 
not    being    a   British   vessel   the    British   had 

tion,  was  entrusted  the  task  of  applying  the 
pressure.  This  took  the  form  of  battering 
the  Barrier  forts  and  dismantling  and  spiking 
the  guns.  The  operation  was  accomplished 
on  the  23rd  of  October,  with  the  accustomed 
facility.  Proceeding  up  the  river  to  Canton 
the  British  admiral  delivered  a  communication 
in  the  nature  of  an  ultimatum  informing  Yeh 
that  unless  he  complied  at  once  with  every 
demand  made,  the  British  forces  would 
"  proceed  with  the  destruction  of  all  the 
defences  and  public  buildings  of  this  city 
and  of  the  government  vessels  in  the  river." 
As  no  reply  was  vouchsafed  to  the  message 
Sir  Michael  Seymour  proceeded  to  dismantle 
the  forts  in  the  vicinity  of  Canton  itself,  and 
having  landed  a  body  of  marines  for  the 
protection  of  the  foreign  factories  manoeuvred 
ills  ships  into  such  a  position  as  to  lead  to 
the  supposition  that  he  meant  to  bombard 
the  city.  Yeh,  so  far  from  being  intimidated 
by  the  naval  menace  was  only  aroused  by  it 
to  greater  fury.  He  sent  a  defiant  message 
to  the  British  telling  them  that  the  rage 
of  the  people  who  suffered  by  the  operations 
undertaken  would  speedily  retrieve  the  injuries 
that  might  be  inflicted.  Meanwhile,  he  placed 
a  price  on  the  head  of  every  Englishman 
that  might  be  brought  to  him.  This  un- 
compromising attitude  made  the  adoption  of 
further  coercive  measures  indispensable.  For 
two  days  the  British  ships,  after  due  notice 
had  been  given  to  the  inhabitants,  bombarded 
those  parts  of  the  city  in  which  the  Govern- 
ment buildings  were  situated.  Thereafter,  a 
body  of  marines  was  landed,  and  when  they 
had  occupied  Tsinghai  gate.  Sir  Michael 
Seymour  and  Mr.  Parkes  proceeded  to  the 
Viceroy's  yamen.  This  demonstration  having 
been  made  the  positions  occupied  in  the  city, 
which  were  not  easily  defensible,  were 
evacuated,  and  the  force  was  witlidrawn 
either  to  the  ships  or  to  the  positions  occupied 
by   the   river.      It    was   a    well-planned    and 


well-«xecute<J  business,  but  it  unfortunately 
did  nt>t  bring  a  settlement  a  whit  the  nearer. 
Nothing  further  of  imiwrtance  occurred  until 
the  commencement  of  Xoverat>er,  when  Sir 
Michael  Seymour  attacked  and  destroyed  a 
(!eet  of  war  junks  which  were  tlireafening 
his  communications.  On  the  Qth  of  November 
he  issued  another  ultimatum  giving  notice 
that  ho>tiHties  would  l>e  prosecuted  actively 
if  a  settlement  was  not  reached  in  twenty-four 
hours.  As  the  only  response  vouchsafed  was 
an  evasive  communication  in  which  stress 
was  laid  on  the  growing  indignation  of  the 
Chinese  people  at  the  British  action,  Sir 
Uichael  Seymour  on  the  1 2th  and  13th  of 
Noveml>er  attacked  and  captured  the  Bogue 
forts,  which  at  the  time  were  armed  with 
four  hundred  guns.  Still  there  were  no 
overtures  for  peace  from  the  Chinese.  On 
the  contrary  the  Cantonese  showed  the 
greatest  activity  in  perfecting  their  defensive 
measures  and  waging  hostilities  in  their 
peculiar  fashion.  Stragglers  were  cut  off 
and  ruihlessly  butchered,  in  some  instances 
after   horrible   torture  ;  attempts  were   made 

Sir  Michael  Seymour  was  to  deal  with  them 
effectually.  Towards  the  end  of  January, 
1857,  the  British  and  American  docks  and 
factories  at  Whampoa  were  destroyed  by 
fire.  Wherever  it  was  deemed  safe  to  attack 
the  property  of  foreigners  the  attack  was  de- 
livered. To  deal  with  the  marauding  Chinese 
junks,  which  were  able  to  avoid  encounters 
by  taking  refuge  in  the  numerous  shallow 
creeks  where  the  large  ships  of  the  navy 
could  not  follow  them,  Sir  Michael  Seymour 
manned  and  armed  a  number  of  native 
ships  and  carried  the  war  very  successfully 
into  the  heart  of  the  enemy's  country.  But 
these  measures  had  onlv  a  local  and  transient 
effect.  They  left  Yeh"  absolutely  indifferent, 
and  if  they  moved  the  populace  at  all  it 
was  only  to  add  fuel  to  the  flames  of  their 
patriotic  ardour.  In  the  face  of  such  a 
situation,  Sir  Michael  Seymour  could  not  do 
less  than  apply  to  the  home  authorities  for 
that  material  aid  which  he  needed  to  carry 
out  a  comprehensive  plan  of  campaign.  At 
the  close  of  1856  he  sent  home  a  demand 
for  5,000  troops  and  meantime  called  to  his 


(From  Borget's  "Skcti;hes  of  China.") 

to  fire  ships,  and  forts  were  blown  up. 
Finally,  successive  attempts  were  made  to 
fire  the  foreign  factories,  attempts  which  in 
the  long  run  were  so  successful  that  the 
entire  foreign  settlement  was  completely 
destroyed.  The  position  ashore  at  length 
became  so  difficult  to  hold  that  Sir  Michael 
Seymour  elected  to  withdraw  his  men  to 
the  ships,  and  to  conduct  the  negotiations 
from  them.  The  Chinese,  elated  at  this 
retrograde  move,  now  redoubled  their  efforts 
to  annihilate  the  haled  barbarians.  Unwary 
Europeans  who  happened  to  be  moving  about 
at  this  period  were  captured  and  murdered. 
In  one  instance  a  daring  attack  was  made 
upon  a  postal  steamer  plying  between  Canton 
and  Hongkong,  and  the  ship  captured  and 
destroyed,  and  the  Europeans  on  board  put 
to  death.  This  deadly  activity  was  stimulated 
by  the  rewards  offered  by  Yeh,  which  at 
this  juncture  amounted  to  as  much  as  thirty 
pounds  a  head. 

The  hostilities  went  on  in  desultory 
fashirjn  for  some  weeks,  the  Chinese  gain- 
ing confidence  as  they  realised  how  impotent 

aid  as  many  of  the  units  of  the  garrison  of 
the  Straits  Settlements  as  could  be  spared. 
War  by  this  time  was  not  only  in  sight— it 
had  arrived. 

The  Home  Government  treated  Sir  Michael 
Seymour's  requisitions  with  the  seriousness 
that  they  merited.  They  saw  that  whether 
they  liked  it  or  not  they  had  to  deal  with  a 
difficulty  of  more  than  ordinary  importance 
in  its  military  as  well  as  in  its  diplomatic 
aspects.  They  therefore  decided  to  send  out 
the  Earl  of  Elgin  as  special  envoy  to  direct 
any  negotiations  which  might  be  entered 
into  with  the  Chinese  Government.  Lord 
Elgin  was  a  nobleman  thoroughly  qualified 
by  temperament  and  experience  in  public 
life  for  the  duty.  His  views  were  broad 
and  statesmanlike  and  he  had  sufficient  of 
the  national  quality  of  caution  to  make  it 
certain  that  he  would  not  rush  the  country 
into  reckless  courses.  He  left  England  at 
the  end  of  April,  1857,  intent  on  making  his 
way  to  the  seat  of  disturbances  as  quickly 
as  possible.  But  neither  Lord  Elgin  nor  the 
Government  at  home  had  foreseen  a  crisis  in 

India  with  which  the  China  difficulty  was 
by  comparison  insignificant.  While  Lord 
Elgin  was  on  the  sea  the  flames  of  mutiny 
were  sweeping  over  Northern  India,  placing 
the  British  power  in  the  deadliest  peril  it 
had  been  in  for  generations.  On  arrival  at 
Singapore  on  the  3rd  of  June,  a  leltcr  from 
Lord  Canning,  the  Governor-General  of  India, 
met  the  Envoy,  representing  in  the  most 
urgent  terms  the  peril  of  the  posilion  in 
which  the  paramount  power  was  placed  and 
imploring  him  to  divert  the  China  expedition 
to  the  assistance  of  the  .sorely  tried  British 
forces  in  the  North  West  Provinces.  It  was 
impossible,  of  course,  to  resist  so  pressing 
an  appeal.  The  necessary  orders  were 
given  and  the  British  regiments  drawn  from 
England  and  Mauritius  were  promptly 
despatched  to  Calcutta,  where  they  arrived 
to  materially  alleviate  a  very  dangerous  situa- 
tion. Meanwhile  Lord  Elgin  resumed  his 
journey  to  Hongkong,  which  port  he  reached 
in  the  first  week  of  July,  1857.  In  the 
months  preceding  his  arrival,  Sir  Michael 
Seymour  had  been  busily  occupied  in  carry- 
ing home  to  the  mind  of  the  enemy  the 
fact  that  war  for  them  was  a  very  costly 
business.  A  great  fleet  of  Government  junks 
was  destroyed  in  the  Escape  Creek,  an  inlet 
lying  between  Hongkong  and  the  Bocca 
Tigris,  smaller  expeditions  were  conducted 
up  the  other  creeks  in  the  locality,  and, 
most  important  of  all,  on  the  1st  of  June 
the  Admiral,  with  a  small  force  of  men, 
stormed  and  captured  immensely  strong 
positions  held  by  the  enemy  in  and  about 
the  town  of  Katshan.  The  latter  operations 
were  carried  out  with  a  dash  and  gallantry 
characteristic  of  the  senior  service,  and 
though  they  resulted  in  somewhat  heavy 
casualties — thirteen  killed  and  forty  wounded 
— the  price  was  not  a  heavy  one  to  pay  for 
what  was  unquestionably  a  valuable  piece 
of  work. 

Lord  Elgin,  on  deliberating  carefully  over 
the  position  of  affairs  which  confronted  him 
at  Hongkong,  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
operations  against  Canton  with  a  view  to 
the  crushing  of  Yeh's  power  must  be  sus- 
pended pending  the  arrival  of  fresh  troops 
from  home.  The  decision  arrived  at  caused 
some  discontent  amongst  the  mercantile 
community,  who  were  naturally  anxious  that 
a  decisive  blow  should  be  struck  without 
delay  in  view  of  the  certain  misconceptions 
which  would  arise  from  a  slackening  of  the 
operations.  But  though  the  arguments  used 
in  support  of  this  view  were  exceedingly 
weighty,  there  is  little  doubt  that  Lord  Elgin 
was  entirely  in  the  right.  To  attack  Canton 
with  a  reasonable  prospect  of  success  at  least 
four  thousand  troops,  it  was  calculated,  would 
be  required.  At  Hongkong  at  that  time  the 
total  garrison  only  numbered  fifteen  hundred, 
and  of  these  a  considerable  number  were 
ineffectives.  The  utmost  force  that  could 
have  been  mustered  with  the  assistance  of 
the  fleet  was  two  thousand  men.  This  body, 
even  if  successful  in  capturing  the  enemy's 
positions,  was  altogether  too  small  to  hold 
them.  Moreover,  without  reserves  for  the 
expediiionary  force  to  fall  back  upon,  the 
British  power  would  have  been  greatly  im- 
perilled in  the  event  of  a  disaster.  Lord 
Elgin,  though  opposed  to  active  measures  in 
the  Canton  River,  was  not  content  to  sit 
down  and  do  absolutely  nothing.  He  pro- 
posed to  the  Home  Government  that  he 
should  make  a  demonstration  with  the  fleet 
off  the  Peiho,  with  the  object,  if  possible,  of 
getting  into  touch  with  the  Peking  authorities. 
Lord  Clarendon,  the  Foreign  Secretary  of 
the  period,  wrote  entirely  approving  of  the 
suggestion ;     but   local   opinion   was   strongly 


against  the  adoption  of  a  course  which  would 
extend  the  area  of  operations.  The  conten- 
tion was  that  the  quarrel  was  with  Yeh  and 
that  it  should  be  dealt  with  at  Canton.  It 
was  impossible  to  gainsay  the  force  of  these 
views,  so  Lord  Elgin  decided  to  drop  his 
project  for  the  time  being  and  await  the 
course  of  events  with  as  much  equanimity  as 
he  could.  In  order  that  he  might  be  fully 
acquainted  with  the  intentions  of  the  Indian 
Government  as  regarded  the  troops  diverted 
from  China  to  the  peninsula,  he  paid  a  flying 
visit  to  Calcutta.  What  he  learned  on  the 
way  about  the  gravity  of  the  position  induced 
him  to  take  with  him  seventeen  hundred 
additional  troops  which  were  on  the  way 
out  to  China.  These  reinforcements  were  of 
incalculable  value  to  India,  but  their  despatch 
destroyed  any  lingering  expectations  that  the 
envoy  entertained  of  being  able  immediately 
to  prosecute  a  vigorous  diplomacy  in  China. 
Returning  to  Hongkong  in  September,  he 
found,  however,  that  preparations  were  in 
active  progress  for  the  expedition  to  Canton, 
whenever  it  should  be  made.  The  time  for 
action  came  with  the  close  of  the  year.  By 
that  period  the  authorities  had  completed 
their  military  arrangements.  Their  position, 
furthermore,  had  been  strengthened  by  the 
conclusion  by  tlie  Home  Government  with 
the  French  authorities  of  a  working  agree- 
ment by  which  it  was  arranged  that  the  two 
powers  should  jointly  prosecute  the  demand 
for  redress  for  outrages  committed  and  for 
freedom  of  diplomatic  intercourse.  Altogether 
a  force  of  six  thousand,  including  nine  hun- 
dred French,  was  available  for  the  important 
business  in  hand. 

The  opening  step  of  the  war  was  the 
transmission  on  the  I2th  of  December  to 
Yeh  of  a  communication  from  Lord  Elgin 
informing  him  of  the  nature  of  his  mission, 
and  especially  demanding  the  complete  execu- 
tion at  Canton  of  all  treaty  engagements  and 
compensation  to  British  subjects  for  injuries 
and  losses  incurred  in  the  recent  disturbances. 
Yeh  replied  in  a  discursive  letter,  in  which 
he  sought  to  justify  argumentatively  the  posi- 
tion he  had  taken  up.  He  suggested,  it  would 
seem  ironically,  that  trade  relations  should  be 
renewed  on  the  basis  of  each  party  paying 
for  its  own  losses.  It  was  obvious  from  the 
tenour  of  the  communication  that  Yeh  was 
still  unrepentant.  In  the  circumstances  it 
was  decided  that  Sir  Michael  Seymour 
should  occupy  that  portion  of  the  island  of 
Honan  which  faces  Canton.  The  move  was 
expeditiously  carried  out  on  the  15th  of 
December  without  opposition.  Afterwards 
the  main  body  of  troops  was  brought  up 
the  river  from  Hongkong.  By  Christmas  Day 
everything  was  in  readiness  for  the  assault. 
But  a  chance  was  given  to  Yeh  to  recon- 
sider his  position  before  a  shot  was  fired. 
He  was  allowed  forty-eight  hours  to  think 
the  matter  over,  or,  if  he  intended  to  under- 
take hostilities,  to  provide  time  for  the 
peaceable  population  to  evacuate  the  city. 
Whether  Yeh  did  give  any  serious  attention 
to  the  ultimatum  is  not  clear.  Probably, 
having  found  himself  in  a  most  diflicult  posi- 
tion with  certain  ruin  and  probably  death 
before  him  if  he  assented  to  the  foreigners' 
demands,  and  possible  defeat  and  disaster 
if  he  held  out,  he  thought  it  better  to  leave 
the  matter  to  the  decision  of  fate.  However 
that  may  be,  he  made  no  sort  of  reply  to 
the  joint  British  and  French  declaration. 
On  the  28th  of  December,  theiefore,  the 
bombardment  commenced  in  earnest,  the  fire 
being  directed  to  a  position  known  as  Lin's 
Fort,  on  the  east  side,  which  offeied  the 
most  feasible  line  of  advance.  After  half 
an    hour's   firing   the    Chinese   gunners   fled. 

and  the  fort  was  soon  afterwards  destroyed 
by  the  accidental  firing  of  its  magazine. 
Under  cover  of  the  guns  the  troops  ad- 
vanced to  the  walls  of  the  city,  which  were 
assailed  from  three  different  points.  They 
were  met  with  a  rather  feeble  resistance, 
and  within  an  hour  and  a  half  of  the  com- 
mencement of  the  attack  the  city  was  in  the 
possession  of  the  allied  forces.  Meanwhile, 
another  portion  of  the  expeditionary  force 
had  captured  the  fort  on  Magazine  Hill, 
which  is  a  highly  important  strategic  posi- 
tion as  it  commands  the  other  eminences 
about     the     city.        From     this     centre     the 

culty  was  at  first  experienced  in  discovering 
his  lair.  The  official  quarter,  containing  the 
residences  of  Yeh  and  Pihkwei,  the  Governor, 
was  captured,  and  with  it  a  considerable 
amount  of  treasure,  but  Yeh  was  unfortu- 
nately "  not  at  home."  By  dint  of  assiduous 
inquiries  Mr.  (alterwaids  Sir  Harry)  Parkes 
obtained  information  as  to  the  Commissioner's 
movements,  and  he  was  finally  tracked  down 
in  a  yamen  in  the  south-west  part  of  the 
city.  He  had  made  every  arrangement  tor 
flight,  and  was  about  to  escape  over  a  wall 
in  the  rear  of  the  premises  when  the  guard 
of    sailors     under     Captain     (afterwards     Sir 


(From  an  engraving  in  tlie  Print  Room,  Britisfi  Museum.) 

Chinese  were  bombarded  out  of  their  posi- 
tions in  Gough  Fort  and  the  surrounding 
hills.  In  fact,  within  a  very  short  period  the 
attacking  force  were  absolute  masters  of  the 
situation.  Yeh  still  was  not  conquered. 
Installed  in  his  yamen,  in  the  portion  of  the 
cily  which  had  not  yet  been  occupied,  he 
issued  fiery  edicts  proscribing  citizens  who 
were  supposed  to  have  leanings  towards  the 
foreigners  and  made  lavish  promises  of  re- 
wards to  all  who  would  bring  him  the  heads 
of  foreigners.  His  course,  however,  by  this 
time  was  nearly  run.  On  the  5th  of  January 
a  move  was  made  with  the  object  of 
bearding   the    lion   in   his   den.      Some   difii- 

Astley  Cooper)  Key  which  had  accompanied 
Mr.  Parkes,  seized  him.  Yeh,  we  are  told 
by  one  of  the  British  present,  exhibited  great 
self-possession,  and  remained  perfectly  quiet 
while  his  boxes,  of  which  the  room  was  lull, 
were  opened  and  examined  for  papers.  The 
fact  that  he  had  been  previously  assured 
that  his  life  was  safe  possibly  accounted  in 
some  degree  for  his  equanimity,  but,  even 
so,  his  bearing  was  markedly  indifferent, 
having  regard  to  all  that  his  capture  implied 
to  him  personally.  The  only  time  he  seems 
to  have  lost  his  imperturbability  was  as  he 
was  being  taken  through  the  streets  to  the 
British    ship,    which    was    to   be   his   prison. 

I.    TeHPi.E  OF  Buddha.  2-    VVhampoa,  from  Dank's  Island. 

3.     THE    EL-KOPEAN    FACTORIES.  4.     SCENE   OX    THF    HOXAX    CAXAL. 


On  the  way  a  party  of  the  British  Coolie 
Corps  was  encountered,  and  these  rough 
fellows  seeing  him  in  custody,  put  down 
their  burdens  and  indulged  in  hearty  laughter. 
This  open  contempt  of  the  despised  Hakkas 
caused  Yeh  to  gnash  his  teeth  in  impotent 
rage.  Probably  he  had  never  experienced  in 
his  whole  life  a  greater  insult,  but  he  was 
not  again  to  be  subjected  to  the  cynosure 
of  rude  Cantonese  eyes,  for  his  humiliating 
progress  on  this  occasion  was  his  last  public 
appearance  in  Canton,  or  even  in  China.  On 
account  of  his  crimes  and  misdemeanours 
against  foreigners,  and  they  proved  to  be 
many,  he  was  deported  to  Calcutta,  there  to 
spend  the  remaining  two  years  of  his  life. 

The  seizure  of  Canton  and  the  overthrow 
of  Yeh  were  important  achievements,  but 
they  left  unsolved  the  larger  problem  of 
establishing  direct  diplomatic  intercourse 
with  the  Chinese  Government.  When 
therefore,  the  war  had  been  completed  in 
the  south,  Lord  Elgin  and  Baron  Gros,  the 
French  representative,  forwarded  to  the 
Chinese  Government  despatches  recounting 
the  proceedings  adopted  at  Canton,  and 
setting  forth  in  conciliatory  but  firm 
language  the  demands  which  they  had  been 
commissioned  to  prefer.  It  was  specifically 
stated  that  the  official  chosen  to  discuss 
affairs  with  them  would  be  required  to 
hold  his  commission  direct  from  the 
Emperor.  The  communications  in  due 
course  found  their  way  to  Peking  and 
elicited  a  characteristically  Chinese  reply 
from  Yuching,  the  Emperor's  Chief 
Minister.  In  lofty  style  the  missive  dis- 
cussed the  position  of  affairs  at  Canton, 
describing  the  action  taken  by  the  allied 
powers  as  being  "  without  parallel  in  the 
history  of  the  past."  But,  the  letter  went 
on,  "  His  Majesty  is  magnanimous  and  con- 
siderate. He  has  been  pleased  by  a  decree 
which  we  have  had  the  honour  to  receive, 
to  degrade  Yeh  from  the  Governor-General- 
ship of  the  Two  Kwang  for  his  maladminis- 
tration and  to  despatch  His  Excellency 
Hwang  to  Kwantung  as  Imperial  Commis- 
sioner in  his  stead  to  investigate  and  decide 
with  impartiality  ;  and  it  will  of  course 
behove  the  English  Minister  to  wait  in 
Kwantung  and  there  make  his  arrangements. 
No  Imperial  Commissioner  ever  conducts 
business  at  Shanghai.  There  being  a  par- 
ticular sphere  of  duty  allotted  to  every 
official  on  the  establishment  of  the  Celestial 
Empire,  and  the  principle  that  between 
them  and  the  foreigner  there  is  no  inter- 
course being  one  ever  religiously  adhered 
to  by  the  servants  of  our  Government  of 
China,  it  would  not  be  proper  for  me  to 
reply  in  person  to  the  letter  of  the  English 
Minister.  Let  Your  Excellency,  therefore, 
transmit  to  him  all  that  I  have  said  above, 
and  his  letter  will  in  no  way  be  left  un- 
answered." The  time  had  passed  when 
British  diplomatists  could  be  diverted  from 
their  purpose  by  the  evasive  policy  of  the 
Peking  Government,  of  which  Yuching's 
letter  is  a  good  example.  Lord  Elgin,  who 
had  proceeded  to  Shanghai  at  the  end  of 
March,  sent  a  reply  from  there,  pointing  out 
the  serious  character  of  the  infractions  of 
the  Treaty  of  Nanking,  and  intimating  that 
he  proposed  to  proceed  north  in  order  to 
get  into  closer  communication  with  the 
higher  officials  of  the  Imperial  Government. 
In  pursuance  of  plans  already  formed.  Lord 
Elgin  and  his  Erench  colleague,  early  in 
April,  proceeded  to  the  mouth  of  the  Peiho, 
the  allied  fleet  meanwhile  being  directed  to 
assemble  at  that  point  with  all  possible 
expedition.  On  arriving  at  their  destination, 
the  plenipotentiaries  sent  to  Yuching  a  letter 

demanding  in  temperate  language  the 
appointment  of  a  minister  duly  authorised 
by  the  Emperor,  to  discuss  questions  at 
issue.  An  intimation  was  given  that  if,  at 
the  expiry  of  six  days,  a  satisfactory  reply 
was  not  forthcoming,  it  would  be  considered 
that  the  pacific  overtures  of  the  pleni- 
potentiaries had  been  rejected,  and  that 
other  measures  must  be  adopted  to  obtain 
satisfaction.  The  reply  to  this  was  the 
appointment  of  three  commissioners  of 
moderate  rank,  who  lacked  the  requisite 
powers  to  negotiate.  Some  weeks  were 
spent  in  abortive  negotiations  which  at  each 
successive  stage  emphasised  the  fact  that  the 
inordinate  obstinacy  and  arrogance  of  the 
Chinese  Government  could  only  be  over- 
come by  the  exercise  of  force.  Lord  Elgin, 
on  his  part,  was  ready  to  apply  this 
touchstone  to  the  problem  at  an  early  date, 
but,  unfortunately,  there  was  some  mis- 
understanding about  the  movements  of  the 
fleet,  and  an  adequate  force  was  not  at 
hand  when  wanted.     In    his    irritation  at   the 

the  Imperial  Government."  As  the  despatch 
was  written  after  the  war  he  was  able  to 
strengthen  his  position  by  referring  to  the 
course  of  the  final  operations,  which,  in 
almost  dramatic  fashion,  as  we  shall  see, 
brought  about  a  settlement.  The  controversy 
was  decidedly  an  unfortunate  one,  and  the 
manner  in  which  it  was  raised  reflected 
some  little  discredit  on  Lord  Elgin. 

By  the  middle  of  May  the  naval  preparations 
were  sufficiently  advanced  to  enable  Lord 
H;igin  to  put  into  execution  his  plan  of 
campaign.  On  the  lyth  of  the  month  the 
allied  fleet,  under  the  joint  command  of  Sir 
Michael  Seymour  and  Admiral  Kigault 
de  Genouilly,  appeared  off  the  forts  and 
summoned  the  commandant  to  surrender. 
No  reply  to  this  demand  being  received,  a 
bombardment  was  commenced,  and  it  was 
so  effective  that  at  the  end  of  an  hour  and 
a  quarter  it  was  possible  to  land  parties  to 
seize  the  practically  deserted  forts.  Proceed- 
ing up  the  river  the  allied  fleet  was  attacked 
in    vigorous    fashion    by    the    Chinese,    who 


delay  Lord  Elgin  penned  a  despatch  home 
in  which  he  complained  in  strong  terms  of 
Sir  Michael  Seymour's  lack  of  energy,  and 
he  described  the  non-arrival  of  the  fleet  as 
"  a  most  grievous  disappointment,"  inasmuch 
as  he  believed  that  if  he  had  had  ten  or 
twelve  gunboats  he  would  have  been 
allowed  by  the  forts  to  proceed,  unresisted, 
to  Tientsin,  and  that  the  Emperor's  Govern- 
ment would  have  yielded  at  once  everything 
that  was  demanded  of  them.  Sir  Michael 
Seymour  was  not  directly  approached  on  the 
subject  by  Lord  Elgin,  but  when  he 
became  aware  of  the  tenor  of  the  allega- 
tions made  against  him  he  put  in  a  defence 
which,  in  the  view  of  all  impartial  and 
competent  personages,  was  a  complete 
vindication  of  his  professional  character  and 
reputation.  He  directly  traversed  the  idea 
that  an  early  move  up  the  river  would  have 
served  to  bring  the  Chinese  to  reason. 
Speaking  from  an  experience  of  two  years 
of  Chinese  warfare,  he  confidently  asserted 
that  "  nothing  but  the  conclusive  evidence 
of    irresistible    force    will    ever    fully    satisfy 

made  strenuous  efforts  to  destroy  the  foreign 
vessels  by  means  of  fire  ships.  Their  plans, 
however,  were  completely  frustrated,  and  the 
invaders  were  able  without  much  further 
difficulty  to  establish  themselves  firmly  at  tlie 
village  or  town  of  Taku.  The  losses  incurred 
by  the  allied  forces  in  the  course  of  the 
operations  were  slight  ;  they  were  a  small 
price  for  the  advantages  gained,  which  were 
of  a  substantial  and,  as  it  proved,  conclusive 
kind.  By  their  victory  the  allies  had  free 
access  to  Tientsin,  and  with  it  the  practical 
command  of  the  Grand  Canal  and  of  a  safe 
line  of  advance  on  Peking.  The  results 
achieved  were  so  striking  that  even  the 
Chinese  Government  was  convinced.  On 
learning  the  perilous  position  of  affairs  from 
the  three  commissioners,  the  Emperor  des- 
patched, with  instructions  to  proceed  with 
all  haste,  two  high  dignitaries— Kweiliang 
and  Hwashana— to  make  terms  with  the 
troublesome  foreigners.  These  imperial 
negotiators  on  appearing  at  Tientsin  mani- 
fested the  utmost  anxiety  to  make  terms, 
and    as    they     were     endowed    with     auiple 


powers  and  were  prepared  to  make  (he  most 
liberal  conce^iuns,  it  seemed  that  peace 
was  well  in  sight.  The  fair  prospect  was 
momentarily  dimmed  by  the  appearance 
on  the  scene  of  Keyinj;,  who  as  a  sort 
ul  informal  extra  negotiator  showed  a 
disposition  to  enforc-e  terms  which  fell 
considerably  short  of  those  which  the  two 
other  commissioners  were  prep;ired  to  agree 
to.  It  appeared  later  that  this  was  a 
desperate  effort  on  the  wily  old  Mandarin's 
part  to  reinstate  himself  in  the  favour  of 
the  Emperor.  The  scheme  failed  because 
the  allied  ptnvers  were  too  much  in  earnest 
to  be  induced  to  forego  any  of  the  fruits 
of  their  success.  Keying  went  back  to 
Peking  a  disappointed  and  disillusioned  man. 
He  was  promptly  arrested  and  brought 
before  the  Board  of  Punishment,  who  found 
him  guilty  of  acting  '•  with  stupidity  and 
precipitancy,"  and  ordered  him  to  be  strangled. 
The  sentence  was  not  actually  carried  t)ut 
because  "  as  an  act  of  extreme  grace  and 
justice "  the  Emperor  sent  him  an  order  "  to 
put  an  end  to  himself,"  which  he  obeyed. 
Meanwhile,  the  negotiations  at  Tientsin  with 
the  two  approved  commissioners  were 
proceeding  slowly  but  s;itisfactorily.  Con- 
siderable opposition  was  manifested  to  the 
demand  for  a  resident  minister  at  Peking. 
Indeed,  this  was  the  crti.x  of  the  negotiations. 
The  commissioners  represented  that  com- 
pliance with  so  unheard  of  a  proposal  would 
be  perilous  both  to  the  minister  who  might 
be  appointed  and  the  Chinese  Government. 
They  also  raised  difliculties  about  etiquette, 
and  revived  the  old  question  of  the  KotoK'. 
Lord  Elgin  declined  to  t>e  moved  from  the 
position  which  he  had  t^iken  up  at  the  outset, 
that  there  must,  as  an  essential  feature  of 
any  arrangement,  be  a  provision  for  direct 
diplomatic  intercourse.  At  length,  on  the 
nth  of  June,  the  commissioners  in  a  des- 
patch practically  conceded  all  demands. 
They  suggested,  however,  that  the  visit  of 
a   British   Ambassador   to   Peking    should   be 

deferred  for  a  time.  A  treaty  was  draw  n 
up  on  the  terms  of  this  despatch,  and  it 
was  formally  signed  on  the  26th  of  June. 
The  ratifications  were  exchanged  on  the 
4th  of  July.  Afterwards  the  important 
question  of  the  revision  of  the  tariff  was 
taken  in  hand.  Great  Britain  acted  in  this 
matter  alone,  but  there  was  no  question  of 
exclusive  privileges,  as  a  most  favoured  nation 
clause  extended  the  concessions  granted  to 
all  powers  having  treaties  with  China. 
The  two  imperial  commissioners  who  had 
negotiated  the  Treaty  of  Tientsin  were 
joined  with  the  Viceroy  of  the  Two  Kiang  to 
conduct  the  negotiations  on  the  Chinese  side, 
and  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir  Thomas)  M^ade  and 
Mr.  Oliphant  (Lord  Elgin's  Secretary)  repre- 
sented the  British.  The  parties  met  at 
Shanghai,  and  there  threshed  out  the  details 
with  a  commendable  amount  of  expedition. 
In  the  result  a  striking  set  of  regulations 
was  agreed  to.  A  maximum  tariff  of  5  per 
cent,  ail  valorem  for  both  imports  and  exports 
is  the  guiding  principle  of  the  arrangement. 
But  the  most  dramatic  feature  of  the 
regulations  was  a  clause  legalising  the  im- 
portation of  opium  on  the  payment  of  a  duty 
of  thirty  taels  per  chest.  It  was  a  concession 
wrung  without  any  very  serious  difficulty 
from  the  Chinese.  In  their  practical  way 
they  doubtless  realised  that  while  they  were 
giving  little,  since  opium  was  freely  intro- 
duced in  spite  of  imperial  edicts,  they  were 
providing  themselves  with  a  useful  weapon 
with  which  to  attack  the  foreigner  on  the 
softer  side.  They  were  not  slow  to  use  it. 
Before  the  negotiations  had  been  completed 
the  commissioners  reverted  to  tlie  question  of 
the  establishment  of  a  permanent  diplomatic 
representative  at  Peking.  Once  more  they 
represented  the  grave  dangers  which  would 
attend  the  carrying  out  of  the  proposal, 
more  especially  in  view  of  the  Taeping 
Rebellion,  and  besought  the  British  officials 
not  to  press  the  point.  The  latter  were  not 
insensible    to    the    force    of    the    arguments 

used.  They  also  recognised  that  it  was  good 
policy  at  the  moment  to  be  conciliatory  ; 
so  the  question  was  allowed  to  stand  over, 
though  it  was  clearly  intimated  that  there 
could  be  no  falling  away  fiom  the  principle 
of  direct  diplomatic  intercourse.  Thus  the 
Treaty  of  Tientsin  was  cariied  to  completion 
with  this  one  little  loophole,  which  was 
subsequently  to  allow  of  the  opening  once 
more  of  the  floodgates  of  war.  Lord  Elgin, 
when  he  left  China  on  the  completion  of  his 
work  in  March,  1859,  could  not  be  insensible 
to  the  risks  which  attended  the  situation. 
While  the  negotiations  were  in  progress 
active  steps  weie  taken  to  restore  the  effi- 
ciency of  the  Peiho  forts,  and  secret  edicts 
were  in  circulation  invoking  the  national 
spirit  of  the  Chinese  against  the  foreigner. 
At  Canton  there  had  been  almost  continuous 
trouble  from  the  time  of  Yeh's  deposition. 
In  the  city  itself  martial  law  rigorously 
administered  by  a  British  commissioner  and 
a  native  governor  repressed  to  some  extent 
the  turbulent  instincts  of  the  population.  But 
in  the  adjacent  districts  persistent  efforts 
were  made,  and  not  without  success,  to  harass 
the  barbarians.  Investigations  showed  that 
the  unrest  was  the  work  of  the  new  Viceroy, 
Hwang,  who  had  been  sent  to  succeed  Yeh, 
supported  by  a  powerful  committee  of  pro- 
vincial notabilities.  Such  was  the  patriotic 
ardour  which  directed,  or  misdirected,  the 
efforts  of  this  combination,  that  a  reward 
was  offered  on  its  behalf  of  thirty  thousand 
dollars  for  the  head  of  Mr.  Parkes.  The 
occupation  was  prolonged  in  consequence  of 
these  manifestations,  and  measures  were 
adopted  to  convince  the  Chinese  that  hos- 
tility to  the  foreigner  was  a  policy  which 
did  not  pay.  In  course  of  time,  by  means  of 
well-arranged  expeditions  to  centres  of  dis- 
tuibance,  a  more  peaceful  spirit  was  infused 
into  the  relations  between  the  two  races. 
But  the  impression  was  left  that  the  full 
lesson  which  the  military  operations  were 
intended  to  convey  had  not  been  learned. 


The  Third  Campaign — Repulse  of  the  British  Fleet  by  the  Taku  Forts — Despatch  of  allied  British  and  French 
Expeditionary  Force — Capture  of  the  Taku  Forts— Advance  on  Peking— Mr.  Parkes,  Mr.  Loch,  and  others  made 
Captives  by  the  Chinese — Attack  on  Peking — Occupation  of  the  Summer  Palace  and  its  subsequent  Destruction — 

The  Treaty  of  Peking. 

If  the  British  Government  could  have  had 
the  arrangement  of  the  course  of  events 
nothing  would  have  suited  it  better  than  to 
allow  trade  to  pursue  the  tranquil  and 
prosperous  course  which  was  marked  out 
for  it  under  the  Treaty  of  Tientsin.  That 
instrument  vastly  extended  the  area  of 
diplomatic  and  commercial  action  in  China. 
Access  to  the  fountain  head  of  Govenmient 
was  seemingly  assured,  the  conditions  of 
trade  were  fixed  on  a  moderate  basis,  and, 
perhaps  most  important  of  all  from  the 
British  standpoint,  the  opium  difficulty  which 
had  been  an  obstacle  to  peaceful  relations  for 
generations  was  removed.  So  much,  in  fact,  • 
had  been  gained  that  there  was  little  that 
was  immediately  practicable  left  to  secure. 
But  peace  is  a  blessing  which  cannot  be 
commanded,  and  it  proved  in  this  instance 
as  in   others    that    the    British    Government, 

though  actuated  by  the  most  pacific  of 
sentiments,  was  driven  to  assume  once  more 
an  attitude  of  determined  hostility  towards 
the  Chinese.  The  source  of  trouble  was  the 
familiar  one  in  our  relations  with  the  Celestial 
Empire — bad  faith  in  the  execution  of  treaty 
pledges.  And  the  rupture  followed  quickly  on 
the  heels  of  the  conclusion  of  peace,  arising 
in  fact  out  of  the  ratification  of  the  Tientsin 
Convention.  Mr.  Frederick  Bruce,  brother  of 
Lord  Elgin,  who  had  acted  as  secretary  to 
that  nobleman  during  his  embassy,  had  been 
entrusted  with  the  duty  of  carrying  the 
final  formality  through  at  Peking,  and  arrived 
at  Hongkong  in  April  for  that  purpose.  His 
definite  instructions  were  to  exchange  the 
ratifications  nowhere  but  at  (he  capital,  but 
he  quickly  discovered  that  this  was  a  counsel 
of  perfection  in  the  circumstances  of  the 
hour.      The    rumours    which    were     brought 

with  every  fresh  ship  from  the  mainland 
were  of  military  preparations,  and  of  a 
determination  to  resist  the  indignity  to  the 
imperial  person  of  a  mission  to  Peking. 
Knowing  lie  stood  on  firm  ground  Mr.  Bruce 
did  not  waste  any  time  in  futile  negotiations 
in  the  south.  Having  despatclied  a  letter  for- 
mally ainiouiicing  his  pending  departure  for 
Tientsin,  and  expressing  a  hope  that  adequate 
means  would  be  provided  ior  his  convey- 
ance to  Peking  and  his  accommodation  there, 
he  proceeded  northwards.  At  Shanghai  he 
found  the  imperial  commissioners  still  there, 
and  it  was  ominous  that  they  manifested  a 
disposition  to  discuss  certain  unsettled  points 
of  detail  which  they  calmly  assumed  were 
still  open  to  debate.  Mr.  Bruce  was  not 
to  be  drawn  into  any  side  issue  by  efforts 
however  speciously  framed.  His  mission  was 
to   get   to    Peking  as  quickly  as  possible  and 


he  faithfully  adhered  to  it.  In  view  of  the 
attitude  of  the  authorities  tlie  fleet  was 
ordered  to  assemble  at  tlie  Pciho  River,  and 
witli  it  went  a  body  of  troops  from  the 
iJarrison  at  Canton.     When  Mr.  Bruce  arrived 

mijjlit  be  retrieved  by  a  demonstration  on 
land,  and  the  force  of  marines  and  engineers 
which  had  been  sent  up  from  Hongkong 
was  told  off  to  attempt  the  capture  of  the 
forts    by   storm.      The   enterprise    proved    to 

ON    THE    RIVER    OFF    TAKU. 

oft  the  Peiho,  on  June  20tli,  he  found  a 
substantial  portion  of  the  China  squadron 
under  its  new  commander,  Admiral  Hope, 
awaiting  him  there.  Communication  had 
already  been  opened  up  with  the  shore,  but 
with  very  discouraging  results.  The  passage 
of  the  river  was  found  to  be  barred  by  a 
row  of  iron  stakes  backed  by  a  formidable 
boom,  and  the  British  boat's  crew  were 
warned  not  to  land  by  an  arnitd  and  angry 
crowd.  A  second  attempt  to  get  into  touch 
with  the  officials  elicited  an  even  more  un- 
compromising display  of  hostility,  and  was 
equally  unsuccessful.  The  attitude  assumed 
by  the  Chinese  was  felt  to  leave  no 
alternative  to  a  forcing  of  the  defences.  The 
belief  entertained  at  the  British  headquarters 
was  that  if  this  were  successfully  accom- 
plished, and  a  landing  effected,  the  local 
ol'licials  would  be  disowned  and  there  would 
be  no  further  opposition  to  the  passage  of 
the  mission  to  Peking.  It  was  a  theory 
which  the  previous  history  of  British  le- 
lations  with  China  justified.  But  Admiral 
Hope  and  Mr.  Bruce  had  reckoned  without 
the  spirit  of  courage  which,  despite  all  that 
detractors  may  say,  is  to  be  found  in  the 
Chinese  soldiery  when  properly  handled  and 
led.  They  had  not  long  to  wait  for  a 
display  of  this  quality.  When  the  attack 
commenced  on  the  25th  of  June,  the  British 
ships,  on  reaching  the  boom,  were  subjected 
to  a  destructive  fire  from  the  forts.  Four 
of  the  British  force  of  eleven  vessels  engaged 
the  forts  at  close  quarters,  and  a  fierce  tight 
was  waged  for  the  best  part  of  three  hours. 
The  fire  from  the  forts  then  slackened,  but 
the  Brit  sh  ships  had  been  so  badly  damaged 
that  they  were  unable  to  take'  advantage  of 
the  lessened  resistance.  On  drawing  off  it 
was  found  that  three  of  the  gunboats  were 
in  a  sinking  condition,  while  there  was  not  a 
unit  in  the  squadron  which  had  escaped 
severe    injury.     The    check,   it   was    thought. 

be  an  even  greater  failure  than  the  sea 
attack.  The  men  were  galled  by  a  dropping 
fire  from  the  forts  on  landing,  and  after 
struggling  on  against  hopeless  odds  for  some 

reverse  was  calculated  to  have  on  the  situa- 
tion in  China.  Altogether  it  was  one  of  the 
worst  days'  work  to  the  British  account 
since  their  first  connection  with  China. 

After  the  fight  Mr.  Bruce  withdrew  to 
Shanghai  and  Admiral  Hope  sent  his  ships 
to  points  where  he  thought  they  might  be 
useful  in  the  event  of  anti-foreign  ebullitions. 
A  serious  outbreak  at  Shanghai  which  re- 
sulted in  the  death  of  two  Englishmen,  and 
disturbances  at  the  other  Treaty  ports 
showed  that  the  precaution  was  a  prudent 
one.  In  point  of  fact  the  Taku  defeat, 
doubtless  magnified  beyond  all  recognition, 
had  given  a  dangerous  stimulus  to  the  law- 
less and  ultra  patriotic  element  of  the 
Chinese  populace.  The  unrest  was  the 
more  marked  as  it  was  impossible  to  do 
anything  immediately  to  wipe  out  the 
memory  of  the  rebuff.  The  Home  Govern- 
ment naturally  had  to  decide  in  the  impor- 
tant crisis  that  had  arisen,  and  as  those 
were  days  when  cable  communication  was 
unknown,  months  necessarily  elapsed  before 
their  views  were  known.  The  decision  they 
took,  it  would  seem  with  considerable  reluc- 
tance, was  to  despatch  a  military  expedition 
to  enforce  the  realisation  of  the  objects  of 
British  policy.  It  was  not  until  November, 
1859,  that  the  arrangements  for  the  new 
movement  wel'e  matured.  Then  it  was 
announced  that  a  joint  plan  of  action  had 
been  discussed  and  agreed  upon  between 
France  and  England,  and  that  the  military 
expedition  that  was  to  be  sent  out  would 
occupy  the  island  of  Chusan  as  an  advanced 
base  for  the  contemplated  operations  in  the 
Gulf  of  Pechili. 

The  new  expedition  was  conceived  on  a 
more  formidable  scale  than  any  that  had 
ever  been  sent  to  China  to  enforce  foreign 
demands.  The  British  force  consisted  of 
ten  thousand  men,  afterwards  increased  to 
thirteen  thousand,  mainly  drafted  from  India. 


time  they  were  withdrawn.  The  net  result 
of  the  day's  disasters  was  a  loss  of  three 
hundred  men  killed  and  wounded,  and  a 
crippled  squadron.  Over  and  above  this 
was   the   damaging   effect   which   the   British 

The  French  contingent  numbered  about  six 
thousand  men  of  all  arms.  In  addition  to 
this  large  land  force  there  was  a  power- 
ful naval  squadron  representing  the  com- 
bined   strength    in    Far    Eastern    waters    of 


the  allied  powers.  Sir  Hope  Grant,  a 
distinguished  Anglo-Indian  general,  wlio 
had  done  good  service  in  the  operations 
around  Canton,  connnanded  the  British  forces, 
while  General  Montauban  was  at  the  head 
of  the  French  contingent.  The  naval  com- 
mand on  the  British  side  remained  in  the 
hands  of  Admiral  Hoi-«e.  The  diplomatic 
arrangements  were  in  harmony  with  the  size 
and  importance  of  the  expedition.  Mr.  Bruce, 
who  had  continued  to  represent  the  British 
Government,  and,  indix-d,  on  the  8th  of  March 
presentetl  the  ultimatum  embodying  the 
demands  of  the  British  Government,  was 
superseded  by  his  brother,  Ix)rd  Elgin,  and 
the  French  Government  again  sent  out  Baron 
Gros  to  represent  them.  Nothing  this  time 
was  to  be  left  to  chance.  The  instruction 
given  to  the  plenipotentiaries  was  to  demand 
an  indemnity  enuivalent  to  live  millions  for 
the  losses  inflicted  upon  the  two  countries 
by  the  non-ratitic.ition  of  the  Treaty.  A 
reply  sent  by  the  Chinese  Government  to 
Mr.  Bruce's  ultimatum  clearly  showed  that 
there  was  not  the  smallest  chance  of  securing 
peacefully  the  acceptance  of  the  stipulated 
conditions.  A  blank  refusal  was  given  lo  the 
demand  for  an  iiidenniity  and  an  apology, 
and  while  it  was  intimated  that  the  British 
might  perhaps  be  allowed  to  proceed  lo 
Peking  by  way  of  Pchtang,  it  was  at  the  same 
time  announced  that  in  no  circumstances 
would  the  use  of  the  route  by  Taku  and 
the  Peiho  be  |-)ermittcd.  It  was  probably 
never  anticipated  that  the  Peking  authorities 
would  make  other  than  an  unfavourable  reply. 
At  all  events,  the  military  preparations  were 
continued  without  a  break  as  soon  as  the 
word  had  been  given  for  the  despatch  of  the 
expedition.  In  view  of  the  advent  of  the 
very  large  body  of  troops  forming  the  expe- 
ditionary force,  a  lease  was  obtained  in  per- 
petuity of  Kowloon  and  Stonecutter  Island, 
positions  which  from  their  greater  openness 
of  situation  were  (ar  more  healthy  than  the 

which  excited  a  good  deal  of  criticism  then 
and  afterwards,  was  the  occupation  of  Cluisan 
by  a  body  of  two  thousand  British  troops. 
The  island  was  not  subsequently  used  to 
any    appreciable    extent    in    the    conduct    of 


SIR    J.    HOPE    GRANT. 

the  operations,  and  its  capture  had  not  the 
smallest  influence  on  the  course  of  the  opera- 
tions. The  really  Important  centre  at  this 
juncture  was  the  mouth  of  the  Peiho,  where 
there  was  a  very  nasty  reverse  to  be  avenged 
and  the  conviction  to  be  carried  to  the  head- 


island  of  Hongkong.  Here  the  troops  on 
arrival  from  India  or  Kiigland  were  received, 
and  as  the  summer  advanced  an  impr>sing 
and  inspiriting  spectacle  was  presented  by 
the    various    camps.     The    first    move,    on<i 

quarters  of  the  Chinese  power  thatiiTreaty 
rights  must  be  respected.  Thither  by-degrees 
the  allied  forces  were  despatched,  Shanghai 
being  made  an  advanced  base.  There  was 
considerable     delay   'due    to     differences     of 

opinion  between  the  British  and  French 
commanders  as  to  the  plan  of  campaign. 
Kventually,  about  a  year  after  tlie  faihiie  of 
Admiral  Hope's  effort  to  force  the  passage 
of  the  river,  all  was  in  readiness  for  the 
execution  of  a  plan  mutually  agreed  upon  to 
attack  and  capture  Pehtang  and  take  the  Taku 
forts  in  the  rear.  The  troojis,  wlio  were  led 
by  Sir  Hope  Grant  in  person,  effected  a 
landing  without  opposition,  and  they  bivou- 
acked for  the  night  on  an  elevated  causeway 
near  the  shore.  A  reconnaissance  tlie  next 
morning  showed  tliat  the  enemy  had  evacuated 
the  fort  which  guarded  the  spot,  but  they 
had  thoughtfully  left  a  mine  to  be  exploded 
by  the  moving  of  some  gunlocks,  which 
were  placed  where  they  were  certain  to  be 
trodden  upon  by  the  incoming  troops.  For- 
tunately the  trick  was  exposed  in  time,  with 
the  result  that  the  trap  was  avoided.  Pushing 
into  the  country  after  three  days  of  Inaclion, 
reconnoitring  parties  came  across  a  strongly 
entrenched  Chinese  camp,  from  whicli  a 
heavy  lire  was  opened,  compelling  the  Hiitisli 
to  withdraw.  As  this  camp  commanded 
the  road  leading  to  the  interior  it  was  obvious 
that  it  must  be  carried,  but  the  position  pre- 
sented very  considerable  dilTiculties  to  an 
attacking  force,  owing  to  the  circumstance 
that  the  country  all  about  was  litlle  better 
than  a  swamp.  The  discovery  by  Colonel 
(afterwards  Lord)  VVolseley  of  a  cart  track 
suitable  for  the  passage  of  troops  suggested 
the  possibility  of  a  flank  movement  and  to 
some  extent  improved  the  situation.  But 
with  an  enemy  more  enterprising  than  the 
Chinese  the  assault  would  have  been  a  matter 
of  great  danger.  As  it  was  the  obstacles 
proved  so  formidable  that  it  seemed  at  one 
time  that  the  movement  would  have  to  be 
abandoned  or  at  least  deferred.  Describing 
the  niarcli  subsequently.  Sir  Hope  Grant 
wrote:  "The  horses  got  bogged,  the  guns 
sunk  up  lo  their  axletrees,  and  the  waggons 
stuck  fast.  At  last  we  were  compelled  to 
leave  the  waggon  bodies  behind  us,  and 
content  ourselves  with  the  gun  and  waggon 
limbers."  In  the  end,  however,  dogged  per- 
sistence and  pluck  carried  the  day.  The 
enemy's  position  was  vigorously  attacked  on 
the  flank  as  well  as  in  front,  and  after  a  brief 
resistance  the  Chinese  defenders  broke  and 
lied.  But  this  fight  was  only  a  preliminary 
to  another  and  more  stubborn  engagement. 
Beyond  the  village  of  Sinho,  which  the  allied 
troops  had  captured,  was  the  far  more  impor- 
tant position  of  Tangku,  a  strongly  fortified 
village  protected  by  well-placed  batteries.  An 
attack  was  made  on  this  by  the  expeditionary 
force  as  soon  as  a  careful  reconnaissance  had 
shown  the  most  practicable  line  of  advance. 
Thirty-six  pieces  of  ordnance  were  brought 
to  bear  upon  the  fortifications,  with  tlie  result 
that  the  Chinese  fire  was  soon  got  under. 
But  the  defenders,  contrary  to  the  usual 
practice  of  the  Chinese,  still  held  their  ground. 
Nor  was  it  until  the  guns  had  been  brought 
almost  up  to  the  walls  and  the  men  of  the 
attacking  force  were  streaming  in  that  the 
evacuation  was  begun.  The  success  at  Tangku 
removed  the  last  obstacle  in  the  way  of  an 
attack  on  the  Taku  forts.  The  only  question 
was  whether  attention  should  be  directed  first 
to  the  forts  on  the  noi  thern  or  to  those  on  the 
souOiern  side.  Sir  Hope  Giant  was  in  favour 
of  an  immediate  attack  on  the  northern 
defences,  as  in  his  view  their  capture  would 
render  the  southern  forts  untenable.  General 
Montauban  took  the  view  that  the  southern 
forts  sliould  be  dealt  witli  first,  but  he  ulti- 
mately agreed  to  accept  the  plan  of  campaign 
proposed  by  his  British  colleague.  On  the 
2 1st  of  August,  after  a  series  of  careful  recon- 
naissances,  the   attack    opened   with    a    brief 


cannonade  from  tlie  splendid  guns  of  the 
expeditionary  force.  The  Chinese  replied 
with  spirit,  and  it  was  soon  apparent  that 
the  Allies  were  not  to  have  an  easy  victory. 
One   of  the   principal  magazines  in   the  fort 

Tientsin,  was  despatched  in  hot  haste  to  make 
the  hest  terms  he  could  with  the  Allies.  On 
notifying  his  arrival  to  Lord  Elgin  he  was 
informed  that  the  three  indispensalMe  con- 
ditions  of    peace    were    an   apology   for    the 


was  exploded  by  a  shell  and  yet  the  Chinese 
gunners  fought  on.  A  series  of  attempts  made 
to  scale  the  wall  of  the  fort  were  baflledwith 
heavy  loss  to  the  Allies.  At  length  by  a  happy 
chance  the  British  discovered  a  drawbridge, 
and  by  cutting  the  ropes  which  held  it  up 
they  secured  for  the  attacking  party  an  easy 
means  of  access.  The  Chinese  fought  to  the 
last  and  it  was  computed  that  out  of  a 
garrison  of  five  hundred  but  one  hundred 
escaped.  On  the  side  of  the  Allies  the 
losses  were  considerable  :  the  British  alone 
had  22  killed  and  179  wounded.  The  en- 
gagement, however,  was  a  decisive  one. 
Pour  other  forts  on  the  northern  side  were 
captured  without  loss,  and  the  southern  forts 
surrendered  without  a  shot  being  fired.  It 
only  remained  for  the  positions  to  be  formally 
occupied  on  August  22nd  simultaneously  with 
the  entrance  of  the  fleet  into  the  river. 

Before  the  affair  of  Tangku  overtures  for 
peace  had  been  received  from  Peking,  but  in 
view  of  earlier  contretemps  brought  about  by 
a  too  precipitate  acceptance  of  negotiations  it 
was  deemed  advisable  by  the  representatives 
of  the  Allies  to  settle  the  business  of  the  Taku 
forts  before  bringing  diplomacy  into  play. 
Even  after  the  positions  had  fallen  the  Allies 
manifested  no  disposition  to  abandon  the 
sword  for  the  pen.  An  immediate  advance 
to  Tientsin  was  commenced.  Touch  was 
obtained  with  that  place  on  the  23rd  of 
August,  and  in  three  days  the  bulk  of  the 
expeditionary  force  had  reached  the  city. 
No  resistance  was  encountered  from  the 
regular  Chinese  forces,  and  the  inhabitants 
showed  what  in  the  circumstances  was  an 
amazing  disposition  to  turn  the  invasion  to 
account  by  opening  up  a  brisk  trade  with  the 
troops.  In  the  meantime  communication  had 
been  established  with  the  Chinese  authorities. 
The  logic  of  events  had  driven  home  into  the 
imperial  brain  the  necessity  of  action,  and 
Kweiliang,  who  had  negotiated  the  Treaty  of 

attack  on  the  British  flag  at  the  Peiho,  the 
payment  of  an  indemnity  including  the  cost 
of  the  war,  and  the  ratiiicatlon  and  execution 
of    the     Treaty    of    Tientsin,    including    the 

to  Tungchow,  within  12  miles  of  Peking, 
a  distinctly  uncompromising  attilude  was 
taken  up.  Finding  that  the  object  of  the 
negotiations  was  only  to  gain  time,  and  being 
anxious  to  complete  the  campaign  before 
the  approach  of  the  winter  season,  the 
allied  representatives  decided  to  continue  the 
advance.  The  first  detachment,  fifteen  hun- 
dred strong,  accompanied  by  Lord  Elgin  and 
Sir  Hope  Grant,  marched  out  on  the  8th  of 
September  and  camped  at  the  village  of 
Hosiwu,  about  half  way  to  the  capital.  The 
strength  of  the  advanced  force  having  been 
brought  up  to  a  division,  the  advance  was 
resumed  a  few  days  later.  No  opposition 
was  encountered  until  the  expeditionary 
force  reached  Chan-chia-wan,  a  point  some 
distance  further  on  the  road,  when  the  way 
was  found  blocked  by  a  large  army. 

Throughout  the  march  from  Tientsin  the 
semblance  of  diplomatic  courtesy  had  been 
kept  up.  The  British  leaders  were  in 
constant  communication  with  the  Chinese 
officials,  and  no  outward  demonstration  of 
hostility  had  been  encountered.  So  pacific 
was  the  outlook  that  on  the  day  prior  to  Sir 
Hope  Grant's  getting  into  touch  with  the 
Chinese  forces,  a  party  consisting  of  Mr. 
Parkes,  Mr.  Henry  Loch  (afterwards  Lord 
Lochi,  Mr.  De  Normann,  and  Mr.  Bowlby 
(the  latter  the  special  correspondent  of  the 
Times)  had  been  despatched,  with  an  escort 
of  six  English  dragoons  and  twenty  Sikh 
cavalry-men,  to  arrange  the  final  preliminaries 
for  the  camping  of  the  expeditionary  force 
at  Tungchow,  and  the  interviews  with  the 
representatives  of  the  Chinese  Government. 
The  members  of  this  body  looked  forward 
to  some  interesting  experiences,  but  they 
were  totally  unprepared  for  the  staLtlIng 
adventures  which  fell  to  their  lot.  The 
journey  to  Tungchow  was  made  without 
incident.  At  one  or  two  points  the  riders 
were  challenged  by  military  parties,  but  on 


clause  which  provided  for  tlic  reception  of 
a  British  representative  at  Peking.  No  great 
objection  was  urged  to  any  of  the  conditions 
by  Kweiliang,  but  when  it  became  known 
that    it    was    proposed   to   march    the    army 

intimating  that  they  were  proceeding  to  the 
quarters  of  the  imperial  commissioners  they 
were  at  once  allowed  to  pass.  There  was 
even  a  friendliness  shown,  as,  for  example, 
at    one    point    where    a    Mandarin    of    high 


rank  rode  up,  and  announcing  himseU  as  the 
cvMnmander  of  the  Chinese  troops  at  Sinho, 
intimated  that  there  would  be  peace  now, 
and  expressed  a  desire  to  take  by  the  hand 
those  who  flight  him  on  that  day.  The 
visitors  had  not  been  at  Tungehow  long, 
however,  before  they  disi-overcd  that  all 
was  not  to  be  pUiin  sailing.  The  commis- 
sioners, whether  owing  to  direct  orders  from 
the  Emperor,  or  to  the  knowledge  which 
was  brought  them  that  a  great  military 
force  had  been  brought  upon  the  scene,  in 
the  place  of  the  former  courtesy  assumed 
an  arrogant,  almost  offensive,  attitude. 
They  placed  all  sorts  of  obst:icles  in  the 
way  of  an  arrangement,  and  it  was  only 
after  four  hours'  discussion  that  they  could 
be  brought  to  assent  to  plans  for  the 
accommodation  of  the  expeditionary  force. 
There  seems  very  little  doubt  now  that 
they  were  utilising  the  negotiations  simply 
for  purpt>ses  of  delay  —  to  allow  of  the 
advancing  Chinese  troops  to  close  in  more 
effcx'tually  upon  the  invading  force.  But 
Mr.   Parkes,  though   suspicious  of    the    bona 

missioners  and  extricating  from  the  dubious 
position  in  which  they  were  placed  the 
main  body  of  the  escort,  which,  with 
Messrs.  De  Normann,  Bowlby,  and  Anderson, 
had  been  left  there  to  point  out  the 
champing  ground  to  the  expeditionary  force 
on  its  arrival.  Mr.  Loch  performed  his  task 
with  difficulty,  but  he  was  not  content  that 
his  mission  should  end  there.  He  thought 
that  his  duty  impelled  him  to  return  to  tlie 
Chinese  lines  to  help  his  quondam  associates 
out  of  their  difficulty,  so  tak  ng  Captain 
Braba/.on  and  an  escort  of  two  Sikhs  with 
him,  he  rode  as  fast  as  he  could  through 
the  enemy's  ranks  to  Tungchow.  The  party 
had  an  uneventful  ride,  and  on  arriving  at 
Tungchow  they  found  that  the  British 
members  of  the  party  were  away  in  the 
town  shopping,  in  blissful  ignorance  of  the 
critical  position  of  affairs.  There  was, 
however,  a  letter  from  Mr.  Parkes  instruct- 
ing the  officers  to  prepare  for  instant  flight, 
and  stating  that  he  was  himself  seeking 
Prince  Tsai.  Not  long  afterwards  the  entire 
party    met    to    face    what   was    momentarily 


fiilcs  of  the  Mandarins,  did  not  divine  the 
true  state  of  affairs  until  he  was  on  his 
way  back  to  the  British  camp  on  the 
following  morning.  Then  he  realised  only 
too  well  what  the  true  position  was.  On 
every  side  troops  were  encountered,  ob- 
viously collected  for  the  execution  of  some 
grand  coup.  Taking  in  the  situation  as  he 
passed  along,  the  dense  masses  of  cavalry 
ready  for  instant  action,  the  guns  being 
placed  in  position,  and  the  marching  and 
countermarching  of  considerable  bodies  of 
braves,  Mr.  Parkes  had  not  the  slightest 
difficulty  in  underst^inding  that  the  object 
of  the  Chinese  was  to  attack  the  expe- 
ditionary force  at  a  disadvantage.  Imme- 
diately the  truth  dawned  upon  him  he 
took  steps  which  seemed  to  him  to  be 
demanded  by  the  occasion.  He  first  of  all 
despatched  Mr.  Uxrh  with  two  Sikhs,  to 
carry  to  Sir  Hope  Grant  the  news  of  what 
he  had  to  expect.  He  himself  decided  to 
return  to  Tungchow,  for  the  double  purpose 
of   demanding    an   explanation    of    the   com- 

becoming  a  more  dangerous  situation.  Mr. 
Parkes'  interview  with  Prince  Tsai  left  not 
the  smallest  doubt  that  war  was  intended, 
and  apart  from  this,  there  were  sufficiently 
ominous  movements  visible  to  show  that  the 
sword  was  to  be  drawn,  if  it  was  not 
already  out  of  its  scabbard.  It  was  speedily 
decided  to  make  a  bold  bid  for  safety.  This 
could  only  be  done  by  riding  with  the  least 
possible  delay  back  to  the  British  lines. 
But  the  expeditionary  force  was  lo  miles 
away,  and  it  was  known  that,  according  to 
an  understanding  arrived  at  between  Mr. 
Loch  and  Sir  Hope  Grant,  the  British  attack 
would  be  delivered  at  the  expiration  of  two 
hours  from  the  time  of  the  former's  depar- 
ture. With  none  too  confident  feelings, 
therefore,  the  little  band  of  Britons  com- 
menced their  journey.  All  went  well  until 
they  had  passed  through  Chan-chia-wan. 
Then  they  found  themselves  in  the  rear  of 
the  Chinese  army,  with  the  battle  already 
raging  in  front.  After  a  council  of  war  it 
was  decided  not  to  take  a  direct  course,  but  to 

endeavour  to  get  round  the  riglit  flank  of 
the  Chinese  force  and  by  a  detour  reach 
the  British  lines.  When  an  attempt  was 
made  to  give  effect  to  this  decision  the 
Chinese  innnediately  interfered.  The  British 
were  told  by  a  Mandarin  that  if  they 
persisted  they  would  be  fired  on,  but  that  if 
they  would  accompany  him  to  the  general's 
presence  he  would  procure  a  safe  conduct 
for  them.  The  offer  was  peiforce  accepted, 
and  Mr.  Parkes  and  Mr.  Loch,  separating 
themselves  from  their  companions,  and 
attended  only  by  a  Sikh  trooper,  rode  off 
in  search  of  Sankolinsin.  the  Chinese  general. 
They  came  suddenly  upon  a  large  body  of 
infantry,  who  attacked  them  with  such 
ferocity  that  they  would  inevitably  have 
been  killed,  but  for  the  intervention  of  the 
Mandarins,  who  rushed  between  them  and 
their  men  and  comniaiuled  the  latter  not 
to  fire.  Sankolinsin,  on  being  encountered 
shortly  afterwards,  treated  the  representa- 
tions made  to  him  with  scornful  flippancy. 
By  his  orders  the  unfortunate  Britishers 
were  dragged  from  tlieir  horses  and  sub- 
jected to  all  manner  of  indignities,  and 
finally  were  despatched  prisoners  to  Peking. 
The  remainder  of  the  party  were  later 
subjected  lo  similar  ill-treatment  and  fol- 
lowed their  companions  in  misfortune  to  the 
Chinese  capital. 

The  battle  meanwhile  was  proceeding 
rapidly  to  its  inevitable  culmination.  In  the 
final  dispositions  for  the  struggle  tlie  French 
had  taken  up  position  on  the  right,  and  they 
early  became  vigorously  engaged  with  the 
best  portion  of  Sankolinsin's  troops.  The 
Tartar  cavalry  charged  the  guns  with  so 
much  spirit  that  a  battery  narrowly  missed 
falling  into  their  hands.  This  charge  was 
met  by  a  counter  charge,  which,  however, 
produced  little  effect  on  the  dense  masses  of 
the  enemy.  Sir  Hope  Grant,  fearing  the 
prolongation  of  the  conflict,  decided  to  assail 
the  enemy's  left  vigorously.  The  movement 
was  carried  out  very  effectively,  the  great 
feature  of  it  being  a  brilliant  charge  by  soir.e 
squadrons  of  Probyn's  Horse.  The  enemy 
now  began  to  give  ground  slowly.  Their 
pnigress  rearwards  might  have  been  hastened 
liad  not  the  French  been  too  exhausted  to 
participate  further  in  the  fight.  Sir  Hope 
Grant,  making  the  best  use  of  available 
material,  was,  however,  able  before  night 
fell  to  occupy  Chan-chia-wan  and  drive  the 
enemy  out  of  a  strong  camp  one  mile  on  the 
other  side  of  the  town.  The  British  com- 
mander was  under  no  misapprehension  as  to 
the  character  of  his  victory.  The  Chinese, 
though  beaten,  were  not  demoralised.  They 
had  fought  bravely  and  well,  and  there  was 
no  reason  why  they  should  not  again  measure 
swords  with  the  expeditionary  foix'e.  In  the 
circumstances  Sir  Hope  Grant  considered 
that  prudence  demanded  that  he  should 
strengthen  his  force  witli  a  view  to  futui'e 
eventualities.  He  therefore  ordered  Sir 
Robert  Napier  to  join  him  with  all  available 
troops  from  the  Tientsin  garrison.  On  the 
2lst  of  September  Lord  Elgin  arrived  at  the 
military  headquarters,  and  about  the  same 
time  the  French  troops  were  reinforced  by  a 
fresh  brigade.  The  hostilities  were  then 
recoriunenced  with  vigour".  The  Chinese, 
emboldened  by  the  delay,  made  another 
stand  at  the  Palikao  bridge  whrch  crosses 
the  Peilio  west  of  Tungchow  ;  but  they  were 
no  match  for  the  carefully  trained  and  well 
equipped  troops  pitted  against  them,  and  on 
the  bridge  being  brilliantly  rushed  by  the 
French,  they  quickly  dispersed.  Peking  was 
now  practically  at  the  mercy  of  the  invaders. 
That  the  circumstance  was  appreciated  in  the 
imperial    entourage    was   made    manifest    the 


next  day,  when  Prince  Kung,  the  Emperor's 
brother,  forwarded  a  letter  stating  that  he 
had  been  commissioned  to  ariange  a  peace 
and  asking  for  the  temporary  suspension  of 
hostilities  to  allow  of  a  discussion  of  details. 
Lord  Elgin  replied  to  this  communication 
with  a  somewhat  stern  letter  in  which  he 
intimated  that  there  could  be  no  negotiations 
for  peace  until  the  piisoners  in  Chinese 
custody  had  been  set  free.  Prince  Kung  was 
warned  that  if  the  prisoners  were  not  sent 
back  in  safety  the  consequences  would  be 
most  serious  for  the  Chinese  Government. 
Prince  Kung  was  indisposed  to  accept  the 
view  that  the  prisoners  must  be  released  as  a 
condition  precedent  to  negotiation,  and  as 
after  a  week  he  showed  no  signs  of  yielding 
orders  were  given  for  the  march  of  the 
expeditionary  force  to  Peking.  It  was  de- 
cided by  the  allied  commanders  to  avoid  the 
city  itself,  and  to  make  the  Summer  Palace 
the  objective.  In  pursuance  of  this  plan  the 
advance  was  continued,  but  on  the  way  the 
British  and  French  forces  became  separated, 
and  though  the  arrangement  was  that  the 
French  should  bring  up  the  rear,  they 
managed  to  get  to  the  common  destination 
first.  Practically  no  opposition  was  met  with 
by  either  portion  of  the  force.  The  fact  that 
on  the  approach  of  the  invaders  the  Emperor 
had  fled  to  Gehol  was  no  doubt  accepted  by 
the  complaisant  officialdom  as  a  sufficient 
reason  why  they  should  not  continue  the 
resistance.  Whatever  may  be  the  truth  on 
that  point  the  surrender  paved  the  way  for 
the  infliction  of  a  blow  on  the  imperial 
dignity  the  like  of  which  had  never  before 
in  its  history  been  experienced.  The  despoil- 
ing of  the  Summer  Palace  was  the  first  step 
in  this  humiliating  process.  Immediately  the 
French  arrived  they  promptly  proceeded  to 
sack  the  beautiful  pavilions,  scattering  and 
destroying  such  of  their  contents  as  they 
could  not  take  away.  "  It  was  pitiful  to  see 
the  way  in  which  everything  was  being 
robbed,"  wrote  Sir  Hope  Grant  in  describing 
the  scene  which  he  witnessed  on  arrival  at 
the  Palace.  The  work  of  destruction  once 
begun  in  this  fashion  could  not  be  stopped, 
and  soon  little  was  left  that  was  worth 
taking  away.  But  even  when  the  Palace 
had  been  stripped  and  left  in  a  condition  of 
forlorn  desolation  the  heavy  hand  of  the 
conqueror  was  not  removed.  The  reckoning 
had  to  be  paid  for  the  outrage  perpetrated  on 
Mr.  Parkes  and  his  party.  After  the  Allies 
had  entered  Peking  an  intimation  was  received 
through  Mr.  Parkes  that  he  and  his  fellow 
prisoners,  French  and  English,  who  had 
been  detained  in  the  Kaon  Meaon  Temple, 
near  the  Tehshun  Gate,  were  to  be  surren- 
dered on  the  8th  of  October.  The  story  they 
told  was  one  which  was  calculated  to  fire 
the  indignation  of  their  countrymen.  Insult 
upon  insult  had  been  heaped  upon  them,  and 
outrage  upon  outrage,  and  no  artifice  was 
spared  to  induce  them  to  be  false  to  their 
country  by  furnishing  information  or  using 
their  influence  to  its  disadvantage.  Still,  their 
lives  had  been  spared,  and  in  view  of  this 
fact  and  of  the  extreme  anxiety  displayed  by 
Prince  Kung,  the  representative  of  the  Chinese 
Government  with  whom  he  had  to  deal  to 
ariange  a  peace.  Lord  Elgin  deemed  it 
expedient  not  to  press  the  matter  too  far.  He 
did  not  know  then  the  story  of  the  other 
prisoners  who  had  been  separated  from 
Mr.  Parkes  and  Mr.  Loch.  That  was  a 
melancholy  sequel  reserved  until  the  arrival 
of  eight  Sikhs  and  a  Frenchman  who  were 
of  the  party  which  had  been  made  captive 
after  the  seizure  of  Mr.  Parkes  and  Mr.  Loch. 
It  appeared  from  the  accounts  of  the  Sikhs 
that   the    five    Englishmen    who   were   of   the 

number  had  been  bound  with  ropes  and 
maltreated  with  fiendish  ingenuity.  Under 
the  terrible  strain  Lieut.  Anderson,  one  of  the 
Dragoon  officers,  became  delirious,  and  died 
on  the  ninth  day  of  the  captivity.  A  week 
later  Mr.  de  Normann  died,  and  he  was 
followed  to  the  grave  at  short  intervals  by 
the  other  Europeans.  Such  a  monstrous 
crime  against  civilisation  and  humanity  called 
aloird  for  vengeance,  and  Lord  Elgin,  though 
extremely  anxious  to  conclude  peace,  decided 
that  before  terms  could  be  settled  some  signal 
step  must  be  taken  to  indicate  to  the  Chinese 
populace  the  detestation  in  which  the  treat- 
ment of  the  prisoners  was  held  by  their 
countrymen.  When  the  question  of  the 
character  of  the  punitive  act  came  to  be 
considered  there  was  no  doubt  entertained 
by  the  British  representatives  that  the  most 
sti'iking  and  appropriate  retribution  which 
could  be  exacted  was  the  destruction  of  the 
Summer  Palace.  Strangely  enough,  having 
regard  to  the  earlier  action  of  the  French 
troops  at  the  Palace,  the  French  commander 
declined  to  be  associated  with  this  measure. 

of  the  palace.  The  circumstances  under 
which  the  settlement  was  concluded  were 
such  as  to  leave  an  indelible  impress  upon 
the  mind  of  the  Chinese  populace  of  the 
completeness  of  the  victory  won.  To  Mr. 
Parkes  and  Mr.  Loch  was  entrusted  the  duty 
of  selecting  a  suitable  place  for  the  ratifica- 
tion of  the  treaty.  Hiding  through  the  streets 
of  the  city  at  the  head  of  an  escort  of  British 
and  Sikh  cavalry,  they  decided  that  the  Hall 
of  Ceremonies  was  the  building  best  adapted 
for  the  purpose.  The  Chinese,  who  had 
recently  seen  the  two  oflicials  as  helpless 
captives,  could  not  fail  to  have  read  in  this 
triumphal  entry,  in  which  they  figured  as  the 
leaders,  a  lesson  not  readily  to  be  forgotten. 
Nor  were  they  likely  to  have  missed  the  sig- 
nificance of  the  selection  by  Lord  Elgin  and 
Baron  dc  Gros  as  their  place  of  temporary 
residence  in  Peking  the  palace  of  Prince  Tsai, 
whose  hostile  action  and  attitude  towards 
the  Allies  throughout  had  been  particularly 

The  ceremony  of  ratification  took  place  on 
October  24th,  amid  every  circumstance  which 

A    VIEW    IN    PEKING. 

the  necessity  for  which  he  failed  to  recognise. 
Lord  Elgin  and  Sir  Hope  Grant,  however, 
were  quite  prepared  to  accept  all  responsi- 
bility, and  in  due  course — on  the  i8th  of 
October — the  Summer  Palace  was  set  on  fire 
and  utterly  destroyed.  Nothing  in  the  whole 
of  the  campaign  more  impressed  the  Chinese 
mind  than  this  act  of  vengeance.  "  It  was," 
wrote  Lord  Wolseley  in  his  narrative  of  the 
war,  "  the  stamp  which  gave  an  unmistak- 
able reality  to  our  work  of  vengeance,  proving 
that  Lord  Elgin's  last  letter  was  no  idle 
threat,  and  warning  them  of  what  they  might 
expect  in  the  capital  itself  unless  they  accepted 
our  proffered  terms.  The  Imperial  Palace 
within  the  city  still  remained  untouched  ; 
and  if  they  wished  to  save  the  last  remaining 
place  for  their  master  it  behoved  them  to 
lose  no  time.  I  feel  convinced  that  the 
burning  of  Yuen-min-yuen  considerably 
hastened  the  final  settlement  of  affairs  and 
strengthened  our  ambassador's  position." 
The  arrangement  of  the  peace  terms,  at  all 
events,   followed    swiftly  on    the   destruction 

could  lend  it  importance.  Lord  Elgin  pro- 
ceeded in  a  chair  of  state  to  the  Hall  of 
Ceremonies  accompanied  by  a  brilliant  suite, 
and  also  by  Sir  Hope  Grant  with  an  escort 
of  one  hundred  officers  and  five  hundred 
troops.  Prince  Kung,  with  an  imposing  body 
of  Mandarins,  attended  to  submit  the  necessary 
imperial  authorisation  to  the  conclusion  of 
peace  and  to  affix  the  imperial  seal  to  the 
treaty.  He  was  extreirrely  nervous — "anxious 
and  hesitating "  was  Mr.  Loch's  description 
of  his  attitude — but  the  general  impression 
left  was  of  an  amiable  young  man  who 
had  passed  through  a  trying  ordeal  with 
dignity.  The  work  in  coimection  with  the 
treaty  was  not  considered  to  be  at  an  end 
until  the  Emperor's  edict  for  its  publication 
had  been  received  from  Gehol.  That, 
however,  only  entailed  a  delay  of  a  few 
days,  and  by  the  gth  of  November  the  last 
of  the  allied  troops  had  left  Peking  on 
their  homeward  journey.  Lord  Elgin  also 
departed  about  the  same  time,  leaving  Mr. 
Frederick    Bruce     behind    as    first    Resident 


Minister  to  the  Chinese  Court.  The  Treaty 
of  Peking,  besides  pro\iding  (or  the  making 
of  reiviration  for  the  outrages  upon  British 
subjects  and  the  payment  of  an  indemnity 
of  eight  million  taels  to  cover  the  expenses 
of  the  war,  amplitied  and  extended  in  im- 
portant directions  the  facilities  for  trade. 
One  of  its  clauses  threw  Tientsin  o(Ten  to 
foreign  trade  ;  anotlicr  provision  ceded  to  the 
British  the  KowKxin  peninsula  at  Hongkong, 
which,    as    has    been    noticed,    was    already 

leased  to  the  Hongkong  Government  ;  and  a 
further  stipulation  which  was  to  have  a 
powerful  influence  on  British  trade  was 
that  there  should  be  freedom  granted  to 
Chinese  subjects  to  emigrate  to  British 
colonies.  But,  of  course,  tlie  greatest  achieve- 
ment of  all  of  the  Treaty  to  settle  for 
ever  the  long  discussed  question  of  direct 
diplomatic  intercourse  with  the  Chinese 
Government.  The  liberty  granted  by  the 
Treaty  to  send  representatives  to  Peking  was 

not  confined  to  the  Allies.  Like  other  con- 
cessions wrung  from  the  Chinese  Government 
by  fi>rce  of  arms  it  was  of  general  application, 
and  it  was  not  long  before  Mr.  Bruce  and 
his  French  colleague  had  to  keep  them  in 
countenance  in  the  Chinese  capital  represen- 
tatives of  otlier  foreign  powers.  A  new  era, 
in  fact,  was  opened  up  by  tlie  Treaty — an 
era  frauglit  with  nnich  prosperity  for  foreign 
trade,  and  not  a  little  peril  for  the  imperial 
Chhiese   authority. 


Progress  of  Hongkong — Popular  Element  introduced  into  the  Legislative  Council — Stormy  closing  days  of  Sir 
John  Bowring's  Administration — Sir  Hercules  Robinson's  Administration — The  Kowloon  Peninsula — Prosperous 
Days  followed  by  a  Period  of  Depression — Sir  R.  G.  MacDonnell's  Administration — Financial  Reform — The 
Stamp  Act — Disputes  with  the  Colonial  Office  over  the  Gambling  Licences — "  The  Blockade  of  Hongkong " — 
Prosperous  Trade — Sir  A.  E.  Kennedy's   Administration — Sir  J.  Pope-Hennessy's   stormy  Rule. 

Ix  tracing  the  history  of  Anglo-Chinese  rela- 
tions in  the  impoi  tant  period  which  concluded 
with  the  ratification  of  the  Treaty  of  Peking, 
we  have  necessarily  had  to  overkxik  the  de- 
velopment of  the  great  colonial  experiment 
which  was  entered  upon  with  the  occupation 
of  Hongkong.  Our  last  glimpse  of  the  Colony 
was  a  sombre  one.  A  small  comnumity  was 
maintaining  an  arduous  struggle  against  heavy 
odds  with  only  a  faint  prospect  of  ultimate 
success.  The  commercial  position,  which,  as 
we  have  seen,  was  gradually  improving  in  1847, 
continued  to  gain  strength,  though  slowly,  in 
the  administration  of  Sir  George  Bonham.  In 
other  respects  progress  was  made.  It  is  to  this 
period  that  is  to  be  dated  the  introduction  of 
the  popular  element  into  the  government  of 
the  Colony.  At  the  end  of  1849  Sir  George 
Bonham  selected  fifteen  of  the  unoHicial 
Justices  of  the  Peace  and  summoned  them 
to  a  conference.  He  informed  them  that  Earl 
Grey  had  sanctioned  his  propositi  for  the 
admission  of  two  members  of  the  civil  com- 
munity into  the  Legislative  Council,  that  the 
nomination  rested  with  him,  but  that  he 
thought  it  better  for  the  justices  themselves 
to  elect  two  of  their  number.  At  a  meeting 
of  the  justices  held  at  the  club  on  December 
6,  1849,  Messrs.  David  Jardine  and  J.  F.  Edger 
were  nominated  as  the  first  unofficial  mem- 
bers of  the  Legislative  Council.  Another 
important  matter  discussed  at  the  same 
conference  was  the  question  of  Municipal 
Government.  Sir  G.  Bonham,  while  agree- 
ing with  the  principle  that  taxpayers  should 
have  control  of  their  municipal  affairs, 
doubted  whether  such  a  scheme  was  prac- 
ticable in  Hongkong.  However,  he  requested 
the  justices  to  consult  on  the  question  of  a 
Municipal  Committee  of  Police  Commissioners. 
The  justices  passed  a  resolution  to  the  effect 
that  no  advantage  could  be  derived  from 
having  a  Municipal  Council  unless  the  entire 
managenient  of  the  police  of  the  streets  and 
roads  within  the  limits  of  the  town,  and  of 
all  other  matters  usually  given  to  corporations, 
were  confided  to  it,  and  that  the  amount  raised 
in  land  rents,  together  with  the  sums  derived 
from  licences  and  rents,  should,  with  the  police 
assessments,  be  applicable  as  far  as  possible 
for  municipal  purposes.  The  demands  made 
were    imp<»sible   ones   in    the    then    circum- 

stances of  the  Colony,  and  they  were  rejected. 
But  in  January,  1851,  Sir  George  Bonham 
offered  to  place  the  wliole  management  of  the 
police  under  a  Municipal  Committee  on  the 
condition  that  the  entire  expense  of  the  police 
force  was  defrayed  by  an  adequate  police  tax. 
He  also  agreed  to  hand  over  to  a  municipal 
authority  the  management  of  streets,  roads, 
and  sewers  on  condition  that  the  requisite 
funds  were  provided  either  by  an  assessed 
tax  on  real  property  or  by  a  tax  upon  hoises 
and  carriages.  Both  offers  were  declined  by 
the  justices,  and  here  the  matter  ended  for 
the  time. 

Sir  John  Bowring's  administration  witnessed 
the  steady  growth  of  the  community  in  in- 
fluence and  importance,  but  unhappily  during 
the  later  years  of  his  term  of  office  the  Colony 
was  torn  with  internecine  disputes — "  an 
internal  chronic  warfare,  the  acerbities  of 
which  beggared  all  description  "  is  Dr.  Eitel's 
picturesque  but  absolutely  accurate  descrip- 
tion of  the  condition  of  affairs.  The  initial 
disturbing  element  was  a  newspaper  pub- 
lished under  the  title  of  Tlic  Friend  of  China 
and  edited  by  a  discharged  civil  servant. 
This  journal  delivered  a  series  of  attacks 
spread  over  a  long  peiiod  on  the  official 
classes  and  particularly  on  the  Lieutenant- 
Governor,  against  whom  an  allegation  of 
complicity  in  corruption  was  not  obscurely 
advanced.  For  years  these  insinuations  were 
made  without  any  action  being  taken,  but 
ultimately  the  editor  was  prosecuted,  and 
on  September  21,  1859,  sentenced  to  a 
term  of  imprisonment  for  libel.  Before  this 
drastic  retribution  had  been  meted  out  a 
charge  had  been  made  by  another  paper — Tlic 
Daily  Press — against  the  Kegistrar-Geneial, 
who  was  accused  of  being  the  tool  of  un- 
scrupulous conspirators  and  in  league  with 
pirates.  The  Registrar-General,  consequent 
upon  the  charge,  sent  in  his  papers,  but  the 
Government,  having  perfect  confidence  in  him, 
induced  him  to  withdraw  his  resignation. 
This  event  happened  in  1856.  Less  than  two 
years  later  Tlie  Daily  Press  again  distinguished 
itself  by  charging  the  Governor  with  cor- 
ruptly favouring  the  firm  of  Jardine,  Matheson 
&  Co.  in  the  matter  of  public  contracts,  but 
this  time  it  had  reckoned  too  much  on  the 
official   tolerance    of    scurrility,    for  Sir  John 

Bowring  caused  a  prosecution  to  be  instituted 
against  the  paper,  with  the  result  that  the 
editor  was  sent  to  gaol  for-  six  months.  An 
Attorney-General,  a  politician  who  had  been 
sent  out  from  home  for  the  not  uncommon 
reason  that  he  was  a  nuisance  there,  added 
to  the  liveliness  of  the  situation  by  quarrelling 
with  nearly  everybody,  and  tapping  all  by 
charging  the  Acting  Colonial  Secretary  with 
collusion  with  the  new  opium  farmer,  from 
whom  he  accepted  a  retainer.  A  commission 
appointed  to  inquire  into  the  matter  exonerated 
the  accused  official  of  any  dishonourable  con- 
duct, though  it  held  that  some  slight  blame 
attached  to  him.  Fresh  chaiges  arising  out  of 
this  incident  were  brought  by  the  Attorney- 
General,  notably  one  wliich  attributed  to  him 
the  burning  of  the  account  hooks  of  a  con- 
victed pirate  to  screen  himself  and  the 
Kegistrar-Geneial  fiom  a  charge  of  complicity 
with  pirates.  The  outcome  of  the  business 
was  the  suspension  of  the  Attorney-General 
by  the  Governor  and  the  reference  of  the 
matter  to  England.  The  Secretaiy  of  State 
in  his  reply  exonerated  the  Acting  Colonial 
Secretary,  but  that  officer  voluntarily  resigned 
his  office  on  August  28,  1858.  .4n  action 
subsequently  brought  against  The  Friend  of 
China  for  libel  in  connection  with  the  repe^; 
tition  of  the  charge  anent  the  burning  of  the 
pirate's  books,  resulted  in  a  verdict  of  not 
guilty  and  the  awarding  of  costs  against  the 
Government.  An  incident  which  heightened 
the  public  interest  in  the  proceedings  was 
the  hurried  departure  of  Sir  John  Bowring 
to  Manila  to  avoid  service  of  a  subpcena  in 
the  case.  The  scene  of  the  conflict  was  now 
transferred  to  England,  where  the  Attorney- 
General  started  an  agitation  with  a  view  to 
compelling  the  Government  to  take  action 
for  the  vindication  of  the  national  honour, 
which  was  supposed  to  have  been  impugned 
by  the  conduct  of  the  Registiar  and  the 
Acting  Colonial  Secretary.  The  movement, 
though  skilfully  directed,  came  to  very  little. 
The  Government  spokesman  in  the  House 
of  Commons,  while  promising  a  careful 
inquiry  into  the  facts,  stated  that  a  dis- 
passioiiate  consideration  of  the  papers  induced 
the  Government  to  come  to  the  view  that 
the  Governor's  decision  as  to  the  suspension 
of   the  Attorney-General  must   be   confirmed. 


The  Tillies  on  March  15,  1859,  caustically 
commented  on  the  state  of  affairs  at  Hong- 
kong which  the  controversy  disclosed. 
"Hongkong,"  it  said,  "is  always  connected 
with  some  fatal  pestilence,  some  doubtful 
war  or  some  discreditable  internal  squabble  ; 
so  much  so  that,  in  popular  language,  the 
name  of  this  noisy,  bustling,  quarrelsome, 
discontented  little  island  may  not  inaptly 
be  used  as  a  euphemous  synonym  for  a 
place  not  mentionable  to  ears  polite.  Every 
official's  hand  is  there  against  his  neighbour. 
The  Governor  has  run  away  to  seek  quiet  or 
health  elsewhere.  The  Lieutenant-Governor 
has  been  accused  of  having  allowed  his  ser- 
vant to  squeeze.  The  newspaper  proprietors 
were,  of  late,  all  more  or  less  in  prison  or 
going  to  prison  or  coming  out  of  prison  on 
prosecutions  by  some  one  or  more  of  the  in- 
criminated and  incriminating  officials.  The 
heads  of  the  mercantile  houses  hold  them- 
selves quite  aloof  from  the  local  disputes  and 
conduct  themselves  in  a  highly  dignified 
manner,  which  is  one  of  the  chief  causes  of 
the  evil.  But  a  section  of  the  community 
deal  in  private  slander,  which  the  newspapers 
retail  in  public  abuse.  Of  the  Hongkong 
Press,  w^hich  every  one  is  using,  prompting, 
disavowing  and  prosecuting,  the  less  we 
say  the  better.  A  dictator  is  needed,  a 
sensible  man,  a  man  of  tact  and  firmness. 
We  cannot  aKvays  be  investigating  a  storm 
in  a  tea  pot  where  each  individual  leaf  has 
its  dignity  and  its  grievance." 

Sir  John  Bowring  was  not  happy  in  his 
administration  in  other  respects  than  those  to 
which  particular  reference  has  been  made. 
He  entered  into  a  quarrel  with  the  Legislative 
Council  over  the  construction  of  a  praya  or 
sea  wall,  which  was  to  extend  along  the 
whole  front  of  the  town  from  Navy  Bay  to 
Causeway  Bay  and  to  be  named  the  Bowring 
Praya.  I'he  project  aroused  determined  oppo- 
sition from  the  mercantile  community,  the 
property  of  individual  members  of  which 
was  likely  to  be  adversely  affected  by  the 
construction  of  a  wall.  A  draft  bill  legalising 
the  scheme  passed  its  first  reading  with  only 
one  opponent.  But  when  the  Council  as- 
sembled on  F'ebruary  4,  1859,  to  discuss  the 
second  reading  of  the  measure  the  Chief 
Justice  and  the  Lieutenant  -  Governor  wer  e 
absent  and  to  the  Governor's  intense  morti- 
fication a  motion  that  the  Praya  scheme  be 
deferred  sine  die  was  carried  by  six  votes 
against  three.  The  only  votes  cast  in  favour 
of  the  bill  were  those  of  the  Acting  Attorney- 
General,  the  Colonial  Treasurer,  and  the 
Auditor-General.  The  Colonial  Secretary,  the 
Chief  Magistrate,  and  the  Surveyor-General 
all  exercised  the  luxury  of  voting  against  the 
Government.  The  Governor  did  not  question 
the  right  of  the  official  members  to  vote 
according  to  their  convictions,  but  he  gave  a 
plain  indication  of  what  he  considered  to  be 
the  mainspring  of  their  action  by  attacking 
the  system  under  which  public  functionaries 
like  the  Attorney-General  and  the  Surveyor- 
General  were  allowed  to  accept  private 
practice.  In  a  despatch  he  wrote: — "The 
enormous  power  and  influence  of  the  great 
commercial  houses  in  China,  when  associated 
directly  or  indirectly  with  personal  pecuniary 
advantages  which  they  are  able  to  confer  on 
public  officers,  who  are  permitted  to  be  em- 
ployed and  engaged  by  them,  cannot  but 
create  a  conflict  between  duties  not  always 
coiupatible.  .  .  .  One  of  the  peculiar  diffi- 
culties against  which  this  Government  has  to 
struggle  is  the  enormous  influence  wielded 
by  the  great  and  opulent  commercial  houses 
against  whose  power  and  in  opposition  to 
whose  personal  views  it  is  hard  to  contend." 

When    Sir   John    Bowring    retired    in    1859 

the  Chinese,  as  a  mark  of  the  genuine  esteem 
in  which  he  was  held  among  all  classes  of 
the  native  population,  tendered  him  some 
magnificent  presents,  including  a  roll  of  satin 
inscribed  with  tw^o  hundred  names.  In  his 
autobiographical  recollections  Sir  John  Bow- 
ring thus  refers  to  his  period  of  service  in 
Hongkong  : — "  My  career  in  China  belongs 
so  much  to  history  that  I  do  not  feel  it  need- 
ful to  record  its  vicissitudes.  I  have  been 
severely  blamed  for  the  policy  I  pursued,  yet 
that  policy  has  been  most  beneficial  to  my 
country  and  to  mankind  at  large.  It  is  not 
fair  or  just  to  suppose  that  a  course  of  action, 
which  may  be  practicable  or  prudent  at  home 
will  always  succeed  abroad." 

Sir  Hercules  Kobinson,  who  succeeded  Sir 
John  Bowring  in  the  office  of  Governor  on 
September  g,  1859,  and  administered  the 
affairs  of  the  Colony  for  nearly  six  years, 
was  an  official  in  every  respect  qualified  for 
the  difficult  post  which  he  had  to  fill.  A 
man  of  strong  character,  shrewd,  tactful,  and 
with     more     than     a     common      share     of 

(Afterwards  L.ord  Rosmead). 

intellectual  attainments,  he  was  precisely  the 
type  of  administrator  to  unravel  the  dis- 
creditable tangle  into  which  affairs  in  the 
Colony  had  got  under  the  rule  of  his 
predecessor.  His  administration  was  a 
brilliantly  successful  one  and  marked  the 
turning  point  in  the  fortunes  of  the  Colony. 
His  eailiest  efforts  were  directed  to  a  much 
needed  reform  of  the  civil  service.  In  some 
matters  he  was  unable  to  carry  his  Council 
with  him,  but  he  nevertheless  contrived  to 
evolve  a  new  system  the  main  feature  of 
which  was  a  cadet  scheine  introduced  for 
the  better  government  of  the  Chinese 
portion  of  the  inhabitants.  Side  by  side 
with  these  reforms  were  formulated  pro- 
posals calculated  to  induce  the  Chinese 
inhabitants  to  take  a  more  intelligent  interest 
in  the  aff;iirs  of  the  Government.  A  Chinese 
edition  of  the  Goveniiiient  Gazelle  was  issued, 
a  translation  office  was  organised  to  secure 
the  correct  publication  of  all  Government 
documents,  and,  finally,  the  old  system  of 
governing  the  Chinese  through  their  own 
headmen     was    abandoned    in     favour    of    a 

system  of  direct  control  by  the  Registrar- 
General.  Another  innovation  which  met 
with  less  general  approval  was  the  intro- 
duction of  rules  designed  to  deprive  the 
official  members  of  the  privilege  of  indepen- 
dent voting  which  they  had  exercised  to  Sir 
John  Bowring's  marked  discoinfiture.  The 
power  is  probably  one  which  cannot  be  dis- 
pensed with  in  a  crown  colony  system  of 
government  in  which  the  autocratic  principle 
necessarily  is  in  the  ascendant,  but  the 
position  was  not  so  well  understo<Kl  a  half 
century  ago  as  it  is  to-day,  and  there  was 
much  grumbling  at  the  limitations  imposed 
on  the  Council.  Sir  Hercules  Kobinson, 
however,  pursued  his  course  undeterred  by 
hostile  criticism  and  the  proceedings  of  the 
Council  were  kept  by  him  in  a  groove  which 
left  little  room  for  the  violent  surprises 
which  had  characterised  its  history  in  an 
earlier  period.  There  was  only  one  occasion 
on  which  the  Governor  had  any  difficulty  in 
enforcing  the  rule  of  official  solidarity  in 
voting.  This  was  in  1865  when  the  question 
of  the  payment  of  a  military  contribution  to 
the  imperial  funds  came  up  for  considera- 
tion. Owing  to  the  improvement  in  finances 
brought  about  by  Sir  Hercules  Robinson's 
strong  administration  the  Home  Government 
deemed  that  the  Colony  was  prosperous 
enough  to  contribute  something  to  the  up- 
keep of  the  garrison,  and  in  1864  put  in  a 
demand  for  ;^2o,ooo  a  year  for  five  years. 
The  claim  was  strongly  resisted  by  the 
Government  on  the  grounds  that  Hongkong 
was  an  imperial  rather  than  a  local  station, 
that  owing  to  its  insular  position  it  required 
no  military  protection,  that  its  finances  were 
not  equal  to  the  strain  which  such  a  contri- 
bution would  make  upon  them  ;  and  that  the 
Colony  had  already  contributed  in  the  shape 
of  land  for  naval  and  military  purposes  to 
the  cost  of  the  military  garrison.  In  spite  of 
these  representations,  however,  the  demand 
was  insisted  upon,  and  the  Governor  had  no 
alternative  but  to  include  the  military  contri- 
bution asked  in  the  estimates  for  1865.  On 
the  proposals  being  brought  up  for  decision, 
they  were  opposed  by  all  the  unofficial 
members  and  also  by  the  Colonial  Treasurer, 
and  in  the  end  were  only  carried  by  the 
casting  vote  of  the  Governor.  The  Colonial 
Treasurer  got  a  severe  wigging  subsequently 
from  the  Secretary  of  State  for  his  indepen- 
dent action.  But  that  he  had  strong 
sympathies  on  his  side  was  shown  by  the 
action  of  the  Council  in  passing  a  resolution 
subscribed  to  by  all  the  official  members 
(excepting  the  Chief  Justice)  apprising  "that 
the  maintenance  of  troops  in  Hongkong  is 
not  necessary  purely  for  the  protection  of 
Colonial  interests  or  the  security  of  the 
inhabitants,  and  that  the  Colonial  revenue 
cannot  fairly  be  charged  with  any  contri- 
bution towards  the  Imperial  military  expen- 
diture in  China  and  Japan." 

The  cession  of  the  Kowloon  Peninsula 
under  the  terms  of  the  Peking  Convention 
was  one  of  the  leading  events  of  Sir 
Hercules  Robinson's  administration.  The 
ceremony  of  handing  over  the  territory 
took  place  on  January  19,  1861,  amid  much 
pomp.  At  the  outset  a  Mandaiin  tendered 
to  Lord  Elgin  a  paper  containing  soil  in 
token  of  the  cession.  Then  the  Royal 
Standard  was  hoisted  amid  the  salutes  fired 
by  the  men-of-war  in  harbour,  and  by  a 
battery  on  Stonecutter's  Island.  An  acute 
controversy  arose  out  of  the  cession  of 
Kowloon  between  the  military  and  the  civil 
authorities.  The  former  urged  that  the 
idea  of  appropriating  the  peninsula  had 
originated  with  them,  that  the  Colonial  Office 
had  approved  of  its  appropriation  for  military 


purposes,  and  that  consequenlly  it  should 
be  converted  into  a  purely  military  canton- 
ment To  this  view  Sir  Hercules  Robinson 
on  behalf  o(  the  Government  offered  strenuous 
opposition.      He    nuuntained     that    the    civil 

had  been  prosecuted  in  a  desultory  way,  and 
a  gixKl  proportion  of  wall  was  completed 
in  1862,  but  the  masonry  was  ilcficient  in 
solidity  and  palpably  would  not  stand  the 
strain    of   a   storm.     Sir    Hercules    Robinson 

(From  Alloni  &  Wright's  "China.") 

authorities  oiiginally  mooted  the  question  of 
the  acquisition,  and  that  in  doing  so  they 
had  in  view  the  necessity  of  providing  for 
the  wants  of  the  general  population  as  well 
as  of  the  military  garrison.  He  strongly 
urged  that  the  peninsula  was  indispensable 
to  the  welfare  of  the  Colony,  inasmuch  as 
it  was  required  to  keep  the  Chinese  popula- 
tion at  some  distance,  and  to  preserve  the 
European  and  American  community  from 
the  injury  and  inconvenience  of  intermixture 
with  the  Chinese  residents.  The  Imperial 
Government,  with  a  strange  disregard  of 
colonial  interests,  decided  in  favour  of  the 
military  view.  The  ultimate  decision  given 
in  1864  e.xtended  the  military  occupation  over 
the  bulk  of  the  peninsula  and  gave  them 
prescriptive  rights  over  the  remaining  area, 
which  was  divided  between  the  Colony 
and  the  navy. 

The  construction  of  public  works  occupied 
a  leading  place  in  the  work  of  Sir  Hercules 
Robinson's  administration.  Early  in  his  term 
of  office  he  invited  plans  for  a  scheme  of 
water  supply,  which  had  been  tentatively 
discussed  in  liis  predecessor's  time.  Elaborate 
plans  were  sent  in  by  several  competitors, 
and  ultimately  those  of  Mr.  S.  B.  Rawling, 
Clerk  of  the  Works  of  the  Royal  Engineers. 
were  selected  by  the  committee  appointed 
to  adjudicate  in  the  matter.  Tenders  were 
immediately  called  for,  and  an  ordinance 
was  passed  empowering  the  Governor  to 
appropriate  from  current  revenues  the  sum 
of  £^30,000  as  the  works  proceeded,  and  to 
supply  any  deficiency  of  funds  if  necessary 
by  mortgaging  the  water  rate  at  2  per 
cent,  on  the  gross  annual  value  of  house 
property  according  to  assessment.  In  1863 
the  work  was  completed  and  was  hailed  as 
a  great  success.  But  events  s<K)n  proved  its 
inadequacy  for  the  needs  of  the  Colony. ' 
Another  prf)ject  with  which  Sir  Hercules 
Robinson  closely  identified  himself  was  Sir 
John  Bowring's  much  criticised  scheme  for 
the   construction   of  a  sea   wall.      The   work 

decided  to  rebuild  the  whole  praya  wall, 
and  to  use  the  opportunity  which  the  works 
afforded  of  extending  the  praya  seawards  by 
reclaiming  from  the  sea  a  further  strip  of 
land  100  feet  in  width.  He  soon  found,  as 
his  predecessor  had  done,  that  he  had  to 
reckon  with  a  determined  opposition  from 
the  marine  lot  holders  Eventually  Sir 
Hercules  Robinson  so  far  yielded  as  to  inti- 
mate that  the  extension  would  not  be  enforced 
where  not  desired  by  the  lot  holders. 

In  many  ways  Sir  Hercules  Robinson  left 
a  vigoious  impress  upon  the  Colony.  During 
his  administration  it  advanced  to  a  very 
marked  extent  on  the  path  of  prosperity. 
This  was  not  altogether  due  to  his  woik,  but 
there  can  be  no  question  that  with  a  less 
able    man    at    the    helm   or   one   who   had   a 

lower  sense  of  dignity  and  discipline,  the 
position  might  have  been  a  very  different 
one  to  what  it  was  when  he  quitted  Hong- 
kong in  1865.  Sir  Hercules  Robinson's 
influence  is  seen  in  the  linancial  statistics  of 
the  Colony.  When  he  went  to  the  island  the 
revenue  was  only  ;£;65,226  ;  on  his  departiue 
the  exchequer  receipts  were  more  than 
double  that  sum.  The  position  is  best  illus- 
trated by  the  following  figures,  showing  the 
revenue  and  expenditure  of  the  Colony  over 
a  series  of  years  from  the  time  of  the  occu- 
pation : — 






















23,72  ■ 

























66, 1 09 



















(Governor,  tloiigkong,  1H6O-7I-) 

The  progressive  increase  in  the  revenue 
it  will  be  noted  dates  from  1857 — two  years 
before  Sir  Hercules  Robinson  appeared  on 
the  scene.  While  this  fact  indicates  that 
the  tide,  of  good  fortune  had  already  set  in 
strongly  when  he  was  appointed,  the  greatly 
accelerated  pace  at  wliich  tlie  revenue  in- 
creased during  his  adniinistralioii  may  fairly 
be  attributed  in  considerable  measure  to  his 
successful  government  and  the  confidence  it 
inspired  in  quarters  where  confidence  implied 
commercial  support. 

The  spell  of  prosperity  which  marked  Sir 
Hercules  Robinson's  term  of  office  was  unfor- 
tunately not  maintained.  Almost  as  so<m  as 
he  had  left  the  Colony  black  clouds  began  to 
fill  the  financial  horizon.  The  effect  of  the 
monetary  crisis  in  Europe  was  felt  in  Hong- 
kong. Property  was  seriously  depreciated 
and  counnercial  transactions  on  all  sides  were 
restricted.  "Yet,"  says  Dr.  Eitel,  "public 
works,  the  praya,  the  new  gaol,  the  mint, 
the  waterworks,  the  sea  wall  at  Kowloon, 
commenced  or  constructed  in  a  period  of  un- 
exampled prosperity,  had  now  to  be  carried 
on,  completed,  or  maintained,  from  the  scanty 
resources  of  an  impoverished  and  well-nigh 
insolvent  treasury."  Nor  were  financial  diffi- 
culties alone  the  obstacles  with  which  the 
Government  had  to  contend.  "  New  laws 
were  clearly  needed  for  the  regulation  of  the 
Chinese,  whose  gambling  habits  were  tilling 
the  streets  with  riot  and  honeycombing  the 
police  force  with  corruption.  Crime  was  lam- 
pant,  and  the  gaols  overflowing  with  prisoners. 
Piracv,  flourishing  as  ever  before,  was  be- 
lieveci  to  have  not  only  its  secret  lairs  among 
the  low  class  of  marine  store  dealers,  but  the 
support  of  wealthy  Chinese  linns,  and  to  enjoy 
the  connivance  of  men  in  the  police  force. 
A  sense  of  insecurity  as  to  life  and  property 
was  again,  as  in  days  gone  by,  taking  jiosses- 
sion  of  the  public  mind."  In  these  depress- 
ing circumstances  Sir  R.  G.  MacDoiniell,  who 



had  been  appointed  Sir  Hercules  Robinson's 
successor,  toolc  up  the  reins  of  office  on 
March  ii,  1866,  after  an  interrejjnuni  of 
twelve  months,  during  whicli  the  Hon.  W.  T. 
Mercer,  a  former  Colonial  Secretary,  adminis- 
tered the  Government.  The  new  Governor 
was  greatly  surprised  at  the  slate  of  affairs 
which  confronted  him,  as  he  had  been  led  to 
e.xpect  to  find  a  colony  with  an  oveiflow- 
ing  treasury  and  a  prosperous  and  contented 
community.  He  set  to  work  with  energy  to 
straigiiten  things  out  once  more.  As  the 
stress  was  to  a  large  extent  the  product  of 
monetary  trouble,  it  was  to  finance  that  he 
gave  his  first  consideration.  The  position 
with  which  he  had  to  deal  was  no  ordinary 
one.  In  1865  there  was  a  surplus  of  assets 
over  liabilities  of  $298,000,  but  llie  next  year 
this  had  fallen  to  $184,000,  and  in  January, 
1867,  there  was  a  mere  nominal  surplus  of 
$24,000  made  up  of  unavailable  assets.  In 
1865  there  was  an  excess  of  expenditure 
over  reveime  of  $94,361,  and  in  1866  this 
had  increased  to  $167,877.  Sir  Robert 
MacDonnell  effected  sensible  economies  by 
readjusting  offices  in  the  Civil  Service,  and 
by  cutting  down  redundant  expenditure  in 
all  directions.  In  this  way  he  at  once 
reduced  the  outgoings  from  $936,954  to 
$730,916,  though  the  full  reduction  was  only 
effected  by  leaving  the  military  contribution 
in  arrear.  On  the  revenue  side  he  devised 
a  lucrative  new  source  of  income  by  putting 
in  force  a  stamp  act.  The  measure  was 
strongly  opposed  by  the  commercial  com- 
munity, and  the  Chinese  traders,  as  far  as 
they  dared,  ignored  the  enactment  when  it 
was  enforced,  but  as  the  need  of  a  new 
source  of  revenue  was  imperative  the  scheme 
was  persisted  with,  and  eventually  it  came 
to  be  recognised  as  a  legitimate  and  innocuous 
means  of  revenue  production.  As  far  as  the 
finances  of  the  Colony  were  concerned  its 
effect  was  immediate  and  marked.  In  1868, 
the  first  year  of  its  enforcement,  the  tax 
brought  in  the  large  sum  of  $101,000.  The 
income  for  the  year  generally  was  good,  the 
revenue  reaching  the  unprecedented  sum  of 
$1,134,105.  As  the  expenditure  for  the  period 
was  no  more  than  $991,81 1  there  was  a  surplus 
of  $140,000.  The  finances  of  subsequent  years 
were  seriously  embarrassed  by  a  difficulty 
which  arose  between  the  Governor  and  the 
Colonial  Office  in  reference  to  some  measures 
for  the  regulation  of  gambling  houses  in  the 
Colony  which  the  Government  introduced. 
Sir  Robert  MacDonnell,  conceiving  that 
gambling  was  an  ineradicable  vice  of  the 
Chinese,  deemed  it  better  to  regulate  it  than 
to  make  futile  efforts  to  suppress  it.  He 
accordingly  decided  to  introduce  the  farming 
system,  under  which  the  right  to  keep 
gambling  houses  was  let  out  to  licensees 
for  a  sum  of  money.  The  system  was  in 
force  at  the  Portuguese  Colony  of  Macao, 
and  it  prevails  to  this  day  in  the  Federated 
Malay  States  under  quasi  British  rule.  But 
at  home  the  idea  of  any  part  of  the  Colonial 
revenue  being  derived  from  vice  was  received 
with  disfavour,  and  the  Colonial  Secretary  (the 
Earl  of  Carnarvon),  while  reluctantly  giving 
permission  to  a  trial  of  the  system,  stipulated 
that  the  licence  fees  must  not  be  farmed 
out  but  treated  as  matters  of  police  and 
not  as  revenue.  Sir  Robert  MacDonnell  in 
a  despatch  pointed  out  the  impossibility  of 
proceeding  by  any  other  method  than  farming 
the  licence,  and  suggested  that  a  discretionary 
power  should  be  given  to  the  Governor  in 
Council  to  exercise  authority  under  the 
ordinance  as  circumstances  might  render 
expedient.  The  Duke  of  Buckingham,  who 
had  succeeded  Lord  Carnarvon,  concurred  in 
his  predecessor's    instructions,   and   expressly 

declined  to  sanction  the  farming  system.  In 
another  despatch  he  intimated  that  the  licence 
fees  should  be  limited  to  an  amount  covering 
police  arrangements  connected  with  the 
system.  The  ordinance  having  been  con- 
firmed, with  the  quilifying  conditions  in- 
dicated. Sir  Robert  MacDonnell  proceeded  to 
enforce  it.  The  licence  fees  were,  to  meet 
the  demands  of  the  home  authorities,  placed 
in  a  distinct  special  fund,  which  amounted 
to  $155,000  on  May  23,  i868,  to  $221,733 
on  June  28,  1869,  and  to  $277,334  o" 
December  31,  1869,  When  the  scheme  had 
got  fairly  under  way  there  was  a  strong 
outburst  of  indignation  from  a  section  of 
evangelical  churchmen  who  regarded  with 
horror  the  fact  that  the  Government  had  had 
anything  to  do  with  the  unclean  thing.  The 
agitation  commenced  in  the  Colony  was 
carried  to  England,  and  the  flames  of  sectarian 
fanaticism  were  assiduously  fanned  by  the 
ex-Attorney-General  and  the  former  editor 
of  the  Daily  Press,  who  were  glad  of  the 
opportunity  afforded  of  having  another  fling 
at  the  administration.  While  this  agitation 
was  proceeding.  Sir  Robert  MacDonnell  was 
conducting  a  very  lively  controversy  with 
the  Colonial  Office  in  reference  to  the  manner 
in  which  he  had  interpreted  his  instructions. 
The  Duke  of  Buckingham,  realising  the  extent 
to  which  the  Government  had  been  com- 
mitted, expressed  his  entire  disapproval  of 
the  proceedings,  and  threatened  "  to  stop 
the  licensing  altogether."  Sir  Robert,  re- 
plying to  this  despatch  to  Earl  Granville, 
who  had  succeeded  the  Duke  at  the  Colonial 
Oflice,  alluded  to  the  ducal  despatch  as 
embodying  "  sweeping  comments  which  im- 
plied a  general  censure  on  the  Hongkong 
Government."  Earl  Granville  thereupon 
lectured  the  Governor  upon  the  peculiarly 
unbecoming  tone  of  his  remarks,  and  at  a 
subsequent  date  passed  heavy  censure  upon 
Sir  Robert  for  his  dealings  with  the  money 
in  the  special  fund  and  ordered  him  to  pay 
back  into  the  fund  all  unauthorised  appro- 
priations amounting  to  $129,701.  The  end 
of  the  controversy  was  that  the  scheme  had 
to  be  abandoned  and  drastic  measures  of 
economy  adopted  to  make  up  for  the  de- 
ficiency in  the  revenue  caused  by  the 
withdrawal  of  the  appropriations. 

Apart  from  domestic  questions.  Sir  Robert 
MacDonnell's  administration  was  of  some 
importance,  in  that  it  coincided  with  the 
raising  of  some  notable  controversies  affect- 
ing the  relations  of  the  Colony  with  the 
Chinese  Empire.  The  chief  of  these  was  the 
question  of  what  came  to  be  known  as  "the 
Blockade  of  Hongkong "  by  the  Chinese 
authorities.  The  measure  referred  to  was  an 
effort  made  to  regulate  the  junk  trade 
between  the  Colony  and  Chinese  ports.  The 
first  exercise  of  the  supposititious  power  was 
experienced  about  the  middle  of  October, 
1867,  when  the  steam  cruisers  of  the  Canton 
Customs,  aided  by  some  gunboats,  stopped 
and  searched  several  native  craft  leaving  the 
harbour.  Subsequently,  the  blockade  was 
rigorously  enforced,  every  junk  quitting  or 
entering  the  harbour  being  boarded  and 
overhauled.  In  cases  where  the  papers  were 
not  in  proper  order  the  junks  were  detained 
and  double  duty  was  levied  in  the  case  of 
goods  shipped  at  Pakhoi  and  Canton,  or  other 
Treaty  ports,  by  junks  which,  eti  route, 
touched  at  Hongkong.  The  ostensible  object 
of  the  blockade  was  the  prevention  of 
smuggling,  but  the  effect  of  it  was  to  impose 
heavy  disabilities  upon  the  native  trade  by 
driving  the  shipments  made  into  foreign 
bottoms,  the  freight  charges  of  which  were 
heavier  than  those  of  the  junks.  Great 
indignation  was  excited  amongst  the  mercan- 

tile community  at  the  action  of  the  Chinese 
Government,  but  it  was  found  that  the  hands 
of  the  Hongkong  Government  were  to  some 
extent  tied,  by  the  fact  that  the  scheme  was 
suggested  to  the  Chinese  Viceroy  at  Canton 
by  the  British  Consul — Mr.  (afterwards  Sir) 
D,  B.  Robertson.  Nevertheless,  the  Governor 
took  energetic  action  within  the  limits  of 
what  was  possible  and  expedient.  He 
strengthened  the  water  police  force,  and 
obtained  a  steam  launch  lo  assist  the  Colonial 
gunboat  Victoria  in  patrolling  the  Colonial 
waters  to  prevent  trespass  by  the  Chinese 
craft  on  the  Colonial  territorial  limits.  He 
also  compelled  the  Chinese  warships  to  fly  a 
special  official  flag  as  a  condition  of  their 
being  allowed  to  anchor  in  the  harbour. 
Discovering  that  the  object  of  the  Chinese 
Government  in  instituting  the  blockade  was 
to  levy  a  special  war  tax,  called  /;*/;;,  which 
was  not  only  applied  to  opium  but  to  a  large 
list  of  ordinary  goods.  Sir  Robert  demanded 
of  the  Canton  authorities  a  copy  of  the  tariff 
upon  which  the  charges  were  based.  His 
request  in  this  matter  was  not  complied 
with,  but  his  energy  had  unquestionably  a 
salutary  influence  in  curbing  the  excessive 
zeal  of  the  Chinese  officials.  Meanwhile,  the 
local  mercantile  community  had  adopted  a 
strongly  worded  memorial  to  the  Secretary 
of  State  protesting  against  the  blockade,  and 
demanding  its  withdrawal.  The  agitation 
was  kept  alive  by  the  Chamber  of  Commerce, 
and  from  time  to  time  vigorous  philippics 
were  delivered  against  what  was  regarded 
as  a  subversion  of  the  rights  of  the  Colony. 
But  the  representations  had  little  effect  on 
the  authorities  at  home,  who,  animated  by 
what  seemed  to  Hongkong  people  as  an 
overweening  desire  to  keep  on  good  terms 
with  the  Chinese  Government,  refrained 
from  taking  steps  to  secure  the  removal  of 
the  blockade.  In  the  end  the  Chinese 
merchants  deemed  it  wise  to  pay  the  imposts 
demanded  of  them,  and  the  system,  having 
been  thus  acquiesced  in  by  the  parties 
most  affected,  was  continued  until  it  became 
an  established  institution.  Another  matter 
of  diplomatic  interest  which  agitated  the 
public  opinion  of  Hongkong  at  this  period 
was  the  appointment  of  a  Chinese  consul  in 
Hongkong.  When  the  proposal  for  the 
establishment  of  a  Chinese  consulate  in  the 
Colony  was  made,  strong  objection  was  taken 
by  the  local  merchants  on  the  ground  that 
the  power  which  a  Chinese  consul  would 
gain  over  the  local  Chinese  population  would 
constitute  a  veritable  imperinm  in  imperio, 
and  subject  the  native  community  to  an 
intolerable  system  of  official  espionage,  and 
to  the  insatiable  rapacity  of  a  corrupt 
ofticialdom.  Sir  Rutherford  Alcock,  then 
British  Minister  at  Peking,  dismissed  these 
objections  lightly  as  "fears  more  or  less 
chimerical  and  exaggerated,"  and  the  Earl  of 
Clarendon,  Foreign  Secretary  at  the  time, 
concurred  in  the  main  with  his  views.  But 
though  the  establishment  of  a  Chinese 
consulate  in  Hongkong  was  accepted  in 
principle,  no  steps  were  taken  to  give  effect 
to  the  proposal. 

All  this  time  the  trade  of  Hongkong  was 
advancing  rapidly.  Many  causes  contributed 
to  bring  about  this  result.  The  opening  of 
the  Suez  Canal  in  1865  was  one  important 
factor.  This  important  measure  gave  new 
life  to  the  trade  of  the  F"ar  East,  and 
especially  to  those  forms  of  trade  which 
from  the  outset  have  flourished  at  Hong- 
kong. The  establishment  of  bonding  houses 
and  the  formulation  of  a  liberal  tariff  in 
Japan  in  July,  1866,  was  another  contributory 
cause  of  some  moment.  Furthermore,  the 
connection  of  San   Francisco  with  Hongkong 


by  a  rcjliilar  line  of  large  fast  steamers 
added  greatly  to  its  pri»ix.'rity.  The  evi- 
dences i>f  these  improved  conditions  are  to 
be  liHind  in  the  opening  on  June  15,  1867.  of  a 
new  dix-k  at  Aberdeen  and  the  fonnation  of 
\'ariou$  joint  sttKk  enterprises  for  the  im- 
pnntmcnt  of  pi>rt  faciUties.  There  was  a 
temporar>-  check  to  the  Coli>ny's  prosperity 
at  the  close  i>f  iW>6  and  in  the  tieginning 
of  1867,  but  the  crisis,  though  severe  while 
it  lasted,  passed  away  without  leaving  any 
permanent  ill  effects,  and  in  1870  there 
were  abundant  pro<>fs  forthcoming  that  the 
Colony  was  commercially  quite  itself  again. 
The  next  >"ear  was  remarkable  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  cable  communication  between 
the  port  and  distant  parts  of  the  world. 
Shanghai  was  brought  into  direct  touch  with 
the  Colony  on  May  26th  ;  New  York  and 
London  were  coupled  up  on  June  Qth.  and 
Saigon  and  Singapore  on  August   1st. 

Sir  Robert  MacDonnell's  successor  in  the 
Governorship  was  Sir  Arthur  E.  Kennedy, 
who  had  previously  served  in  leading  ad- 
ministrative c-apacities  in  Western  Australia 
and  West  Africa,  His  administration,  which 
extended  from  April  i6,  1872,  to  March  i, 
1877,  was  an  uneventful  one.  The  matters 
of  chief  interest  which  occupied  the  attention 
of  the  community  were  a  series  of  incidents 
arising  out  of  the  Chinese  blockade  of  the 
port  which  was  continued  with,  if  anything, 
increased  rigour.  Yielding  to  merc-antile 
pressure  the  Governor  app<«iited  a  com- 
mission to  inquire  into  abuses  connected 
with  the  action  of  the  Chinese  maritime 
customs.  The  report  supported  the  views 
of  the  local  community  but  it  had  no  in- 
fluence on  the  Home  Government,  which 
was  too  definitely  committed  to  a  policy  of 
non-interference  to  take  action  in  the  direc- 
tion desired.  The  arrest,  in  May,  1874,  of  a 
Chinese  revenue  junk  caught  in  the  act  of 
firing  at  lishing  boats  in  colonial  territorial 
waters  seemed  to  promise  a  new  develop- 
ment, but  the  Chinese  Government  having 
tendered  ample  apologies  for  the  incident, 
and  promised  to  punish  the  offenders,  the 
Attorney-General  was  ordered  to  enter  a 
nolle  prosequi  in  the  proceedings  which  had 
btx-n  instituted  in  the  High  Court  against  the 
men.  and  the  episode  was  thus  quietly 
closed.  Memorials  continued  to  be  sent 
home  against  the  system,  including  one  from 
the  Chamt)er  of  Commerce  on  August  3, 
1874,  in  which  the  blockade  was  condemned 
as  an  organised  invasion  of  the  freedom  and 
sanctuary  of  the  port.  Lord  Carnarvon,  the 
then  Sccretaiy  of  State,  in  replying  to  these 
representations,  while  admitting  that  abuses 
had  (Kcurred  in  connection  with  the  action 
of  the  Chinese  revenue  cruisers,  denied  that 
the  exercise  of  the  right  of  search  in  close 
proximity  to  Hongkong  affected  the  freedom 
of  the  port  and  afforded  valid  excuse  for 
diplomatic  remonstrance.  I^rd  Carnavon 
subsequently  saw  fit  to  mtxlify  these  views, 
and  it  was  announced  in  January,  1876,  that 
the  Home  Government  were  of  opinion  that 
the  comnmnity  of  Hongkong  really  had  a 
grievance  and  were  entitled  to  relief.  Sir 
Arthur  Kennedy  afterwards  submitted  a 
series  of  proposals  for  the  future  regulation 
of  the  junk  trade.  These  were  (i)  that  all 
Chinese  cruisers  should  be  prohibited  inter- 
fering with  Hongkong  junks,  except  those  of 
the  Hoppo ;  (2)  that  a  definite  Chinese  tariff 
of  import  and  export  duties,  applicable  to 
Hongkong  junks,  and  fixed  regulations  for. 
the  Hoppo's  dealings  with  Hongkong  junk 
masters  be  published  and  adhered  to ;  (3) 
that  a  joint  board  should  be  appointed  to 
investigate  all  complaints  of  illegal  sei2ure. 
The      suggestions,     which      were      endorsed 

by  the  ChaniK-r  of  Commerce,  were  sent 
home,  and  ultimately  fornicd  the  basis  of 
discussions  which  were  conducted  between 
Sir  Thomas  Wade,  the  Biitish  Minister  at 
Peking,  and  the  Tsung  li  Yamen.  The  two 
first  proposals  were  rejected  by  the  Chinese 
Government  and  a  modilication  of  the  third 
was  embodied  in  the  Chefoo  Convention  in 
the  form  of  an  arrangement  for  the  creation 
of  a  mixed  commission  consisting  of  a 
British  consul,  a  Hongkong  oflicer,  and  a 
Chinese  official  to  arrange  a  set  of  regula- 
tions calculated  to  benefit  the  revenue 
collection  of  China  without  interfering  with 
the  counnercial  interests  of  Hongkong. 

A  tremendous  typhoon,  which  is  accurately 
described  by  Hongkong's  historian  as  "  the 
severest  disaster  that  ever  befell  the  Colony 
of  Hongkong,"  burst  over  the  island  on 
the  evening  of  September  22,  1874.  "  On 
the  morning  of  September  23,  1874,"  says 
Dr.  Eitel,  "  the  town  looked  as  if  it  had 
undergone  a  teiritic  bombardment.  Thousands 
of  houses  were  unroofed,  hundreds  of  Euro- 
pean and  Chinese  dwellings  were  in  ruins, 
large  trees   had   been  torn   out   by  the   roots 


and  hurled  to  a  distance,  most  of  the  streets 
were  impassable,  being  obstructed  by  fallen 
trees,  roof  timbers,  window  frames  and 
mounds  of  soil  thrown  up  by  the  bursting  of 
drains.  Business  was  at  a  complete  standstill 
for  several  days.  The  praya  was  covered 
with  wrecked  sampans  and  the  debris  of  junks 
and  ships,  whilst  in  every  direction  dead 
bodies  were  seen  floating  about  or  scattered 
along  the  ruins  of  what  was  once  the  praya 
wall.  Thirty-five  foreign  vessels,  trusting  in 
their  anchors,  were  wrecked  or  badly  injured. 
Over  two  thousand  lives  were  lost  in  the 
harbour  within  the  space  of  about  six  hours, 
during  which  time  the  screams  of  the 
Chinese  in  distress  on  the  water  were  heard 
by  residents  on  the  upper  levels  of  the 
town,  to  rise  above  the  terrific  din  of  the 
storm.  .  .  The  amount  of  property  destroyed 
in  Hongkong  within  those  terrible  six  hours 
was  estimated  at  five  million  dollars." 

Chequered  as  had  been  the  history  of 
Hongkong,  the  period  upon  which  it  entered 
after  the  retirement  of  Sir  A.  E.  Kennedy 
was  to  be  memorable  for  its  unrest  and 
excitement.  The  new  Governor  was  Mr. 
(afterwards     Sir)    John     Pope-Hennessy,     an 

Irish  Conservative  who,  as  a  member  of  the 
House  of  Commons  from  1859  to  1865, 
attracted  Disraeli's  notice,  more  because  of 
his  political  views  than  from  any  great 
regard  for  his  personality.  Mr.  Pope- 
Hennessy  entered  the  colonial  service  as 
Governor  of  Labuan  and  Consul-General  of 
Borneo  in  1867,  and  he  subsequently  served 
as  Governor  of  the  West  .African  Settle- 
ments, of  the  Bahamas,  and  of  the  Wind- 
ward Islands.  He  was  a  man  of  peculiar 
temperament  and  endowed  with  more  than 
a  common  share  of  the  pugnacity  which  is 
traditionally  attributed  to  his  race.  Both  at 
the  Bahamas  and  the  Windward  Islands 
he  was  in  continual  hot  water,  owing  to 
his  indiscreet  championing  of  the  interests 
of  the  native  community.  So  bad  did 
the  relations  between  himself  and  the 
European  community  at  length  become 
that  a  strong  movement  was  set  on  foot  for 
his  recall,  and  ultimately  he  was  withdrawn. 
In  Hongkong  he  was  received  (on  April  22, 
1877)  without  prejudice,  though  with  no 
excess  of  enthusiasm.  But  he  had  not  been 
in  office  long  before  he  gave  a  taste  of  his 
peculiar  qualities.  In  October,  1878,  after  a 
series  of  minor  incidents  illustrative  of  the 
Governor's  facility  for  creating  trouble,  the 
community  were  startled  and  outraged  by 
the  announcement  that  the  selection  of  an 
acting  successor  to  Mr.  C.  C.  Smith,  the 
Kegistiar-General,  who  had  been  promoted 
to  the  Coloniid  Secretaryship  of  tlie  Straits 
Settlements,  had  fallen  upon  Mr.  J.  A.  da 
Carvalho,  a  Portuguese  clerk  in  the  Treasury. 
The  indignation  was  the  greater  because 
Mr.  Carvalho  was  not  even  a  British  subject. 
The  protests  made  would  probably  not  have 
had  much  effect  had  it  not  been  for  this 
circumstance.  As  it  was.  the  appointment 
was  revoked  because  of  the  inability  of  Mr. 
Carvalho  to  qualify  by  taking  the  oath  of 
allegiance.  Another  appointment  which 
created  much  dissatisfaction  at  the  period 
was  the  nomination  on  January  22,  1880,  of 
Mr.  Ng  Choy,  a  Chinese  barrister,  to  a 
vacant  post  on  the  Legislative  Council.  The 
position  had  been  held  previously  by  the 
Hon.  Mr.  H.  B.  Gibb,  and  if  the  ordinary 
rule  had  been  followed  the  choice  of  his 
successor  would  have  been  a  European 
colleague  of  his.  But  it  was  not  merely  in 
personal  matters  that  the  Governor  showed 
the  cloven  hoof.  His  entire  administration 
was  tinctured  with  a  prejudice  which  did 
not  favour  the  predominant  section  of  the 
community.  Even  when  he  acted  rightly  he 
so  contrived  matters  as  to  invite  condenma- 
tion.  One  of  his  pet  official  hobbies  was  a 
scheme  of  criminal  reform  based  in  the 
main  on  the  philanthropic  ideals  which 
obtained  in  England.  Whipping,  bianding, 
and  deporting — features  of  the  penal  system 
of  the  Colony  as  he  found  it — were  strongly 
condemned  and  eventually  abolished  by  him, 
and  he  made  other  changes  in  the  direction 
of  greater  leniency.  The  Chinese  lower 
classes  were  naturally  grateful  for  the 
favours  received,  and  dulibed  the  Governor 
"the  merciful  man";  but  the  Kuiopean  com- 
munity, with  a  profounder  knowledge  of  the 
springs  of  Chinese  criminal  nature,  were 
profoundly  dissatisfied  at  what  they  regarded 
as  the  dangerous  workings  of  the  policy 
adopted  by  the  Governor.  A  great  outburst 
of  serious  crime  which  look  place  in  1878 
lent  point  to  the  indignant  repiesentations  of 
this  important  section  of  the  population,  and 
as  month  succeeded  month  and  the  crimes 
increased  in  seriousness  it  was  determined 
to  hold  an  indignation  meeting  to  protest 
against  the  action  that  had  been  taken.  The 
demonstration  took  place  on  October  7,  1878, 


on  the  cricket  j;roiiiid.  It  was  one  of  the 
most  important  gatherinjjs  of  the  kind  ever 
held  in  the  history  of  the  Colony.  Mr.  H. 
B.  Gibb  was  in  the  cliair,  and  he  was 
supported  by  practically  all  the  leadin;; 
mercliants  of  the  Colony  excepting  the 
senior  unoflicial  nieniber  of  the  I.,ei;islative 
Council  (the  Hon.  Philip  Ryrie).  who  for 
particular  reasons  held  aloof.  With  practical 
unanimity  resolutions  were  passed  affirming 
that  life  and  property  had  been  jeopardised 
by  the  policy  of  undue  leniency  that  had 
been  adopted,  and  asking  that  a  commission 
from  outside  tlie  Colony  should  be  appointed 
to  investigate  the  application  of  criminal 
laws,  the  carrying  out  of  sentences  of  the 
courts,  and  the  relation  between  the 
Governor  and  his  officials.  This  European 
protest  evoked  a  counter  demonstration  from 
the  Chinese  inhabitants,  who  organised  an 
address  to  the  Queen  expressive  of  con- 
iidence  in  the  Governor.  The  resolutions  and 
the  address  were  duly  forwarded,  and,  after 
taking  nearly  twelve  months  to  reply,  the 
Colonial  Secretary  (Sir  Michael  Hicks-Beach) 
in  a  despatch  admitted  the  reasonableness  of 
the    alarm    felt    in    the    Colonv,    but    declined 

sending  out  a  commission,  on  the  ground 
that  the  action  of  the  Governor  had  removed 
all  cause  for  fear.  The  reference  was  to 
the  introduction  of  a  more  stringent  system 
of  dealing  with  criminals  by  the  Governor. 
The  system  of  deportation  was  resumed  and 
old  offenders,  instead  of  being  tried  before 
magistrates,  were  sent  to  the  Supreme  Court, 
where  they  received  punishment  commen- 
surate with  their  crimes.  On  the  main 
points — the  question  of  flogging  and  brand- 
ing— Sir  J.  Pope-Hennessy  carried  the  day, 
for  in  November,  1880,  Lord  Kimberley  (wtio 
had  become  Colonial  Secretiiry)  sent  out  a 
despatch  directing  the  permanent  discon- 
tinuance of  branding  and  prohibiting  flog- 
ging, excepting  in  cases  of  the  class  in 
which  it  would  be  inflicted  in  the  United 

As  the  years  of  Sir  J.  Pope-Hennessy's 
administration  went  on  the  tide  of  his  un- 
popularity increased  in  volume.  The  breach 
between  him  and  the  Euiopean  conmunity 
ultimately  became  irreparable,  and  the  strange 
prospect  was  seen  in  Hongkong  of  the 
Queen's  representative  living  an  existence  of 
isolation  from  the  gieat  bulk  of  his  fellows. 

The  effect  of  such  a  state  of  affairs  upon  the 
Colony's  interest  could  not  fail  to  be  extremely 
bad,  and  only  the  natural  stiength  of  its 
position  enabled  it  to  come  through  the 
period  of  stress  and  trouble  without  marked 
injury.  A  great  sigh  of  relief  went  up  when 
it  was  announced  in  March,  18S2,  that  the 
Governor  was  shortly  proceeding  to  Europe 
on  six  months'  leave.  The  stiitement  was 
interpreted  to  mean  that  Sir  J.  Pope-Hennessy 
was  leaving  finally,  and  there  was  no  dis- 
position shown  to  resent  the  valedictory  com- 
pliments subsequently  paid  to  him  by  the 
Chinese  and  Portuguese  communities.  The 
general  feeling  was  one  of  gladness  that  the 
period  of  turmoil  and  bitterness  was  at  length 
at  an  end.  Afterwards  there  was  a  disturb- 
ing rumour  that  Sir  J.  Pope-Hennessy  was 
returning  to  Hongkong,  and  in  hot  haste 
strong  remonstrances  were  sent  by  the 
leading  merchants  to  Downing  Street.  Then 
it  was  made  known  that  the  incubus  of  a 
discredited  and  unpopular  Governor  was  not 
to  be  infiicted  on  Hongkong,  Sir  J.  Pope- 
Hennessy  having  been  appointed  to  the 
Governorship   of   Mauritius. 


Development  of   Shanghai — The   Establishment    of   the  Chinese    Maritime  Customs   Department — New    Municipal 
Constitution — Operations  of  the  "  Ever  Victorious  "  Army  around  the  Settlement — Land  Speculations. 

The  conclusion  of  the  Treaty  of  Peking  was 
the  signal  for  a  great  development  of  mer- 
cantile activity  throughout  the  Treaty  ports. 
Perhaps  its  influence  was  most  marked  at 
Shanghai,  which,  from  its  proximity  to  the 
new  ticlds  of  enterprise  opened  up  in  Northern 
China  by  the  Treaty  and  its  immediate  prede- 
cessor— the  Treaty  of  Tientsin — was  best 
placed  to  reap  the  advantages  of  the  new  order 
of  things.  "  The  model  settlement,"  as  it  was 
and  is  still  called  without  excess  of  modesty. 
in  its  earliest  years  showed  the  disposition 
which  all  new  trade  centres  have  to  hang  fire 
somewhat.  It  developed,  but  its  growth  was, 
comparatively  speaking,  slow.  There  was 
nothing  in  the  nature  of  a  "  boom  " — to  adopt 
a  modern  phrase.  The  disturbed  condition 
of  the  country  owing  to  the  Taeping  Rebellion 
no  doubt  militated  against  its  complete 
success.  But  it  was  not  alone  that  factor 
which  kept  Shanghai  from  marching  to  its 
inevitable  destiny  of  a  great  port  and  com- 
mercial entrepot.  The  restricted  character  of 
the  openings  for  trade  and  the  repressive  and 
obstructive  policy  pursued  by  the  Chinese 
Government  had  an  even  wider  influence  on 
the  settlement's  fortunes.  All  this,  however, 
was  changed  by  the  two  treaties.  Under  the 
Treaty  of  Tientsin  that  great  waterway,  the 
Yangtse-Kiang,  was  opened  up  to  British 
trade,  and  a  regularised  status  was  accorded 
to  merchants  at  the  important  riverain  towns 
of  Chinkiang  and  Hankow.  The  same 
instrument  allowed  British  merchants  access 
to  Newchwang,  Tangchow,  Taiwan  (For- 
mosa), Chanchow  (Swatoa),  and  Kiungchow 
(Hainan)  ;  while  the  Peking  Convention  had 
given  further  significance  to  these  widened 
facilities  by  adding  Tientsin  to  the  list  of 
Treaty  ports.  Thus,  for  the  first  time  in 
history,  a  real  opening  was  afforded  to  the 
vast  markets  of  Central  and  Northern  China. 

No  port  was  better  placed  to  take  advantage 
of  the  situation  than  Shanghai.  On  the  one 
side  the  broad  bosom  of  the  Yangtse  was  open 
to  it  ;  on  the  other  was  easy  access  to  the 
capital  and  the  great  districts  of  the  north  ; 
while  in  the  country  behind  were  some  of  the 
greatest  trade  markets  of  the  Celestial  Empire. 
It  seemed  to  many  that  at  last  Shanghai's  day 
had  really  come. 

Before  an  account  is  given  of  the  stirring 
times  which  followed  the  conclusion  of  the 
Treaty  of  Peking  it  may  be  desirable  to  take 
a  brief  glance  at  Shanghai  as  it  was  in  the 
years  preceding  that  event.  Even  at  that 
early  period,  says  an  old  resident  in  a  des- 
cription of  its  early  life,  the  settlement  was 
a  striking-looking  city.  "The  magnificent 
hongs  which  thronged  the  riverside  with 
their  compounds,  their  flags  flying  (for  nearly 
every  hong  represented  some  consular  dignity) 
and  the  fine  broad  terrace  fronting  the  river, 
and  commonly  called  the  '  Bund,'  had  a  grand 
and  imposing  appearance,  which  was  truly 
astonishing  in  a  place  of  such  recent  growth. 
The  bimd  was  the  most  wonderful  scene  of 
business  and  bustle.  Chinese  coolies  or 
labourers  were  everywhere  hurrying  to  and 
fro  with  burdens  slung  to  bamboos  carried 
upon  the  shoulders  of  these  indefatigable 
beings  who  uttered  a  sort  of  monotonous 
'  Hee  Haw  '  song  as  they  moved  along.  In 
the  centre  of  the  bund  was  situated  a  striking 
looking  Chinese  building,  the  Custom  House, 
in  those  days  managed  by  Chinese  with  the 
assistance  of  two  European  gentlemen.  .  . 
So  little  were  these  customs  officials  heeded 
that  the  captain  of  an  American  steamer  who 
was  about  to  export  a  cargo  of  rice,  which  is 
strictly  forbidden  both  by  Chinese  law  and 
treaty  stipulations,  is  actually  stated  to  have 
pitched  one  of  them  overboard  for  attempting 
to  interfere  with  him." 

The  Custom  House  organisation  referred 
to  by  the  writer  came  into  existence  as 
a  direct  result  of  the  complications  arising 
out  of  the  Taeping  Rebellion.  A  brief 
reference  made  to  the  matter  in  an 
earlier  chapter  may  be  supplemented  by 
a  more  detailed  statement  of  the  origin  of 
this  important  institution.  In  March,  1853, 
when  Nanking  and  Chinkiang  had  fallen 
into  the  hands  of  the  rebels,  and  there  was 
a  report  that  the  rebel  fleet  proposed  to 
attack  Woosung,  there  was  a  complete 
cessation  of  business  in  Shanghai.  The 
Chinese  customs  officials  were  all  scattered 
or  in  hiding,  and  for  a  time  there  was  no 
apparent  machinery  in  existence  for  the 
collection  of  customs.  "  One  morning,"  says 
the  author  of  an  interesting  sketch  of 
Shanghai  history,  published  on  the  occasion 
of  its  jubilee  celebrations  in  1873,  "it  was 
found  that  a  Weiyman  had  established  him- 
self during  the  night  in  a  mat-shed,  amongst 
the  ruins  of  the  Customs  House,  and  hung 
out  a  flag  and  chop  sealed  by  the  Taotai 
authorising  him  to  receive  customs  dues, 
but  the  foreign  consuls  concluded  that  this 
gentleman's  position  was  not  exactly  legal, 
and  Mr.  Alcock,  the  British  Consul,  there- 
fore, consulted  with  the  captain  of  the 
Spartan,  the  result  being  that  a  squad  of 
English  men-of-war's  men  hustled  the  poor 
Mandarin  and  his  assistants  ignominiously 
out  of  his  'improvised  custom  house.  The 
Weiyman  then  attempted  to  get  over  the 
difficulty  by  saying  that  he  would  receive 
the  duties  on  board  a  junk  which  was 
moored  in  the  river  opposite  the  French 
concession,  and  Mr.  E.  Cunningham,  who  was 
acting  as  American  Vice-C<5nsul,  fell  in  with 
the  suggestion  and  ordered  his  nationals  to 
pay  their  dues  on  board  this  floating 
coilectorate,    but    the    Americans    promptly 



objected  that  they  amid  not  find  her.  .  . 
In  this  dilenmta  Mr.  AlaKk  and  Mr. 
Cunnin):hnm  sent  round  a  notification  to 
the  effect  that  they  would  undertake  the 
collection  of  duties,  and  would  not  clear 
any  British  or  Anieric-an  ves.sels  in  respect 
of'  which  duties  had  not  been  paid,  or 
undert:ikint;s  to  pay  fjiven.  This  was  at 
once  strongly  opposed  by  the  merchants, 
who  argued  that  they  could  not  be  called 
upon  to  pav  duties  to  a  government  that 
was  unable  to  give  them  any  protection, 
and  that  had  no  proper,  visible  machinery 
available  for  c-ollecting  the  revenue,  and  that 
the  British  and  American  Consuls  had  no 
right  to  usurp  any  functions  of  the  Chinese 
Government  which  had  not  been  legally 
delegated  to  them.  The  Consuls  of  the  other 
pt>wers  represented  adopted  the  same  view, 
and  the  French  Consul  took  the  lead  in  de- 
cUiring  that  he  would  clear  any  French  ship 
that  applied  to  him,  without  the  payment  of 
any  duties  whatst>ever,  until  the  Imperial 
Chinese  Government  re-asserted  its  authority. 
.  .  .  The  British  Consul  and  the  American 
Vicx'-Consul  were  left  almost  alone  on  one 
side  in  the  struggle  to  uphold  the  claims  of 
the  Chinese  Government,  while  the  repre- 
sentative of  the  Chinese  Government,  the 
Taotai,  Sam  Qua,  from  his  safe  retreat  in 
the  Kecchong  hong,  contented  himself  with 
issuing  exhortative  notices  to  his  countrymen 
to  do  right  in  the  matter  of  paying  customs 
dues,  while,  with  reference  to  the  foreigners, 
he  was  only  tix)  thankful  to  them  for  what- 
ever small  quotjis  of  these  dues  they  were 
content   to   pay   him" 

In  the  face  of  the  division  of  consular 
opinion  the  British  and  American  Consuls 
found  it  impossible  to  maintain  the  position 
they  had  taken  up.  Several  ships,  American 
and  British,  got  away  without  the  payment 
of  any  duties,  and  in  1854  the  principle  of 
clearance  without  payment  of  duties  had 
been  tacitly  accepted.  The  Chinese  Govern- 
ment, however,  was  naturally  not  content  to 
allow  a  lucrative  source  of  revenue  to  be 
diverted  from  it  without  a  struggle,  and  about 
the  middle  of  1854  consular  intervention  was 
invoked  to  secure  a  restoration  of  Chinese 
rights  in  the  matter  of  the  levy  of  customs. 
A  conference  Ux)'*  place  at  which  the  Taoutai. 
Sam  Qua.  with  the  Consuls  of  Great  Britain. 
America,  and  France  assisted,  and  as  the 
outcome  of  it,  it  was  decided  to  introduce  an 
entirely  new  system.  Under  the  arrangement 
the  duty  of  collecting  the  customs  dues  was 
vested  in  three  oflicers  nominated  by  the 
three  Consuls  pjirticipating  in  the  conference. 
The  Chinese  officials  were  left  to  discharge 
the  ordinary  duties  of  supervision.  It  was 
a  tentative  measure  devised  to  meet  a  sudden 
emergency  which  had  arisen,  but  the  system 
worked  so  satisfactorily  that  it  ultimately 
broadened  out  into  a  great  organisation, 
which  under  a  name  to  become  familiar 
throughout  the  civilised  world — the  Chinese 
Maritime  Customs — extended  its  operations  to 
the  whole  of  the  Treaty  ports. 

Another  important  Shanghai  institution 
which  was  emerging  from  the  chrysalis 
stage  at  this  period  was  the  Municipal  Council. 
As  originally  instituted  the  bfxly  was  known 
as  the  0>mmittee  of  Roads  and  Jetties.  Its 
income  was  as  modest  as  its  designation,  for 
altogether  the  municipal  collections  in  1852 
did  not  amount  to  more  than  $5,000.  Of  this 
sum  $2,400  came  from  wharfage  dues,  and 
the  balance  from  a  tax  of  }  per  cent,  on  land 
and  I  per  cent,  on  houses.  The  expenditure 
for  the  year  was  $8,000,  that  amount  incUuling 
the  repayment  of  a  k)an  of  $2,000  which  had 
been  borrowed  at  10  per  cent.  But  the 
exigencies   of    the    situation    created    by    the 

Taeping  Rebellion  iicct-ssitatcd  some  more 
comprehensive  ariangement,  and  about  the 
middle  of  1854  there  were  frequent  con- 
sultations between  the  Taoutai,  Sam  Qua, 
and  Messrs.  Alcock,  the  British  Consul, 
K.  C.  Murphy,  the  United  States  Consul, 
and  M,  B.  Edau,  the  French  Consul  with 
a  view  to  devising  a  new  system  of 
l<K-al  control.  The  upshot  of  the  delibera- 
tions was  the  issue  on  July  5,  1854,  of  a 
notification  to  the  foreign  community  to  the 
effect  that  a  new  code  of  municipal  and 
land  regulations  had  been  drawn  up,  and 
would  henceforth  govern  the  residence  of 
foreigners  in  the  three  concessions.  Tlie 
regulations  thus  promulgated  with  some  sub- 
sequent changes  and  additions  are  practically 
the  constitution  under  which  the  settlement 
is  governed.  Under  tile  rules  the  local 
authority  designated  for  the  first  time  a 
Municipal  Council  was  to  consist  of  a  chair- 
man and  six  members  elected  by  the  land- 
renters  instead  of   the  "  three  upright  British 


merchants  appointed  by  the  British  Consul," 
of  whom  the  first  early  Committee  of  Roads 
and  Jetties  consisted.  Another  important 
change  was  the  substitution  for  the  old 
methods  of  raising  revenue  of  a  regular 
assessment  based  on  the  value  of  property 
and  area  of  land,  on  residences  and  wharfage 
within  the  settlement.  The  new  system  was 
found  to  work  most  satisfactorily.  Hence- 
forward there  was  no  looking  back  in  matters 
municipal  in  Shanghai.  In  1863  the  adminis- 
tration lost  its  exclusively  British  character  by 
the  interests  of  the  British  concession  being 
merged  with  those  xif  the  American  settlement 
at  Hongkew  on  the  north  of  the  Soothow 
Creek.  The  French,  who,  as  has  been  stated, 
occupied  a  strip  of  territory  adjacent  to  tlie 
native  city,  elected  to  maintain  their  separate 
jurisdiction,  and  they  have  done  so  to  this 
day,  with  the  result  that  there  is  a  marked 
distinction  between  the  two  sections  of  what 
is  in  reality  one  settlement. 

W'liile  Shanghai  was  preparing  to  avail 
itself  of  the  openings  offered  by  tlie  Treaty 
of  Peking,  the  developments  of  the  Tae- 
ping Rebellion  were  once  more  furnishing 
her  citizens  with  excitement  of  a  varied  kind. 
The  rebels,  encouraged  by  the  weakness  of 
the  imperial  authority,  had  during  the  years 
from  1857  to  i860  enormously  extended  their 
sphere  of  intluence.  They  conliniRcl  in 
possession  of  Nanking  in  spite  of  all  efforts 
to  dislodge  them,  and  by  the  end  of  the  last 
named  year  their  authority  was  established 
almost  to  the  sea.  Such  was  the  gravity 
of  the  situation  that,  prior  to  the  advance 
on  Peking,  the  Governor-General  of  the 
province  of  the  Two  Kiang  actually 
invoked  the  aid  of  the  British  and  French 
in  support  of  the  imperial  power.  The 
French  representative  was  willing  to 
render  the  assistance,  and  offered  fifteen 
hundred  troops  if  the  British  would  send 
five  hundred  ;  but  Mr.  Bruce  prudently  de- 
clined to  allow  the  British  authority  to  be 
mixed  up  with  the  internal  troubles  of  the 
Chinese  Empire.  A  proclamation,  however, 
was  issued  on  May  26,  i860,  in  the  name 
of  all  the  foreign  representatives,  intimating 
that  Slianghai  would  not  a  second  time  be 
allowed  to  fall  into  rebel  liands. 

Tliough  official  foreign  aid  was  denied  the 
Chinese  authorities,  they  were  not  to  be  . 
without  European  assistance  in  their  efforts 
to  suppress  the  rebellion.  A  movement  set 
on  foot  by  patriotic  Chinese  merchants,  and 
encouiaged  and  supported  by  European  firms, 
resulted  in  the  getting  out  at  Shanghai  of  a 
foreign  contingent  for  service  in  the  disturbed 
area.  Ward,  an  American  subject,  was  the 
leader  of  the  organisation,  and  he  had  as  his 
chief  lieutenant  and  quartermaster  a  fellow 
countryman  named  Burgevine.  Ward  was  a 
swashbuckler  of  a  pronounced  type — unscru- 
pulous, rapacious,  and  cruel.  He  had  been 
a  mate  on  an  American  sailing  vessel 
trading  lo  China,  and  had  served  on  a 
llotilla  fitted  out  some  time  previously  by 
the  Taoutai  to  opeiate  against  the  rebels  on 
the  Yangtse.  In  that  capacity  he  had 
attracted  the  attention  of  the  wealthy  Chinese 
mercliants,  and  his  selection  to  command 
the  foreign  legion  was  the  result.  A  pretty 
free  hand  was  given  to  him  in  the  matter  of 
the  engagement  of  recruits.  Pay  at  the  rate 
of  ^'20  per  month  was  offered,  and  in  addition 
the  prospect  was  held  out  of  a  share  of  loot. 
About  one  hundred  Europeans  in  all  were 
collected,  together  with  about  double  that 
number  of  Manila  men.  The  Europeans 
were  a  nondescript  lot  of  adventurers  drawn 
from  the  shipping  and  the  local  stores  and 
offices.  They  were  bound  by  the  loosest  ties 
of  discipline  and  were  ignorant  in  many  cases 
of  the  rudiments  of  military  science.  The 
initial  operation  of  the  contingent  was  an 
attack  on  Sunkiang,  a  large  walled  town  about 
20  miles  south-west  of  Shanghai.  It  was  for 
various  reasons  a  conspicuous  failure.  Ward, 
however,  was  not  to  be  discouiaged  by  a 
single  rebuff.  Collecting  reinforcements,  he 
renewed  the  attack  with  a  successful  result. 
The  town  through  his  exertions  was  given 
over  once  more  to  the  possession  of  the 
imperial  forces.  The  achievement  brought 
him  passing  fame  and,  what  was  more  to  his 
purpose,  a  considerable  accession  of  Chinese 
confidence  and  support.  Ward  was  soon 
invited  to  try  his  skill  in  another  direction. 
The  new  task  allotted  to  him  was  the  capture 
of  Tsingpu,  a  walled  town  of  some  little  im- 
portance. Having  recruited  a  fresh  body  of 
men,  including  25  Europeans  and  280  Manila 
men.  Ward  marched  out  of  his  camp  at  Sun- 
kiang. On  arrival  outside  Tsingpu  he  speedily 
found  that  he  cou!d  accomplish  little,  owing  to 


the  lack  of  suitable  guns.  He  had  only  two 
6-pounclers  with  him  and  these  were  quite 
powerless  against  the  Taeping  position,  which 
was  one  of  considerable  strength,  and  de- 
fended, moreover,  by  the  rebels  under  the 
direction  of  an  Englishman  named  Savage. 
Nevertheless,  the  attack  was  delivered  on 
the  night  of  August  2,  i860.  It  ended  in  a 
disastrous  repulse,  in  whicli  all  the  Europeans 
save  six  were  either  killed  or  wounded. 
Ward,  though  himself  wounded  in  the  jaw, 
elected  to  make  another  attempt  to  win  the 
great  reward  which  was  offered  for  the  cap- 
ture of  the  position.  Proceeding  to  Shanghai, 
he  enlisted  a  fjesh  force  of  150  Europeans, 
purchased  two  l8-pounder  guns  and  am- 
munition, and  replenished  his  stores.  He 
then  returned  to  Tsingpu  and  commenced 
a  vigorous  bombardment  of  the  town.  For- 
tune favoured  him  even  less  on  this  occa-sion 
than  it  did  previously.  After  the  attack  had 
proceeded  some  days  Ward's  force  was  sur- 
prised by  a  body  of  the  rebels  under  Chang 
Wang,  a  famous  leader,  and  put  to  utter  rout. 
The  contingent  lost  its  guns  and  most  of  its 
stores,  and  had  tlie  enemy  been  entciprising 
the  entire  body  wt>uld  have  been  annihilated. 
Encouraged  by  the  success,  Chang  Wang 
made  an  effort  to  recapture  Sunkiang,  and, 
being  foiled  in  the  attempt,  turned  his  atten- 
tion to  the  city  of  Shanghai.  The  Allies, 
acting  up  to  their  proclamation,  took  measure 
to  assist  the  Chinese  imperial  authorities  in 
their  defence.  The  rebels,  therefore,  had  a 
very  warm  reception  when  they  appeared 
outside  the  city.  They  persevered,  however, 
in  their  enterprise,  returning  again  and  again 
to  the  attack.  Eventually,  when  the  best 
part  of  a  week  had  elapsed,  Chang  Wang 
drew  off  his  forces,  sending  previously  a 
valiant  message  in  which  he  blamed  the 
French  for  his  discomfilure,  and  said  that 
but  for  the  foreigners  he  would  have  been 

As  a  result  of  the  attack  on  Shanghai  the 
British  authorities  deemed  it  expedient  to 
have  a  clear  understanding  with  the  Taepings 
as  to  the  precise  limits  of  their  operations. 
For  this  purpose  the  British  Naval  Com- 
mander, Admiral  Sir  James  Hope,  as 
previously  nariated,  proceeded  to  Nanking 
and  opened  up  connnunications  with  Tien 
Wang,  the  rebel  chief.  The  outcome  of  the 
negotiations  was  an  arrangement  under 
which  the  Taepings  pledged  themselves  not 
to  make  any  attack  on  Shanghai  in  the  next 
twelve  months,  and  that  the  Taeping  forces 
should  not  advance  to  any  point  within  a 
radius  of  20  miles  of  that  city.  A  further 
development  of  the  situation  at  this  period 
was  the  arrest,  in  May,  1 861,  of  Ward  in 
Shanghai,  as  a  disturber  of  the  public  peace. 
Ward  subsequently  obtained  his  release  by 
declaring  himself  a  Chinese  subject,  but  his 
career  at  Shanghai  was  nearing  its  close. 
His  fate  as  a  commander  of  European 
auxiliaries  and  that  of  the  force  which  he 
had  got  together  were  sealed  by  another 
disastrous  failuie  before  Tsingpu,  in  which 
out  of  80  men  23  were  either  killed  or 
wounded.  Ward  and  Burgevine,  after  a 
temporary  period  of  inaction  at  Shanghai, 
turned  their  attention  to  the  drilling 
of  Chinese  after  the  European  method. 
Their  operations  were  destined  to  bear  note- 
worthy fruit,  for  out  of  the  little  band  of 
men  they  trained  developed  the  Ever  Victor- 
ious Army,  which  was  to  win  back  for  the 
Chinese  Government  the  authority  which 
had  so  narrowly  missed  slipping  altogether 
from  their  hands. 

In  the  closing  months  of  1861  the  Taepings 
achieved  some  conspicuous  successes  against 
the   imperial    forces.     The  important  cities  of 

Ningpo  and  Hangchow  fell  into  their  hands, 
and  there  were  minor  triumphs  which  greatly 
enhanced  their  prestige  and  brought  thou- 
sands of  recruits  to  their  standards.  The 
occupation  of  the  first  named  place  without 
British  opposition  seems  to  have  encouraged 
the  belief  at  the  rebel  headquarters  that 
Shanghai  might  now  be  taken  in  spite  of  the 
arrangement  come  to  between  Admiral  Hope 
and  Tien  Wang.  The  victorious  Taeping 
forces  appeared  outside  the  city  and  settle- 
ment at  the  end  of  the  second  week  in 
January,  1862.  Before  them  were  driven 
great  nuinbers  of  Cliinese  who  sought  refuge  in 
(light  from  the  horrors  which  almost  invariably 
marked  the  onward  rebel  march.  Thousands 
of  these  unfortunates  invaded  the  foreign 
settlement  in  the  expectation  of  finding  an 
asylum  there  from  the  dire  woes  which 
menaced  them  across  the  border.  The  best 
that  was  possible  was  done  for  them,  but 
there  was  much  inevitable  suffering,  an  ex- 
ceptionally severe  winter  adding  to  the 
horrors  of  the  situation.  Meanwhile  the 
flagrant    infraction     of     the     Yangtse     under- 

SIB    JAMES    HOPE,    Q.C.B. 

(From  a  print  in  the  British  Mnseum.) 

standing  by  the  rebels  was  being  met  by  the 
Britisli  autliorities  in  the  only  possible  way — 
by  retaliating.  The  military  force  at  Shan- 
ghai at  the  time — two  native  regiments  and 
some  artillery — was  too  weak  to  allow  at  the 
outset  of  more  than  defensive  measures,  and 
encouraged  by  the  inactivity  the  rebels 
showed  great  boldness,  plundering  and  burn- 
ing on  the  outskirts  of  the  settlement,  and  at 
one  time  even  threatening  Woosung,  the 
port  at  the  mouth  of  the  river.  The  French 
made  a  successful  onslaught  on  a  body  of 
rebels  which  appeared  outside  their  con- 
cession, and  on  the  arrival  of  Sir  John  Michel 
with  a  small  body  of  English  troops  as  a 
reinforcement  of  the  garrison,  a  regular  plan 
of  campaign  was  instituted  against  them  by 
the  British  and  the  French.  The  operations 
commenced  on  February  21st.  when  a  mixed 
British  and  French  force,  about  500  strong, 
with  600  of  Ward's  newly  disciplined 
troops,  marched  out  under  the  command 
of  Admiral  Hope  to  the  village  of  Kachiaou, 
where  the  Taepings  had  a  strong  position. 
On  coming  into  contact  with  the  enemy 
there    was    some  sharp  fighting,    but    nothing 

could  withstand  the  ardour  of  the  attacking 
force,  who,  with  Ward's  men  leading, 
carried  the  village  in  gallant  style.  The 
Taepings,  undismayed  by  this  reverse,  gave  a 
considerable  amount  of  trouble  to  Admiral 
Hope,  and  even  at  one  time  compelled  him 
to  retire.  But  on  his  receiving  a  substantial 
reinforcement  of  450  Europeans  with  700  of 
Ward's  Chinese  and  7  howitzers,  he  was  able 
to  very  effectively  continue  his  little  campaign. 
Tseedong,  another  strong  position  of  the 
rebels,  was  attacked,  and  while  the  British 
sailors  operated  in  front  Ward's  men  made  a 
detour  and  came  upon  their  rear.  Between 
the  two  fires  the  rebels  suffered  terribly,  more 
than  seven  hundred  being  killed.  The 
steadiness  shown  by  Ward's  disciplined  levies 
on  the  two  occasions  they  were  under  fire, 
led  the  British  authorities  to  take  a  very 
favourable  view  of  their  capacity  and  useful- 
ness and  to  give  support  both  diplomatic  and 
practical  to  measures  for  their  increase.  For 
some  weeks  following  the  Tseedong  affair, 
there  was,  however,  a  lull  in  the  operations. 
It  was  not,  in  fact,  until  the  end  of  March, 
when  General  Staveley  arrived  from  Tientsin 
with  the  31st  and  67th  British  regiments  that 
any  further  serious  effort  was  made  to  deal 
with  the  rebels.  Then  was  commenced  the 
task  of  clearing  the  country  for  30  miles 
around  Shanghai  in  accordance  with  the 
terms  of  the  agreement.  In  pursuance  of 
this  plan  the  village  of  Wongkadsa,  about 
12  miles  west  of  Shanghai  was  captured, 
but  on  an  attempt  being  made  by  Ward's 
men  to  carry  a  stockade  to  which  the  rebels 
had  retired,  the  attacking  party  was  repulsed 
and  Admiral  Hope,  who  had  accompanied  it, 
was  wounded.  The  next  day  this  failure  was 
wiped  out  and  the  enemy  were  subsequently 
driven  out  of  Tsipoo.  Next,  attention  was 
tiu'ued  to  Kahding,  a  strong  walled  city, 
which  was  captured  with  little  loss.  A 
desperate  attempt  to  fire  Shanghai,  happily 
frustrated,  caused  a  brief  interruption  in  the 
operations,  but  eany  in  May  the  train  was 
ready  laid  for  an  important  series  of  move- 
ments, in  which  a  powerful  body  consisting 
of  1.429  British  troops  and  20  guns  and 
mortars,  380  men  and  5  guns.  Naval  Brigade, 
and  800  French  troops  with  10  guns  took 
part.  The  allied  force  proceeded  first  to 
Tsingpu,  the  journey  being  made  from 
Sunkiang  by  boat  owing  to  transport  difii- 
culties.  A  bombardment  with  the  powerful 
guns  carried  with  the  force  soon  paved  the 
way  for  an  assault  which  was  completely 
successful,  though  the  Taepings  fought  well. 
Afterwards  Nanjao  was  captured  and  a 
brilliant  little  series  of  movements  was  closed 
with  an  engagement  at  Cholin  which  ter- 
minated in  the  complete  discomfiture  of  the 
rebels.  The  good  effects  of  this  campaign 
was  unfortunately  almost  completely  wiped 
out  by  a  disaster  which  overtook  an  im- 
perialist force  about  the  middle  of  May  at 
Taitsau,  to  the  north-west  of  Shanghai.  Such 
was  the  impression  made  that  General 
Staveley  deemed  it  expedient  to  withdraw  his 
forces  to  Shanghai,  Kahding  being  given 
back  to  the  rebels.  As  a  set  off  against  this 
serious  state  of  affairs  the  imperialists  had  to 
their  account  the  recapture  of  Ningpo  which 
had  about  the  same  period  fallen  into  their 
hands  after  a  desperate  conflict.  Chung 
Wang  now  threatened  both  Tsingpu  and 
Sunkiang,  and  as  there  was  nothing  to  be 
gained  in  the  circumstances  in  holding  the 
former  place,  it  was  evacuated.  Ward  after 
this  devoted  himself  energetically  to  the 
training  and  equipping  of  a  force  to  recover 
the  lost  ground.  He  soon  had  a  body  of  five 
thousand  men  under  his  command,  and  with 
these     larried     the     war     into    the     enemy's 


LtHiiitry.  Alter  an  unsucvesslul  attempt 
Tsingpu  was  ret;iken.  and  protxibly  this  would 
have  been  the  starting  (xiint  of  a  new  career 
for  Ward  had  he  not  been  mortally  wounded 
in  an  attack  on  Tseki.  near  Ninjjpo,  whither 
he  had  pnxx-eded  at  the  call  of  the  Govern- 
n»ent.  On  a  refusal  of  the  post  by  Colonel 
Forrester.  Ward's  chief  lieutenant,  the  com- 
niand  of  the  Ever  Victorious  Army  devolved 
upon  Burgevine,  who  was  little  ad;»pted  either 
by  temperament  or  capacity  for  so  responsible 
an  office.  Li  Hung  Chang,  to  be  famous  in 
later  years  as  one  of  China's  greatest  states- 
men, had  about  this  time  sucx"eeded  to  the 
chief  control  on  the  Chinese  Government  side 
and  he  seems  very  early  to  have  formed  a 
very  unfavourable  impression  of  the  new 
commander.  Burgevine.  indeed,  was  gener- 
ally distrusted  by  the  leading  Chinese  officials 
and  merchants.  They  disliked  his  dictatorial 
ways,  and  they  doubted  his  loyalty  to  the 
cause  which  they  had  at  heart.  Furthermore. 
what  little  they  knew  of  his  c-apacity  for 
militiry  leadership  did  not  impress  them.  In 
the  circumstances  it  is  not  surprising  that 
dilficullies  should  soon  have  arisen  between 
the  American  and  the  Mandarins.  The  latter 
were  so  seriously  dissatisfied  with  Burgevine 
that  they  went  the  length  of  asking  General 
Staveley  to  remove  him  from  the  command 
and  supply  his  place  with  an  English  officer. 
The  British  commander  declined  to  interfere 
at  the  moment,  but  when  in  the  first  week 
of  January.  i!<63.  Burgcvine's  force  openly 
mutinied,  and  Burgevine  himself  perpetrated 
a  grave  outrage  by  using  personal  violence 
to  Takee,  a  leading  Shanghai  merchant,  who 
was  the  life  and  soul  of  the  patriotic  move- 
ment, the  summary  dismissal  of  the  adven- 
turer by  the  Chinese  Government  was 
acquiesced  in.  The  direct  result  of  this 
disciplinary  action  was  to  bring  into  the  scene 
of  perhaps  his  greatest  triumphs  the  hero  of 
Khartoum — Charles  Gordon — then  a  practically 
unknown  officer  of  Engineers.  Gordon  did 
not  actually  take  up  the  command  until  March 
24th.  as  the  Home  Governments  appro\al 
to  his  nomination  by  General  Staveley  had 
to  be  received,  and.  moreover,  he  wished  to 
complete  the  survey  of  the  country  around 
Shanghai  upon  which  he  was  then  engaged 
before  assuming  active  military  work.  But  he 
interested  hnnsclf  informally  in  the  duties 
pertaining  to  his  new  post  and  may  be  said 
practically  to  have  commenced  his  connection 

with  the  force  on  Burgevine's  disniiss;il. 
The  story  of  his  skilful  organisation  and 
direction  of  the  Chinese  forces,  of  his 
indomitable  courage  and  perseverance  in 
combating  the  rebel  forces,  and  finally,  the 
complete  reassertion  of  Chinese  imperial 
authority,  through  the  exertions  of  the  Ever 
Victorious  Army  under  his  leadership,  is  too 
familiar  to  need  recapitulation  here. 

The  crisis  in  Shanghai's  life  came,  as  we 
have  stated  at  the  couunencement  of  the 
chapter,  after  the  conclusion  of  the  Treaty 
of  Peking.  One  of  the  earliest  symptoms 
of  it  was  an  inflation  of  land  values  due  to 
the  belief  that  the  settlement  was  bound 
to  undergo  enormous  expansion.  The  theory 
was  sound  enough,  but,  as  often  happens  in 
these  cases,  an  altogether  exaggerated  con- 
ception of  the  possibilities  of  the  situation 
was  formed.  The  period  of  speculation  with 
its  ups  and  downs  and  its  various  manifesta- 
tions is  vividly  described  by  the  writer  already 
quoted.  "  The  site  of  the  old  racecourse  was 
put  up  and  sold  at  auction  at  fabulous  prices, 
and  the  cricket  ground  was  treated  in  a 
similar  manner,  a  very  small  proportion  of 
money  sufficing  to  supply  their  places  at 
a  short  distance  beyond,  and  the  balance 
of  the  funds  being  reserved  for  purposes  of 
public  improvement  or  recreation.  Land  had 
become  the  great  subject  for  speculation,  and 
was  being  bought  up  in  every  conceivable 
directioii  with  the  greatest  avidity.  Plots 
which  a  few  months  previously  had  been 
purchased  for  garden  purposes  at  tifty  taels 
per  mow,  equal  to  about  £^100  sterling  per 
acre,  now  realised  at  least  a  thousand  taels 
per  mow  and  even  more,  and  for  a  long  time 
this  remained  the  standard  value  of  the  land. 
For  miles  in  the  country  upon  purely  Chinese 
territory,  and  for  miles  down  the  river  upon 
both  its  banks,  did  speculators  buy  up  every 
available  inch  of  ground  at  daily  increasing 
prices  in  the  most  visionary  manner.  For- 
tunes upon  fortunes  were  made  upon  its 
re-sale  to  still  more  reckless  gamblers,  but 
only  to  be  re- invested  in  the  same  unsoimd 
manner  and  eventually  to  culminate  in  loss. 
But  it  was  not  alone  in  land  that  speculation 
ran  wild.  Chinese  houses  sprung  up  in 
every  direction,  and  Shanghai  in  a  couple  of 
years  from  the  modest  '  model  settlement ' 
had  become  a  very  London." 

•■  Joint  stock  companies  now  commenced 
to     be     started,    and     shares     were     eagerly 

applied  for.  The  number  of  banks  wliicli 
established  agencies  was  perfectly  fabulous. 
The  shores  of  the  river  for  miles  down  the 
stream  were  covered  with  newly-erected 
wharves  and  as  many  as  300  foreign  vessels 
were  in  the  harbour  at  one  time.  New 
local  improvements  were  commenced, 
regardless  of  expense.  The  New  Club,  a 
magnilicent  building,  and  conducted  on 
the  most  extravagant  scale,  was  hurried  on. 
The  new  racecourse  and  the  cricket  gi'ound 
were  completed  ;  roads  were  constructed  for 
miles  out  into  the  country,  and  villa  resi- 
dences and  model  farms  began  to  abt>und. 
The  municipal  institutions  were  constructed 
on  a  scale  of  extravagance  hitherto  un- 
known ;  and  professional  jockeys  and 
trainers,  sparring  matches,  badger  baiting 
and  rat  pits  became  the  fancy.  Shanghai 
had   gone   perfectly   mad." 

At  this  time  the  population  of  Shanghai 
was  estimated  at  420.000.  of  whom  6,000 
were  foreigners.  It  was,  as  far  as  the 
foreign  element  was  concerned,  a  mixed 
community,  but  was  full  of  enterprise  and 
virility.  Its  spirit  was  manifested  in  a 
rather  striking  way  when  the  Chinese 
Government,  having  disposed  of  the  Taeping 
rebels,  thought  it  might  recover  some  of  its 
losses  by  imposing  a  likiii,  or  war  tax, 
upon  those  of  its  subjects  who  resided  in  the 
settlement.  To  this  proposition  the  Muni- 
cipal Council  offered  emphatic  opposition. 
It  was  pointed  out  that,  as  the  responsibility 
of  protecting  such  an  enormous  concourse  of 
refugees  fell  upon  the  foreign  municipalities 
and  their  British  and  foreign  protectois,  it 
was  only  right  the  Chinese  inside  should 
bear  their  proportion  of  the  regular  expenses. 
The  argument  had  no  effect  on  the  Chinese 
oflicialdom.  and  as  their  claim  was  backed 
by  the  British  Minister,  the  tax  had  to  be 
allowed.  Feeling  on  the  subject  ran  very 
high  in  the  foreign  community  and  a  scheme 
was  seriously  mooted,  by  an  influential  sec- 
tion, for  repudiating  all  Chinese  rights  and 
constituting  the  settlement  a  free  city,  some- 
what on  the  lines  of  the  Hanse  towns.  The 
idea,  of  course,  was  absurdly  visionary,  and 
it  was  laughed  out  of  existence  almost  as 
soon  as  it  was  mooted.  But  the  fact  that 
it  was  suggested  indicates  the  extent  to 
which  even  business  men  had  been  carried 
off  their  feet  by  the  wave  of  speculation 
which   was   sweeping   over   the  port. 


Last  Days  of  the  Emperor  Hienfung— Com/i  d'e'tat  at  Peking— The  New  Regime— The  Young  Emperor  Tungche 

assumes   the    Reins   of    Government— Reception   of    Ministers   at    Peking— Death    of    Tungche   and  Accession  of 

Tsai  Tien — Murder  of  Mr.  Margery — The  Chefoo  Convention. 

As  immediate  outcome  of  the  Treaty  of  Peking 
was  the  establishment  in  the  Chinese  capital 
of  a  body  known  as  the  Tsung-li-yamen,  to 
deal  with  the  foreign  affairs  of  the  empire. 
Up  to  this  time  there  had  been  no  provision 
in  the  Chinese  Governmental  system  for  con- 
ducting intercourse  with  foreign  nations,  and 
the  absence  of  machinery  had  tended  more 
than  anyihing  else  to  create  difficulties.  To 
a  very  large  extent,  therefore,  the  change 
was  an  advantageous  one.  But  it  was  very 
far  from  being  a  sign  of  grace  on  the 
part  of    the  imperial   authorities.      The   Em- 

peror himself  showed  at  this  time,  indeed, 
a  marked  disposition  to  emphasise  his  dis- 
satisfaction with  the  new  order.  He  retired 
to  Gehol  and  surrounded  himself  there  with 
the  most  bigoted  and  fanatical  Mandarins, 
chief  amongst  whom  was  Tsai,  the  hero  of 
the  disgraceful  episode  <>(  Tungchow  decribed 
in  the  previous  chapter.  It  was  believed  at 
the  time  that  the  main  purpose  of  his  with- 
drawal was  to  avoid  lending  by  his  presence 
any  countenance  to  the  establishment  of  the 
diplomatic  system  at  Peking.  Whether  that 
was  the  case  or  not  when  Mr.  Bruce  took  up 

his  residence  at  the  Chinese  capital  towards 
the  end  of  March,  1864,  he  had  to  be  content 
with  such  maimed  rites  as  could  be  extended 
to  him  by  Prince  Kung,  the  enlightened 
brother  of  the  p;niperor,  upon  whom  the 
burden  of  arranging  matters  with  the  Allies 
had  fallen.  The  Emperor's  absence  was  the 
cause  of  much  discontent  amongst  the 
Pekingese,  and  it  was  condenmed  even  by 
members  of  the  imperial  family,  who  suffered 
heavily  in  pocket  owing  to  the  cessation  of 
their  allowances  during  the  period  that  the 
court    was    at    Gehol.      It    is    probable    that 



trouble  would  have  arisen  out  of  tlie  imperial 
action  had  not  matters  been  brought  to  a 
sudden  issue  by  the  serious  illness  and  sub- 
sequent death  of  the  Emperor.  This  event, 
which  took  place  on  August  22,  1864,  was 
followed  by  the  circulation  of  a  proclamation 
amiouncing  the  accession  of  Hienfung's  son, 
a  child  of  six  years  of  age,  and  of  the  appoint- 
ment of  a  Board  of  Regency  consisting  of 
eight  members,  with  Prince  Tsai  at  their  head, 
to  control  matters  during  his  minority.  Prince 
Kung  and  his  associates  at  Peking  were  left 
entirely  out  in  the  cold  in  the  arrangements 
for  the  succession,  and  it  soon  became  obvious 
that  they  did  not  intend  to  sit  down  quietly 
under  the  exclusion.  The  day  following  the 
state  entry  of  the  young  Emperor  into  Peking 
(the  2nd  of  November),  Prince  Kung  appeared 
at  the  palace  with  an  imperial  edict,  which 
he  had  secured  from  the  Empress  Dowager, 
ordering  the  dismissal  of  the  Council  of 
Regency.  Prince  Tsai  and  his  colleagues 
made  an  attempt  to  obtain  the  reversal  of  the 
decree,  but  the  only  effect  of  their  action 
was  to  bring  about  their  arrest  and  the  issue 
of  a  second  decree  directing  their  degradation 
from  their  official  and  hereditary  rank 
and  their  punishment  for  "  outrageous  con- 
duct." Later  on  the  entire  party  were 
brought  to  trial  before  Prince  Kung,  with 
the  result  that  all  were  condemned  to 
death.  One  regarded  as  the  leader  was 
publicly  executed,  but  the  others  were,  as  a 
special  favour,  given  a  silken  cord  with  which 
to  put  an  end  to  their  existence.  Under  the 
new  regime  the  power  was  vested  in  the 
Empress  Dowager  and  the  Emperor's  mother, 
and  Prince  Kung  occupied  the  supreme 
ministerial  positions  with  vast  powers  of  con- 
trol. Prince  Kung  directed  affairs  ably  and 
skilfully,  showing  an  enlightened  regard  for 
foreign  opinion  which  tended  to  smooth  the 
paths  of  diplomacy.  Apparently  he  soared  too 
high,  for  in  April,  1865,  to  the  surprise  and 
even  consternation  of  the  British  Minister  and 
his  diplomatic  colleagues,  an  edict  appeared  in 
the  name  of  the  two  Empresses  degrading  him 
for  having  grown  arrogant  and  assumed  privi- 
leges to  which  he  had  no  right.  It  was  feared 
that  the  incident  might  seriously  prejudice 
foreign  interests,  but  to  the  satisfaction  of 
the  European  community  Prince  Kung  was, 
after  the  lapse  of  five  weeks,  restored  to 
favour,  though  he  was  no  longer  allowed  to 
hold  the  post  of  President  of  the  Council. 
Some  little  time  after  this  incident  Sir 
Frederick  Bruce's  term  of  office  as  minister 
at  Peking  expired.  His  successor  was  Sir 
Rutherford  Alcock,  the  erstwhile  consul  at 
Shanghai,  whose  services  prior  to  his  going  to 
Peking  had  been  utilised  as  minister  to  Japan. 
Sir  Rutherford  Alcock  in  his  turn  was  suc- 
ceeded at  Yeddo  by  Sir  Harry  Parkes,  another 
eminent  Anglo-Chinese  official  who  figures 
conspicuously  in  our  narrative. 

During  the  entire  period  of  Mr.  Bruce's 
service  at  Peking  the  relations  between  the 
British  and  the  Chinese  were  most  cordial, 
largely  owing  to  the  admirable  tact  of  the 
minister  on  the  one  side  and  the  broad- 
mindedness  of  the  chief  minister  on  the 
other.  One  awkward  question,  however, 
arose  which  might  have  been  productive  of 
considerable  danger  to  the  peace  if  it  had 
not  been  properly  handled.  Mr.  Horatio 
N.  Lay,  who  had  some  time  before  been 
appointed  by  the  Chinese  Government  to 
assist  in  the  collection  of  customs  in  the 
Shanghai  district,  was  in  1862  commissioned, 
in  conjunction  with  Captain  Sherard  Osborn, 
to  go  to  Europe  to  purchase  a  fleet  of  gun- 
boats of  small  draught  for  the  suppression  of 
piracy  on  the  Chinese  coasts  and  the  policing 
of   the   shallow    estuaries   and   creeks    there- 

abouts. The  vessels — seven  gunboats  and  one 
storeship — were  purchased  and  taken  out  by 
Captain  Osborn.  Meanwhile,  Mr.  Lay  pro- 
ceeded direct  to  Peking  to  complete  the 
arrangements  for  the  disposal  of  the  embryo 
Chinese  fleet.  He  was  greatly  concerned  to 
find  that  Sir  Frederick  Bruce  would  have 
nothing  whatever  to  do  with  his  enterprise 
without  specific  instructions  from  home  ; 
while,  what  was  more  disconcerting,  Prince 
Kung  raised  difficulties  as  to  the  arrange- 
ments Mr.  Lay  proposed  for  the  working  of 
the  new  system.  The  points  of  difference 
developed  between  the  Minister  and  Mr.  Lay 
had  reference  to  the  control  of  the  squadron. 
The  former,  perhaps  not  unnaturally,  con- 
sidered that  the  power  should  be  vested  in 
the  Government  in  the  ordinary  way  ;  but 
Mr.  Lay  claimed  that  he  should  be  directly 
responsible  under  the  Emperor  for  the 
administration  and  movements  of  the  fleet. 
He  flatly  declined  to  entertain  a  proposal 
that  a  Chinese  official  should  be  appointed  as 
joint     commander,     and     he     as     resolutely 

of  bad  faith,  as  the  conditions  they  were 
called  upon  to  ratify  are  not  such  as  the 
authority  given  to  Mr.  Lay  entitled  him  to 
assent  to  in  their  name.  Mr.  Lay  mistook 
his  position  and  overrated  his  influence 
when  he  resolved  on  starting  this  flotilla, 
without  having  previously  ascertained  that 
the  terms  agreed  upon  with  Captain  Osborn 
would  be  accepted."  Mr.  Lay  retired  with  a 
handsome  monetary  solatium,  and  in  his 
place  there  succeeded  to  the  control  of  the 
Imperial  Maritime  Customs,  Mr.  (now  Sir) 
Robert  Hart,  the  able  official  whose  long 
and  honourable  service  in  China  is,  as 
these  pages  are  passing  through  the  press, 
receiving  such  widespread  and  honourable 
recognition  in  Europe.  Another  well-known 
Anglo-Chinese  who  came  to  the  front  about 
this  time  was  Sir  Halliday  Macartney,  a 
gentleman  who  in  later  life  played  a 
conspicuous  part  in  the  domain  of  Chinese 
diplomacy  in  Europe,  as  the  English 
Secretary  to  the  Chinese  Embassy  in  London. 
Macartney   went   out   to    China   in    the    first 

(From  Alloni  &  Wright's  "  China.") 

rejected  a  suggestion  that  he  should  act 
under  the  orders  of  the  provincial  authorities. 
In  the  circumstances  it  is  not  altogether 
surprising  that  Prince  Kung  should  have 
manifested  an  indisposition  to  take  over  the 
fleet.  The  ships  remained  idly  at  anchor  all 
through  the  period  during  which  they  would 
have  been  useful  against  the  Taepings,  and 
when  the  crisis  had  passed  away  the  Chinese 
Government  considered  they  could  do  without 
them.  Finally,  in  November,  1863,  Mr.  Lay 
was  dismissed  from  the  Chinese  Government 
service,  and  orders  were  given  for  the  return 
of  the  ships  to  Europe  for  disposal.  Mr.  Lay 
was  very  wroth  at  the  treatment  meted  out 
to  him,  and  invoked  the  powerful  aid  of 
friends  at  home  to  obtain  redress.  But  he 
gained  very  little  support  in  official  quarters 
in  his  campaign  against  Chinese  officialdom. 
The  points  in  the  controversy  were  very  con- 
cisely put  by  Sir  Frederick  Bruce  in  a  despatch 
which  he  pemied  on  the  subject.  "  I  do  not 
think,"  the  British  Minister  wrote,  "that  the 
Chinese  Government  are  open  to  the  charge 

instance  as  Assistant-Surgeon  to  the  gpth 
Regiment,  and  served  through  the  Peking 
Campaign.  Afterwards  he  drifted  into  the 
employ  of  the  Chinese  Government,  which 
he  assisted  in  various  capacities.  His  most 
important  service  was  as  organiser  of  the 
first  Chinese  arsenal  at  Soochow.  He  mani- 
fested great  ability  in  the  prosecution  of  this 
undei  taking,  but,  owing  to  the  development 
of  defects  in  some  of  the  guns  manufactured 
at  the  establishment,  he  had  differences  with 
Li  Hung  Chang,  with  the  result  that  he 
resigned  his  office.  The  enterprise  which  he 
had  initiated  was  continued  under  other 
direction  and  paved  the  way  for  an  extensive 
organisation  for  the  manufacture  of  muni- 
tions of  w^ar. 

The  decade  following  the  conclusion  of  the 
Treatv  of  Peking  was  a  period  of  comparative 
tranquillity  in  the  relations  between  the 
Chinese  Government  and  the  European 
powers.  For  this  state  of  affairs  thanks  were 
largely  due  to  the  wisdom  and  moderation 
of  Prince  Kung,  who  continued  to  direct  the 


councils  of  the  empire  ;  but  some  credit  also 
attached  to  the  British  representatives  who 
in  their  dealings  with  the  Chinese  Govern- 
ment resolutely  set  their  faces  a>;ainst  the 
pushing  of  extravagant  claims  and  the  multi- 
plication of  points  of  difference.  The  two 
great  Mahomcdan  rebellions  in  the  provinces 
of  Yunnan  and  Shcnsi  and  Kansuh,  the  sup- 
pression of  which  taxed  to  the  utmost  the 
resources  of  the  Chinese  Government  during  a 
greater  portion  of  the  decennial  period,  also 
was  a  factor  which  made  for  harmony 
between  the  Peking  authorities  and  the 
Western  powers.  The  only  uns;itisfactory 
phases  in  the  situation  were  occasional  out- 
bursts of  popular  feeling  against  the 
missionaries  who  at  this  time  were  actively 
prosecuting  their  propaganda  in  various  parts 
of  China.  At  Yangchow  and  Formos;i,  and 
later  at  Swatow  and  FotKhow,  there  were 
outrages  more  or  less  serious.  But  in  each 
instance  reparation  was  promptly  made  and 
it  was  manifested  that  the  Chinese  Govern- 
ment  was    sincere    in    its    desire    to    ensure 

mission  to  France  to  offer  what  amends  it 
could  lor  the  outbreak.  Chung  How,  the 
Suiwrintendent  of  Trade  for  the  three 
northern  ports,  who  was  present  at  Tientsin 
at  the  time  of  the  riot,  and  whose  lack  of 
initiative  was  indirectly  responsible  for  the 
(K-currence,  was  selected  to  head  the  mission. 
It  otherwise  lacked  nothing  which  could  lend 
it  importance  as  a  manifestation  of  the 
Government's  regret  at  the  event.  In  Paris 
the  mission  was  received  in  a  not  unfriendly 
spirit,  but  the  intimation  was  given  that  as  a 
recognition  of  the  moderation  shown  In  the 
matter  the  French  Government  would  expect 
that  the  right  of  audience  would  be  conceded 
to  the  French  Minister  at  Peking.  The 
demand  was  received  with  mingled  feelings 
In  Peking,  where  the  old  jealous  feeling  of 
exclusiveness  was  still  In  the  ascendant.  The 
question  remained  in  abeyance  until  tlie  young 
Emperor  Tungche,  four  months  subsequent 
to  his  marriage,  was.  In  February,  1873, 
Invested  with  full  powers  of  government. 
Then,   the   time   being  ripe   for  pressing  the 

(From  .'ill  ciij;r,ivinj; ) 

protection  for  the  foreigner  to  the  utmost  of 
its  ability.  The  worst  epis<xie  was  one  which 
occurred'  at  Tientsin  in  1870  and  which,  but 
for  the  outbreak  of  the  Franco-German  War, 
might  have  involved  China  in  war  with 
France.  On  the  21st  of  June  in  that  year  a 
disorderly  mob  gathered  outside  the  Roman 
Catholic  Mission  House  in  Tientsin,  murdered 
M.  Fontanier,  the  French  Consul,  who  en- 
deavoured to  restrain  them,  and  subsequently 
attacked  the  Mission  House,  murdering  its 
inmates,  who  included  M.  Simon,  a  member 
of  the  F'rench  legation  at  Peking,  and  his 
wife,  a  French  storekeeper  and  his  wife, 
three  priests,  ten  sisters  of  charity,  and  a 
Russian  merchant  and  his  wife.  A  great 
sensation  was  created  by  this  crime,  which 
surpassed  in  horror  any  that  had  hitherto 
been  perpetrated  against  the  foreign  com- 
munity, and  on  the  one  hand  there  was  an 
insistent  demand  from  Europeans  for  retri- 
bution and  on  the  other  a  wave  of  anti- 
foreign  exultation.  The  Chinese  Government 
fortunately  recognised  the  extreme  gravity 
of  the  crisis  and  decided  to  send  a  special 

claim,  the  Foreign  Ministers  in  a  joint  note 
preferred  a  request  to  be  received  in  audience. 
At  the  outset  the  old  question  of  the  kotow 
was  raised,  but  on  a  clear  indication  being 
given  that  there  would  not  be  the  slightest 
concession  on  this  point.  Prince  Kung  and  the 
ministers  yielded,  and  the  young  Emperor  duly 
received  the  ministers  of  the  foreign  powers 
In  audience  on  June  29,  1873.  The  event 
marked  an  epoch  in  the  history  of  the  diplo- 
matic relations  of  the  European  nations  with 
China.  Once  and  for  all  the  claim  to 
superiority  so  arrogantly  and  insistently  put 
forward  on  behalf  of  the  Chinese  Emperors 
was  abandoned. 

After  this  for  some  little  time  the  course 
of  Chinese  history  ran,  if  not  smoothly,  at  all 
events  with  less  serious  incident  than  here- 
tofore. In  1873  trouble  arose  between  Japan 
and  China  over  the  murder  of  the  crew  of  a 
junk  wrecked  on  the  Loochoo  Islands 
some  years  before,  but  thanks  to  the  mediation 
of  Mr.  Wade  an  amicable  settlement  was 
reached  by  the  terms  of  which  China  paid  an 
indemnity,  and  the  Japanese  evacuated  Formosa, 

whicli  they  had  occupied  to  bring  pressure  to 
bear  on  the  Peking  authorities.  Another 
episode  of  a  more  personal  character  which 
was  the  subject  of  diplomatic  representations 
was  an  attack  by  pirates  in  August,  1874,  on 
the  river  steamer  Sftuk  while  on  her  way 
from  Whampoa  to  Macao.  The  vessel  was 
plundered  and  the  only  English  passenger, 
Mr,  Walter  Mundy,  was  seriously  wounded 
and  left  for  dead  on  the  deck.  Mr.  Mundy 
was  permanently  Injured  by  the  treatment 
he  received  ;  but  the  Home  Government 
declined  to  support  his  claim  to  compen- 
sation though  there  was  no  question  that  the 
piratical  attack  was  due  to  the  failure  of  the 
Chinese  authorities  to  carry  out  the  provisions 
of  one  of  tlie  principal  clauses  of  the  Treaty 
of  Tientsin. 

The  death  of  the  Emperor  Tungche  on 
January  12,  1875,  seemed  to  offer  promise 
of  serious  internal  trouble,  but  eventually 
the  succession  was  peacefully  arranged  by 
the  selection  of  Tsai  Tien,  a  child  of  tender 
age,  the  son  of  Prince  Chun  or  the  Seventh 
Prince.  The  new  Emperor  was  proclaimed 
on  the  13th  of  January  with  the  name  of 
Kwangsu,  and  he  commenced  his  reign  under 
the  auspices  of  the  two  Empresses  and  Prince 
Kung,  who,  by  their  judicious  direction  of 
affairs  were  able  to  look  forward  to  a  further 
spell  of  uncontrolled  power.  Before  the  new 
ruler  had  been  many  weeks  on  the  throne 
an  event  occurred  which  rudely  threatened 
the  peaceful  relations  which  had  grown 
up  between  the  Chinese  and  the  British 
Governments.  Towards  the  close  of  1874 
the  Government  of  India  decided  to  despatch 
a  special  mission  of  exploration  under  the 
command  of  Colonel  Horace  Browne  to 
Yunnan,  the  extreme  western  province  of 
China.  The  enterprise  was  promoted  with 
the  approval  of  the  Peking  authorities,  who 
Issued  special  orders  to  the  local  authorities 
concerned  to  give  the  mission  every  assistance. 
Mr.  Raymond  Augustus  Margery,  a  talented 
Chinese  scholar,  and  an  official  thoroughly 
versed  in  Chinese  ways,  was  appointed  to 
accompany  the  mission  as  a  coadjutor  of 
Colonel  Browne.  He  journeyed  through  the 
Interior  of  China  from  Peking  and  joined  his 
chief  at  Bhamo,  on  January  26,  1875.  Three 
weeks  laler  the  mission  started  on  Its  way. 
As  it  approached  the  Chinese  frontier  it  was 
met  by  rumours  of  opposition  to  Its  advance 
on  the  part  of  Lisltal,  a  Chinese  commander 
who  had  control  of  the  frontier.  In  order 
to  ascertain  the  true  state  of  affairs.  Colonel 
Browne  despatched  Mr.  Margery  on  an 
expedition  of  inquiry  across  the  frontier. 
Riding  out  on  the  19th  of  February,  Mr. 
Margery  reached  Momein,  a  town  on  the 
Chinese  side  of  the  border,  the  same  day, 
and  sent  from  thence  a  letter  saying  that  all 
was  quiet  at  that  place.  Nothing  further 
was  heard  from  him  or  of  him  until  several 
days  later,  when  the  news  was  spread  that 
he  and  his  attendants  had  been  treacherously 
murdered  at  Manwein,  a  place  some  little 
distance  to  the  eastward  of  Momein.  The 
startling  information  was  supplemented  by 
a  statement  that  a  large  Chinese  force  was 
advancing  with  the  intention  of  attacking  the 
expedition.  Any  doubts  that  may  have  been 
entertained  as  to  the  accuracy  of  the  news 
were  dispelled  on  the  22nd  of  P'ebruary  by 
the  appearance  of  a  hostile  body  of  Chinese 
troops  on  the  heights  near  the  camp  of 
the  expedition.  Preparations  were  made  by 
Colonel  Browne  to  meet  the  threatened 
danger,  but  the  Chinese  general,  seeing  the 
bold  front  that  had  been  assumed,  thought 
better  of  his  enterprise  and  withdrew  his 
force.  When  news  of  the  outrage  reached 
the   outer   world,  a   great   cry  of   indignation 


went  lip  from  the  British  organs  of  public 
opinion,  and  the  amplest  backinj;  was  given 
to  the  demand  promptly  made  at  Peking  by 
the  British  Minister  (Mr.  Thomas  Wade)  for 
reparation.  The  Chinese  Government  showed 
at  the  outset  very  little  disposition  to  satisfy 
the  claims  preferred,  which  primarily  were 
for  an  investigation  into  the  circumstances  of 
the  murder  by  a  mixed  commission  of  British 
and  Chinese  officials.  At  length,  however, 
it  agreed  to  the  proposed  inquiry  and 
appointed  Li  Han  Chang,  Governor-General 
of  Honkwang,  and  brother  of  Li  Hung 
Chang,  to  conduct  the  investigations.  This 
functionary,  with  the  British  members  of  the 
commission,  Messrs.  Grosvenor,  Davenport, 
and  Baber,  met  in  the  closing  days  of  the 
year  in  the  district  which  was  the  scene  of 
the  outrage  and  commenced  their  inquiry. 
It  was  soon  discovered  by  the  British  com- 
missioners that  as  far  as  the  infliction  of 
punishment  on  the  really  guilty  parties  was 
concerned  their  mission  was  likely  to  prove 
futile.  Li  Han  Chang  temporarily  suspended 
the  Futai  for  neglect  of  duty,  but  this 
was  the  extent  of  the  censure  of  the  local 
officialdom  he  would  permit  himself.  The 
responsibility  for  the  murder  was  thrown 
upon  the  lawless  frontier  tribes,  and  to  lend 
colour  to  the  view  several  miserable  villagers 
were  seized,  on  the  ground  that  they  were 
accessories  to  the  murder,  and  their  lives 
were  offered  as  an  atonement  for  the  offence. 
Very  naturally  the  British  Government 
resolutely  declined  to  accept  the  course 
proposed  as  adequate  redress.  Sir  Thomas 
Wade  (as  he  had  now  become)  was  instructed 
to  bring  home  to  the  Peking  authorities  the 
seriousness  of  the  situation  which  had  been 
created  by  this  shameful  outrage  on  a  British 
expedition,  and  this  he  did  in  the  most 
emphatic  way  by  intimating  that  diplomatic 
relations  must  be  broken  off  until  the  Chinese 
Government  were  prepared  to  satisfy  the  just 
demands  made  upon  them.  Sir  Thomas 
Wade  subsequently  quitted  the  Chinese 
capital,  and  his  withdrawal  coincided  with 
the  appearance  of  a  strong  British  fleet  off 
the   Peiho.      Alarmed   at   these   evidences   of 

offended  British  honour,  the  Peking  oflicials 
at  length  consented  to  discuss  under  satis- 
factory conditions  the  question  of  redress. 
Chefoo  was  selected  as  the  scene  of  the 
negotiations,  and  there  the  British  and  Chinese 
representatives    (Sir    Thomas    Wade    and    Li 

of  the  regret  felt  by  the  Chinese  Government 
for  the  murder.  An  important  article  of  the 
Convention  was  a  provision  calling  upon  the 
different  Viceroys  and  Governors  to  respect 
and  afford  every  protection  to  all  foreigners 
provided   with    the    necessary   passport   from 


Hung  Chang  acting  as  principals)  assembled 
in  August,  1875.  The  result  of  the  delibera- 
tions was  the  agreement  known  as  the  Chefoo 
Convention.  This  document  provided  for  the 
payment  of  an  indemnity  to  Mr.  Margery's 
relatives  and  for  the  despatch  to  England  of 
a   special  mission  bearing  a  letter  expressive 

the  Tsung-!i-yamen,  and  warning  them  that 
they  would  be  held  responsible  in  the  event 
of  such  travellers  meeting  with  injury  or  ill- 
treatment.  There  were  also  embodied  in  the 
arnmgetnent  a  series  of  regulations  with 
reference  to  trade,  and  notably  one  relative 
to  the  likiii  or  transit  duties. 


The  Development  of  Shanghai — Chinese  Commercial  Enterprise — The  Shanghai-Woosung  Railway — Establishment 
of  a  Native  Cotton  Mill — New  Municipal  Constitution — Later  History  of  Hongkong. 

At  the  period  of  the  conclusion  of  the  Chefoo 
Convention,  Shanghai  trade,  in  common  with 
Chinese  commercfe  generally,  was  passing 
through  a  somewhat  serious  crisis.  The 
financial  stress  was  mainly  due  to  over  specu- 
lation consequent  upon  the  opening  of  the 
Suez  Canal  and  the  establishment  of  direct 
telegraphic  communication  with  Europe. 
With  the  completion  of  those  great  enter- 
prises dawned  a  new  era  in  Far  Eastern 
commerce — an  eia  rich  in  promise  for 
European  trade — but  merchants,  in  their  im- 
patience to  reap  the  harvest  which  they 
confidently  expected  awaited  them,  did  not 
take  sufficient  account  of  the  fact  that  a 
period  of  ripening  was  essential.  As  a  result 
serious  losses  were  incurred,  which  for  the 
time  being  crippled  the  resources  of  a  good 
many  of  the  leading  firms,  particularly  in 
Shanghai.       While     European     activity     was 

somewhat  circumscribed  owing  to  the  un- 
toward course  that  commerce  had  taken,  the 
Chinese  at  this  period  gave  evidence  of 
remarkable  enterprise.  In  1872,  under  the 
direct  patronage  of  Li  Hung  Chang  (at  tliat 
time  Governor-General  of  Chihli)  was  formed 
at  Shanghai  a  company  under  the  name  of 
the  Chinese  Merchants  Company,  for  the 
purpose  of  owning  and  running  steamers. 
Ostensibly  the  company  was  established  for 
the  purpose  of  carrying  tribute  rice  to  Tientsin 
eit  route  for  Peking,  but  it  soon  became 
evident  that  its  real  object  was  the  far  more 
ambitious  one  of  competing  with  European 
owned  vessels  for  the  trade  of  the  coast  and 
of  the  Yangtse.  Furthermore,  the  arrange- 
ments indicated  that  the  floating  of  the 
company  was  designed  for  political  as  well 
as  commercial  ends.  One  of  the  articles  of 
the  company  prohibited  the  holding  of  shares 

by  foreigners.  The  offices  established  at 
Shanghai,  Hankow,  Tientsin,  Hongkong,  and 
Canton  were  under  Chinese  managers  ;  and 
the  only  foreigners  employed  in  the  com- 
pany's service  were  the  masters  of  vessels. 
Finally,  as  evidence  of  the  determination  to 
give  a  purely  native  aspect  to  the  venture, 
was  the  fact  that  two  of  the  earliest  vessels 
in  the  company's  service  were  built  at  the 
Foochow  Arsenal. 

In  another  direction  at  this  juncture  was 
demonstrated  in  a  striking  way  the  deter- 
mination of  the  Chinese  to  stay  the  inarch 
of  foreign  encroachment.  In  December, 
1872,  was  formed  in  Shanghai,  by  a  number 
of  leading  residents,  a  small  private  com- 
pany, under  the  title  of  the  Woosung  Road 
Conipanv.  It  seemed  an  innocent,  non- 
committal kind  of  venture,  but  its  simple  title 
covered    a    project    of    deep    significance,    the 


real  object  of  the  promoters  being  notliing 
more  nor  lesis  than  the  intrtxluction  of  rail- 
\ra\-s  into  China.  The  idea  of  giving  the 
blessings  of  railway  communication  to  the 
empire  was  not  new.  As  far  l>ack  as  July, 
lt(6ji.  an  application  had  been  made  to  tlie 
Chinese  authorities  for  permission  to 
construct  a  line  lH;tween  Shanghai  and 
Soochow,  but  the  reception  given  to  the 
proposal  was  such  as  to  indicate  that  the 
Government  were  not  likely  to  readily  s;mc- 
tion  the  inno\-ation.  When,  therefore,  the 
idea  was  taken  up  again  it  was  decided  not 
to  appriMch  the  Chinese  governing  power, 
but  to  seek  to  reach  the  goal  indirectly. 
The  company's  object  was  stated  to  be  the 
improvement  of  road  communiciition,  and 
to  give  effect  to  their  aims  they  purchased 
a  strip  of  land  about  fifteen  \'ards  wide 
extending  from  Shanghai  to  Woosung.  a 
distance  of  about  nine  and  a  quarter  miles. 
Almost  simultaneously,  at  their  instigation, 
the  district  magistrate,  under  the  direction 
of  the  Taoutai,  issued  a  proclamation, 
gi\ing  notice  that  they  had  acquired  posses- 

to  proceed,  and  half  the  line,  viz.,  that  por- 
tion from  Shanghai  to  Kangwan,  was 
opened  for  public  traflic,  the  inaugural  trip 
being  run  on  June  30,  1876.  Subsequently 
the  Chinese  authorities,  who  had  been  much 
displeased  at  the  laying  down  of  a  railway 
without  their  previous  permission,  made  an 
arrangement  with  Her  Majesty's  Minister, 
through  the  medium  of  his  Chinese  secre- 
tary, Mr.  Mayers,  to  the  effect  that  they 
should  buy  the  railway,  and  certain  articles 
of  agreement  for  c;>rrying  out  this  arrange- 
ment were  drawn  up  at  Nanking.  These 
articles  were  afterwards  agreed  to  by  the 
company,  subject  to  certain  conditions,  and 
the  payment  of  285,000  Shanghai  taels  was 
arranged  between  the  two  parties  as  the 
price  of  the  property.  It  was  further  settled 
that  this  sum  should  be  paid  in  instalments, 
extending  over  one  year,  during  which  time 
the  company  were  to  retain  possession  of 
the  line  and  work  it  to  their  own  profit. 
The  running  of  trains,  which  had  been 
stopped  for  a  time,  recommenced  on  Decem- 
ber  I,    1876.      During   July  and   August   the 


sion  of  the  land,  and  that  they  had  a  right 
to  build  bridges,  cut  ditches,  erect  fences, 
and  construct  roads  suitable  for  the  running 
of  cars. 

The  scheme  having  now  assumed  a  prac- 
tical shape,  a  new  company  was  formed  and 
registered  July  28,  1874,  under  the  Limited 
Lialnlity  Act,  as  a  company  having  its  head 
office  in  Canton,  with  a  capital  of  £100,000. 
This  new  company  took  over  the  lands  and 
rights  of  the  old  company,  bought  a  con- 
siderable amount  of  extra  land,  and  formed 
an  embankment  along  the  entire  length  of 
the  route,  the  whole  of  the  area  being  about 
the  level  of  high  water  spring  tides,  and 
under  the  level  of  exceptionally  high  tides. 
The  agents  of  the  company  in  China  were 
Messrs.  Jardine,  Matheson  &  Co.,  with 
whom  Mr.  J.  Dixon  of  London  entered  into 
a  contract  to  construct  a  light  railway  on 
the  embankment  referred  to,  and  work  was 
commenced  in  January,  1876.  Some  diffi- 
culties hereupon  ensued  with  the  Chinese 
authorities,  but  on  the  company's  making 
certain  concessions  as  to  the  deviation  of  the 
line  at  some  points,  the  work  was  allowed 

traffic  amounted  to  a  total  of  16,894  passen- 
gers. During  December  the  number  of 
passengers  was  17,527,  of  which  number 
15,873  were  third  class.  When  the  Chinese 
entered  into  occupation  of  the  railways  they 
discontinued  the  running  of  trains  and  pro- 
ceeded to  tear  up  the  rails.  Subsequently 
the  entire  plant  was  despatched  to  Takow,  in 
the  island  of  Formosa. 

Thus  ended  the  pioneer  effort  to  introduce 
railways  into  China.  The  project  was  a 
bold  one,  and  its  results  during  the  brief 
period  during  which  the  railway  was 
working  showed  that  commercially  the  pros- 
pects were  good.  But  the  scheme  was  born 
out  of  time.  China  at  that  juncture  was 
not  ready  for  railways.  Moreover,  foreign 
action  was  deeply  distrusted,  owing  to  the 
events  of  the  previous  decade,  and  Chinese 
statesmen  realised  that  they  must  at  all  costs 
keep  the  control  of  matters  in  their  own 
hands.  As  evidence  of  the  spirit  which  was 
in  the  ascendant  we  may  quote  a  few  passages 
from  a  memorial  sent  to  the  Throne  by 
Tseng-Kwo-fan,  sometime  Viceroy  of  the 
Two  Kiang,  who  was  described  by  a  British 

official  writer  of  note  in  1877  as  "the 
greatest  statesman  China  has  produced 
during  the  present  century."  "  If,"  observed 
Tseng,  "small  steamers  be  allowed  on 
inland  waters,  native  craft  of  every  size, 
sailors,  and  pilots  will  suffer  ;  if  foreigners 
are  allowed  to  construct  telegraphs  and 
railways,  owners  of  carts,  mules,  chairs,  and 
inns  w^ill  suffer,  and  the  means  of  living  be 
taken  away  from  the  coolies.  The  same 
may  be  said  of  all  demands  of  foreigners, 
except  the  working  of  coal  mines  ;  it  would 
enrich  China  to  borrow  foreign  appliances 
for  the  extracting  coal,  and  it  would  appear 
to  deserve  a  trial.  If  foreigners  are  allowed 
to  introduce  small  steamers,  railroads,  &c., 
they  will  monopolize  the  whole  profits  of 
the  country  ;  if  our  people  are  allowed  to 
join  with  them  in  introducing  them,  the  rich 
will  benefit  at  the  expense  of  the  poor — 
neither  plan  is  practicable.  With  respect  to 
the  points  which  are  not  highly  obnoxious 
we  should  grant  them  if  asked  ;  it  is  only 
as  to  railroads,  steamers,  salt,  and  residence 
in  the  interior  for  trade,  as  destructive  to 
our  people's  interest,  that  a  strenuous  fight 
should  be  made."  Here  we  have  the 
guiding  spirit  of  the  most  enlightened 
Chinese  policy  at  this  period.  The  foreigner 
was  to  be  tolerated  where  it  was  thought 
he  would  do  no  mischief,  but  he  was  to  be 
kept  at  arm's  length  where  the  means  of 
communication  and  residence  in  the  interior 
were  concerned.  It  may  seem  to  our  view 
an  essentially  narrow  way  of  looking  at 
things  ;  but  recalling  the  later  history  of 
railway  concessions  in  China,  who  shall  say 
that  "Tseng's  opinions  were  not  from  his 
patriotic  standpoint  absolutely  sound  ? 

Tliere  was  no  doubt  in  the  years  follow- 
ing the  conclusion  of  the  Treaty  of  Peking  a 
feiment  in  the  Chinese  mind  which  led  to 
developments  calculated  to  cause  anxiety  in 
the  ranks  of  the  Peking  autocracy.  An 
example  of  these  tendencies  is  the  drift 
to  the  foreign  settlements  and  notably  to 
Shanghai,  of  well-to-do  Chinese  subjects. 
Referring  to  this  movement  the  British  Con- 
sul at  Shanghai,  in  his  report  for  1876, 
says  ;  "  P'roin  a  vague  apprehension  of 
future  calamities  many  men  of  substance 
have  removed  here  with  their  families  from 
the  interior  and  in  several  instances  have 
even  taken  foreign  houses  in  preference  to 
Chinese  hongs.  The  shopkeepers  have  also 
improved  in  their  style  of  buildings,  and  as 
the  old  rickety  tenements  are  from  time 
to  time  swept  away  by  fires  they  are 
invariably  replaced  by  buildings  superior  to 
the  ordinary  run  of  Chinese  houses.  The 
natives  are  likewise  learning  the  value  of 
brick  walls  and  adopt  them  in  the  capacity 
of  fire  walls."  Meanwhile  the  foreign 
residents  were  showing  more  and  more  a 
disposition  to  leave  their  houses  in  the  heart 
of  the  settlement  and  establish  lliemselves  in 
the  country.  The  Consul  speaks  in  his 
report  for  1874  of  villa  residences  springing 
up  like  mushrooms  in  various  directions 
beyond  municipal  limits,  and  he  reverts  to 
the  tendency  towards  a  substitution  of 
Chinese  tenements  for  foreign  houses  in  the 
heart  of  the  settlement,  and  the  consequent 
depreciation  in  value  of  the  larger  houses. 

Another  sign  of  the  times  upon  which 
stress  is  laid  in  the  communications  of  the 
British  officials  of  the  period  is  the  growth 
of  the  purely  native  press.  In  referring  to  the 
opening  of  the  Chinese  Polytechnic  Institu- 
tion in  1875  the  Consul  at  Shanghai  mentions 
that  ;it  the  period  there  were  no  fewer  than 
five  Chinese  daily  papers,  and  that  in  addition 
there  were  a  number  of  weekly  and  monthly 
organs — most    of    them    very    popular    and 



increasing  in  circulation.  It  should  be 
mentioned,  however,  that  side  by  side  with 
this  literary  activity  so  characteristic  of  the 
new  spirit  was  revealed  a  jealous  adhesion 
to  the  old  economic  ideals.  In  1876  an 
attempt  was  made  to  establish  a  steam  cotton 
mill  company  at  Shanghai  for  the  purpose  of 
manufacturing  cotton  piece  goods  from  native 
grown  cotton  of  a  similar  quality  and  weight 
to  the  goods  manufactured  by  the  Chinese. 
The  scheme  at  the  outset  received  the  sup- 
port of  influential  natives.  But  after  a  time 
the  Cotton  Cloth  Guild  took  the  alarm  and 
instituted  in  the  native  press  a  crusade  against 
the  project.  The  idea  was  circulated  that 
the  hand  cloth  trade  would  be  immediately 
ruined  if  the  mill  started  working,  and  when 
the  apprehensions  of  the  native  community 
had  been  sufficiently  aroused  the  Guild  passed 
a  resolution  to  the  effect  that  no  cloth  made 
by  machinery  would  be  permitted  to  be 
purchased.  About  the  same  time  that  this 
declaration  was  made  there  appeared  on  the 
scene  a  well-known  native  resident  named 
Peng  with  a  project  for  prosecuting  a 
Chinese  Joint  Stock  Company  with  the  same 
object.  It  was  stated  at  the  time  that  this 
gentleman  obtained  one  of  the  prospectuses 
of  the  British  Company,  and  after  altering  it 
to  suit  his  purpose  presented  it  to  the  Super- 
intendent of  Foreign  Trade  as  a  venture 
deserving  of  support.  His  scheme  was 
approved  by  the  authorities  and  was  duly 
launched  with  a  respectable  native  backing. 
In  1879  the  foundations  of  the  mill  were 
laid  and  an  agreement  was  entered  into  with 
a  British  merchant  for  the  supply  of  the 
requisite  machinery  for  an  eight  hundred 
loom  mill.  But  the  enterprise,  owing  to  the 
incapacity  of  the  directorate,  soon  got  into 
difliculties,  and  operations  were  suspended 
for  two  years.  At  the  expiration  of  that 
period  a  new  company  was  formed  under 
the  patronage  of  the  Government,  and  Peng 
was  removed  from  the  chairmanship  of  the 
directorate,  and  Tai,  another  influential  resi- 
dent and  an  expectant  Taoutai,  appointed  in 
his  place.  In  the  reorganised  company  the 
capacity  of  the  factory  was  reduced  to  two 
hundred  looms,  and  orders  for  the  machinery 
were  placed  in  America.  Meanwhile,  the 
original  contract  was  annulled,  Tai  paying 
the  stipulated  forfeit  of  fifteen  thousand  taels. 
It  is  unnecessary  at  this  point  to  follow  the 
fortunes  of  the  venture  further.  The  facts  as 
they  stand  are  sufficiently  complete  to  illus- 
trate the  point  which  was  being  emphasised 
— that  the  traditional  Chinese  exclusiveness 
was  taking  the  new  form  of  an  endeavour  to 
supplant  the  foreigner  in  his  own  sphere. 

Shanghai  all  this  time  was  developing 
rapidly  into  the  fine  city  it  ultimately  became. 
In  1873  the  report  of  the  British  Consul 
embodied  the  enclosed  table  showing  the 
value  of  the  assessments  of  land  and  houses 
in  the  settlement  and  the  number  of  inhabi- 
tants : — • 

Land  Assessed. 

English  settlement — 



...    4,812,000 



Hongkew — 



Native.     No  assessment  yet  made 

English  settlement — 

Foreign  ...         


Hongkew — 


Native     , 




Census  Avekage. 

Chinese,  resident         62,844 

employed   in   foreign 

hongs        5,556 

„         boat    population    and 

vagrants 9,957 

Foreigners         2,000 

Total     ...         80,367 

tion.  suggested  the  desirability  of  a  reform 
of  the  municipal  constitution.  The  discussions 
on  the  subject  led  to  the  appointment,  towards 
the  end  of  1879,  of  a  committee,  with  Mr.  F.  B. 
Forbes  as  chairman,  to  consider  the  question. 
A  report  was  forthcoming  suggesting  various 
changes,  the  result  of  which,  if  carried  out, 
would  have  been  to  increase  the  electorate 
from  403  to  508,  and  to  swell  the  number  of 
resident  voters  from  255  to  360.  The  report 
was  considered  at  a  ratepayers'  meeting  in 
March,  1881,  and  approved.  Subsequently,  the 
revised  regulations  were  sent  to  Peking  for 
ratification  by  the  foreign  ministers  ;  but  for 
some  reason  or  other  the  requisite  assent  was 
withheld  at  the  time.  Not  until  November, 
1898,  after  a  fresh  demand  had  been  made 
by  the  ratepayers,  did  the  diplomatic  body  at 
Peking  pass  the  new  constitution.  In  addition 
to  the  reforms  recommended  by  the  com- 
mittee of  1879,  a  number  of  changes  suggested 
by  widened  experience  of  municipal  adminis- 
tration in  the  settlement  were  introduced. 
The  principal   of   these   had   reference  to   the 




Actual  value  supposed  to  be  double. 

As  an  indication  of  the  progress  made  in 
the  years  which  followed  the  issue  of  this 
table,  it  is  to  be  noted  that  in  February,  1881, 
the  Chamber  of  Commerce  published  a  report 
which  gave  the  estimated  value  of  property 
in  the  united  settlements  at  ^^14,250,000. 
Trade  all  the  time  was  increasing  with  great 
rapidity.  More  than  three-fourths  of  it  was 
with  Great  Britain,  and  the  bulk  of  the 
shipping  which  entered  and  cleared  the  port 
was  British.  Germany  at  this  time  was 
practically  nowhere.  Indeed,  she  seemed  to 
be  actually  slipping  behind  in  the  race.  Of 
4,248  vessels  which  visited  the  port  in  1878 
only  154  were  German,  and  the  Acting 
Registrar  of  shipping  in  his  report  for  the 
year  spoke  of  German  interests  as  "  steadily 
declining."  He  added  :  "  Of  the  many 
famous  German  business  houses  which  used 
to  do  a  large  business  here,  only  one  or  two 
remain."  Twenty  years  later  a  very  different 
tale  was  told,  and  to-dav'  no  one  speaks  of 
German  commercial  decay  in  the  Far  East. 

The  rapid  development  of  Shanghai,  and 
with  it  the  increase  of  the  European  popula- 

t  Under  new  assessment  will  be  80,000  taels. 

compulsory  acquisition  of  land,  promotion  of 
sanitation,  and  the  regulation  of  building 
operations.  There  was  also  a  provision  for 
the  appointment  of  a  Board  of  Land  Com- 
missioners to  safeguard  the  interests  of  foreign 
renters  and  native  owners.  These  reforms, 
it  should  be  stated,  applied  only  to  the  joint 
British  and  American  settlement.  The  French 
concession  has  its  own  municipal  constitution, 
which,  in  its  present  form,  dates  back  to  1868. 

The  later  history  of  both  Hongkong  and 
Shanghai  is  so  largely  covered  in  other 
portions  of  the  work  that  it  is  only  neces- 
sary to  touch  upon  the  more  prominent 
points.  At  Hongkong,  after  Sir  John  Pope- 
Hennessy's  troubled  regime  there  was  a  brief 
interregnum,  during  which  Mr.  (afterwards 
Sir)  William  Marsh,  the  Colonial  Secretary, 
officiated.  In  March,  1883,  Sir  George 
Bowen  arrived  to  take  charge  of  the 
administration,  and  directed  the  affairs  of 
the  Colony  on  healthy  progressive  lines  for 
close  upon  three  years.  When  he  left 
Hongkong,  on  December  19,  1885,  Mr. 
Marsh  agahi  temporarily  assumed  the 
control  of  affairs  and  continued  to  discharge 
the  duties  until  his  retirement  in  April,  1887. 


He  handed  over  charge  to  Major-Geiieral 
Cameron,  who  officiated  until  Sir  Williauj 
G.  des  Voeux,  the  new  Governor,  arrived  in 
the  October  following.  The  next  four  years, 
during  which  this  official  held  office,  though 
not  particularly  eventful,  were  fruitful  of 
useful  work.  Amongst  other  improvements 
the    praya    reclamation    scheme   was   carried 

(From  "Thirty  Years  of  Govcrninenl." 
By  Mr.  Stanley  I^  Poole.      Macmillan  &  Co.) 

out.  Besides  contributing  materially  to  the 
attractions  and  conveniences  of  the  city  the 
project  added  57  acres  to  the  available  land 
of  the  island  at  a  point  where  space  was 
greatly  needed.  The  execution  of  the  work 
was  the  more  welcomed  as  it  synchronised 
with  a  period  of  remarkable  expansion  in 
Hongkong.  So  rapid  indeed  was  the 
increase  of  population  that  some  of  the  most 
difficult  problems  of  the  administration  were 
connected  with  the  housing  of  the  people, 
who  were  crowding  into  the  already  con- 
gested districts  of  the  city.  Sir  William 
des  Voeux,  dealing  with  the  subject  in  his 
report  for  1888,  spoke  of  relief  having  to 
be  sought  by  the  opening  up  of  the  interior 
of  the  island  by  tramways,  and  with 
prophetic  vision  he  foreshadowed  a  time 
when  the  whole  of  the  island  would  be 
covered  with  dwellings  or  manufactories.  In 
the  same  report  Sir  William  des  Voeux  drew 
an  interesting  comparison  between  the  Hong- 

kong of  that  period  and  the  island  as  it 
was  before  the  occupation.  In  place  of 
"a  bare  rock  with  a  fisherman's  hut  here 
and  there,  as  the  only  sign  of  h.-ibit-ition, 
and  a  great  sea  basin  only  very  rarely  dis- 
turbed by  a  passing  keel,"  was  "a  city  of 
closely-built  houses,  stretching  lor  some  four 
miles  along  the  island  shore,  and  rising  tier 
over  tier,  up  the  slopes  of  the  mountain, 
those  on  the  upper  levels  interspersed  with 
abundant  foliage  ;  while,  on  the  opposite 
peninsula  of  Kowloon  ....  and  along 
the  whole  seaboard,  are  numerous  houses, 
together  with  docks,  great  warehouses,  and 
other  evidences  of  a  large  and  thriving 
population.  Again,  the  silent  and  deserted 
basin  has  become  a  harbour,  so  covered 
with  shipping  that  even  if  a  visitor  has 
been  round  the  whole  world,  he  could 
never  before  have  seen  so  much  in  a  single 
coiift  d'ocil.  At  anchor  or  moving  are  some 
forty  to  fifty  ocean  steamers,  including  ships 
of  war,  large  European  and  American 
sailing  vessels,  and  hundreds  of  sea-going 
junks  ;  while  in  the  space  intervening  and 
around,  are  many  thousand  boats,  for  the 
most  part  human  habitations,  with  steam 
launches  rushing  in  all  directions."  This 
picture  of  a  prosperous  Hongkong  was  not 
a  bit  over-coloured  at  the  time  it  was 
painted,  but  after  Sir  William  des  Voeux 
had  retired,  in  May,  1891,  a  period  of  de- 
pression and  public  misfortune  set  in,  which 
left  its  mark  on  the  record  of  the  Colony. 
First  there  was  commercial  trouble,  the 
product  of  overspeculation  and  uncertain 
exchange,  and  then,  in  1894,  loomed  up  that 
ghastly  spectre  of  the  plague,  which  uii- 
liappily,  has  never  yet  been  completely 
exorcised  from  the  island.  The  history  of 
the  epidemic,  or  series  of  epidemics,  which 
have  afflicted  the  inhabitants  is  told  else- 
where. It  is  only  necessary  to  say  here 
that  the  visitations  called  forth  the  highest 
administrative  and  scientific  skill  and  that 
though,  in  the  fight,  the  authorities  have 
had  some  disappointing  checks,  they  have 
brought  about  an  enormous  improvement  in 
the  condition  of  the  Colony.  The  heaviest 
and  most  notable  work  in  connection  with 
the  epidemics  occurred  during  the  governor- 
ship of  Sir  William  Robinson,  who  arrived 
in  the  Colony  on  December  10,  1891,  and 
who  served  continuously  until  February  1, 
1898.  But  it  was  left  to  the  administration 
of  his  successor.  Sir  Henry  Blake,  to  apply 
the  chief  remedies  which  were  recom- 
mended by  two  sanitary  experts,  Mr.  Osbert 
Chadwick  and  Dr.  Simpson,  who  were 
specially    sent    out    from     England     for    the 

purpose  of  investigating  the  matter.  The 
term  of  office  of  Sir  Matthew  Nathan,  who 
iollowed  Sir  Henry  Blake  in  the  governor- 
ship, was,  unfortunately,  not  free  from 
serious  plague  troubles.  His  administration, 
however,  will  always  be  memorable  from 
the  fact  that  it  covered  the  period  of  the 
memorable  typhoon  of  September  18,  1904 
— a  catastrophe  of  appalling,  and  as  far  as 
Hongkong  is  concerned,  unprecedented 
magnitude.  Over  ten  thousand  lives  were 
lost  in  the  disaster,  and  property  to  the 
value  of  many  millions  of  dollars  was 
destroved.  Amongst  the  victims  was  the 
Right  ■  Rev.  J.  C.  Hoare,  D.D.,  Bishop  of 
Victoria,  who  was  drowned  in  tlie  harbour. 
Another  event,  of  more  cheerful  import, 
which  marked  Sir  Matthew's  term  of 
service,  was  the  inauguration  of  the 
Kowloon-Canton  railway  scheme — an  enter- 
prise wliich,  when  completed,  as  it  will   be, 


it  is  expected,  in  19 10,  will  bring  Hongkong 
into  direct  land  communication  with  the 
great  markets  of  Southern  China.  After  a 
busy  and  useful  administration  Sir  Matthew 
Nathan  handed  over  the  reins  of  office  to 
his  successor,  Brigadier-General  Sir  F.  D. 
Lugard,   in   April,    1907. 


The  War  between  China  and   Japan — Intervention   of    Russia,   Germany,  and    France^German    Occupation    of 
Kiaochau— Russian   Occupation   of    Port  Arthur — The   British   at   Weihaiwei— Railway   Concessions— The  Boxer 
Rising — The  Siege  of  the  Legations  at  Peking— The  International  Expedition— The  Peace  Protocol — The  Russo- 
Japanese  War — Conclusion. 

Is  recent  years  the  general  course  of  Chinese 
history  has  been  prolific  of  dramatic  surprises 
and  events  of  the  deepest  international 
import  The  story  of  this  memorable 
period  is  too  fresh  to  need  more  than 
brief  recapitulation  here.  A  convenient 
starting  point  is  the  war  waged  by  Japan 
on     China    in     1894.      That    struggle    arose 

over  a  dispu'e  as  to  the  government  of 
Korea.  Disturbances  having  occurred  at 
Seoul,  the  Korean  capital,  Japan  and  China 
sent  trcKips  for  the  protection  of  their  re- 
spective subjects.  Afterwards  the  Japanese 
Government  put  forward  a  scheme  for  the 
execution  of  reforms  under  the  joint  super- 
vision of  the  two  powers,  but  Chinaj  declined 

to  enterlain  the  proposals  on  the  ground  that 
her  traditional  policy  was  not  to  interfere  in 
the  internal  affairs  of  a  vassal  state.  The 
refusal  led  to  strained  relations  between  the 
two  Governments  and  finally,  after  a  series 
of  incidents,  to  actual  warfare.  Japan  was 
triumphant  on  both  sea  and  land.  Her 
army,   commanded   by    Field    Marshal   Count 


Yamafiata,  inflicted  a  signal  defeat  on  the 
Chinese  forces  in  Nortli  Korea  on  Septem- 
ber 17th,  and  the  same  day  the  Chinese  fleet 
was  badly  worsted  in  an  engagement  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Yalu  River.  The  tide  of  war 
thereafter  swept  into  Manchuria,  and  Port 
Arthur  was  besieged  and  captured.  A  similar 
fate  befell  Weihaiwei.  where  the  Chinese 
fleet,  under  Admiral  'ling,  was  either  sunk 
or  taken  ;  the  capture  of  Yingkow  placed 
Newchwang  at  the  mercy  of  the  invaders. 
Recognising  the  logic  of  events,  the  Chinese 
Government  made  overtures  for  peace,  and  a 
treaty  of  peace  negotiated  by  Li  Hung  Chang 
at  Shimonosaki  was  concluded  on  April  17th 
and  ratified  on  May  4th.  By  the  terms  of 
the  arrangement  China  recognised  the  in- 
dependence of  Korea,  ceded  to  Japan  the 
Liaotung  peninsula  together  with  Formosa 
and  the  Pescadore  Islands,  and  agreed  to 
pay  an  indemnity  of  200,000,000  taels  in 
eight  instalments.  It  was  arranged  that 
Japan  should  occupy  Weihaiwei  temporarily 
pending  the  execution  of  the  provisions  of 
the  treaty.  Barely  was  the  ink  dry  on  the 
treaty  before  it  was  made  evident  that  Japan 
was  not  to  be  permitted  to  enjoy  the  com- 
plete fruits  of  her  victory.  A  movement 
projected  by  Russia,  France,  and  Germany 
was  set  on  foot  with  a  view  to  nullifying 
the  provision  relative  to  the  cession  of  the 
Liaotung  peninsula.  The  principal  ground 
put  forward  to  justify  this  intervention  was 
that  the  territorial  integrity  of  China  must 
be  maintained.  It  was  a  hypocritical  reason 
—  but  it  served.  Recognising  the  force  of 
the  combination  against  her,  Japan  sullenly 
agreed  to  forego  ttie  prize  she  had  won  in 
consideration  of  the  payment  of  an  extra 
indemnity.  A  decent  interval  was  allowed 
to  elapse  before  the  true  meaning  of  this 
manccuvre  on  the  part  of  the  three  European 
powers  was  revealed.  The  first  indication 
of  it  was  conveyed  by  rumours  which  were 
set  afloat  at  the  close  of  1896  in  reference 
to  the  conclusion  of  a  treaty  between  China 
and  Russia  giving  the  latter  power  the  right 
to  extend  the  Siberian  Railway  to  Manchuria 
and  to  occupy  and  fortify  Kiaochau,  while 
she  on  her  part  agreed  to  defend  Port 
Arthur  and  Talienwan,  As  events  proved, 
the  stories  in  circulation  were  well  founded 
as  far  as  the  main  fact  of  the  conclusion  of 
a  treaty  giving  Russia  wide  powers  in  Man- 
churia was  concerned.  But  in  the  working 
out  of  the  details  there  was  a  striking  change 
made  by  the  substitution  of  Germany  for 
Russia  at  Kiaochau.  The  ostensible  cause 
of  the  German  occupation  was  the  murder 
of  two  missionaries,  subjects  of  the  Kaiser. 
It  has  always  been  suspected,  however,  that 
the  move  was  part  of  an  understanding 
entered  inio  with  Russia,  under  which 
Kiaochau  was  to  fall  to  Germany  as  her 
share  in  the  proceeds  of  the  Russian  Treaty, 
However  that  may  be,  Germany's  appearance 
at  Kiaochau  was  quickly  followed  by  the 
advent  of  Russia  at  Port  Arthur  and  tiy  the 
adoption  of  measures  for  the  consolidation  of 
Russian  power  in  Southern  Manchuria.  The 
course  of  events  was  watched  with  anxious 
interest  by  friends  of  China,  who  saw  in 
these  acts  a  situation  full  of  menacing  possi- 
bilities for  the  future.  Great  Britain,  in 
accordance  with  an  agreement  arrived  at  at 
the  time  that  the  Japanese  evacualed  the 
port,  on  May  24,  1898,  occupied  Weihaiwei 
as  a  counterpoise  to  the  German  and  Russian 
encroachments,  and  it  also  availed  itself  of 
the  opportunity  to  secure  an  extension  of  its 
territory  on  the  Kowloon  peninsula  and  the 
adjacent  mainland.  But  these  measures  had 
little  influence  on  the  general  situation  in 
China  which  rapidly  became  worse  as  Russian 

ambitions  were  the  more  plainly  revealed  by 
successive  acts. 

The  period  to  which  these  events  refer  was 
one  of  great  diplomatic  tension.  The  Chinese 
Government,  staggering  under  the  successive 
blows  inflicted  upon  its  authority,  became 
a  mark  for  the  attentions  of  aspiring  Euro- 
pean powers.  Efforts  made  to  stay  the 
process  of  disintegration  only  served  to  bring 
into  prominence  the  magnitude  of  the  pre- 
tensions, which  were  set  up.  It  seemed  to 
observers  that  the  break-up  of  the  Chinese 
Empire  was  rapidly  impending.  One  form 
which  the  unequal  war  waged  at  Peking 
between  the  weak  and  effete  Chinese  oflicial- 
dom  and  the  bold,  self-assertive  diplomacy 
of  Europe  took  was  a  struggle  for  commercial 
concessions  —  chiefly  railway  concessions. 
When  the  Chinese  tore  up  the  rails  of  the 
Shanghai-Woosung  Road  it  was  thought  that 
they  had  washed  their  hands  for  a  long  period 
of  railways.  But  the  question,  though  thrust 
into  the  background,  was  never  out  of  sight  of 
the  trade  representatives  of  the  various  Euro- 
pean powers,  who  were  alive  to  the  vastness 
of  the  possibilities  which  centred  in  railway 
expansion  in  China.  From  time  to  time  timid 
and  tentative  efforts  were  made  to  re-open 
the  question,  and  they  were  so  far  successful 
that  in  one  or  two  directions  small  lengths 
of  line  were  built,  the  most  notable  of  these 
being  the  railway  from  Peking  to  Tientsin 
(which  was  opened  in  1897),  and  a  line  con- 
necting Tientsin  and  Taku  on  the  one  hand 
and  Kinchow  and  Newchwang  on  the  other. 
These  lines  together  are  part  of  what  is  now 
known  as  the  Northern  Railway,  and  from 
their  position  they  are  of  great  importance. 
But  they  touch  only  the  outer  fringe  of  the 
empire  and  the  real  exploitation  of  railway 
schemes  was  left  to  the  period  referred  to. 
Then  the  matter  was  pushed  in  sober  earnest. 
It  seemed  a  point  of  honour  with  each  of  the 
rival  European  powers  to  obtain  as  large  con- 
cessions as  possible.  Great  Britain,  Russia, 
F"rance,  and  Germany  w-ere  the  principal 
figures  in  the  struggle,  but  the  United  States 
also  took  a  hand  in  it,  while  Belgium,  pushed 
forward  and  backed  by  Russia,  cut  in  as 
occasion  offered.  The  net  result  of  it  all  was 
that  by  1900  concessions  for  the  construction 
of  upwards  of  5,000  miles  of  railway  had 
been  made,  while  grants  for  more  than 
2,000  additional  miles  were  under  considera- 
tion. One  of  the  earliest  of  the  schemes 
sanctioned  was  a  railway  700  miles  long 
connecting  Peking  with  Hankow  in  the 
Yangtse  basin.  The  concession  for  this  line 
was  obtained  in  1896  by  a  Belgian  syndicate 
which  had  strong  support  in  France.  A 
second  project  for  linking  up  Hankow  and 
Canton,  practically  a  continuation  of  the 
Peking-Hankow  railway,  was  launched  by  an 
American  syndicate.  In  the  French  sphere 
of  interest  schemes  embracing  a  mileage  of 
800  were  sanctioned,  while  Germany  had  con- 
cessions for  the  construction  of  845  miles  of 
line  in  Shantung,  and  Russia  (apart  from 
Manchuria)  was  interested  in  enterprises  north 
of  Peking,  the  mileage  of  which  aggregated 
150.  Besides  these  great  railway  under- 
takings commercial  enterprises  of  a  highly 
important  character  were  launched  in  these 
busy  days  in  Peking.  The  most  conspicuous 
of  the  number,  perhaps,  are  those  embodied 
in  the  concession  of  the  great  British  financial 
group  known  as  the  Peking  Syndicate.  This 
body  secured  in  1897  the  valuable  right  to 
work  coal  and  iron  mines  in  the  province 
of  Shansi — an  area  containing  much  unde- 
veloped mineral  wealth.  Included  in  the 
grant  obtained  from  the  Government  was  a 
concession  for  the  construction  of  branch 
railwavs  to  connect  the  mines  with  the  river 

navigation  in  adjoining  provinces  and  with 
main  lines  of  railways.  The  project,  as  repre- 
senting the  first  real  effort  that  had  been  made 
to  develop  the  magnificent  material  resources 
of  China  on  scientific  lines,  was  of  more  than 
common  interest  and  importance.  Later, 
when  the  concessionaires  got  to  work,  they 
were  impeded  in  their  operations  by  the 
obstructiveness  of  the  Chinese  Government, 
which  put  obstacles  in  the  way  of  the 
execution  of  the  railway  clauses  of  the  agree- 
ment. Nevertheless,  the  operations  of  the 
syndicate  have  been  on  an  extensive  scale, 
and  have  done  much  to  infuse  a  spirit  of 
scientific  commercial  enterprise  into  the 
Chinese  of  the  area  in  which  the  mines  are 

Not  without  indifference  were  these  startling 
evidences  of  the  growth  of  foreign  influence 
regarded  by  the  Chinese  masses.  The  patri- 
otic sentiment  was  outraged  by  the  apparent 
inability  of  the  Government  to  withstand 
the  pressure  put  upon  it  by  the  foreign 
representatives.  The  Chinese  saw  in  these 
concessions,  with  the  occupation  of  Port 
Arthur,  Kiaochau  and  Weihaiwei,  a  deep- 
seated  conspiracy  against  the  integrity  of 
the  Empire  and  the  independence  of  the 
race.  For  a  time  there  was  merely  vague 
discontent,  but  gradually  there  came  into 
existence  a  movement  which  gave  vent  to 
the  popular  feeling  in  a  prolonged  orgy  of 
riot  and  outrage  which  was  destined,  before 
its  end,  to  bring  the  Chinese  dynasty  to  the 
verge  of  ruin,  and  to  involve  China  itself  in 
incalculable  damage.  A  factor  which  lent 
strength  to  the  movement— if  it  was  not  in 
intimate  relation  with  it,  was  a  coup  d'etat 
which  in  1898  led  to  the  relegation  of  the 
young  Emperor  Kwangsu  to  retirement,  and 
the  placing  of  supreme  power  once  more  in 
the  hands  of  his  aunt,  the  Dowager  Empress. 
1  he  Dowager  Empress  was  supported  by  the 
most  reactionary  elements  in  the  country, 
and  she  personally  manifested  a  bigoted 
hatred  of  all  foreigners  and  the  innovations 
which  they  brought  in  their  train.  Out- 
wardly, however,  the  movement  to  which 
we  have  referred  was  a  popular  ebullition, 
with  aims  which  ran  counter  to  governmental 
authority.  The  motive  force  was  supplied 
by  a  secret  society,  known  by  the  name  of 
I-ho-chuan,  literally.  Patriotic  Harmony  Fists, 
or  to  adopt  the  most  expressive  English 
synonym — Boxers.  1  he  organisation  has  a 
ritual  in  which  gymnastic  posturing  plays  a 
considerable  part,  and  upon  this  for  special 
purposes  of  the  anti-foreign  crusade  was 
cleverly  grafted  a  cult  of  occultism,  well 
calculated  to  attract  the  ignorant  and  super- 
stitious. Full  membership  was  held  to  confer 
immunity  from  bullets,  to  enable  initiates  to 
walk  on  air,  and  to  do  many  miraculous 
things.  The  propaganda,  with  this  attractive 
embroidery,  soon  made  itself  felt  in  the  fertile 
soil  of  Chinese  nationalism.  Numbers  flocked 
to  the  Boxers'  standards  wherever  they  were 
raised,  and  soon  the  outside  world  had 
evidence  of  the  tendencies  of  the  movement. 

The  first  symptom  of  the  outbreak  was 
rioting  in  Southern  Pechili  in  January,  1900. 
No  steps  were  taken  by  the  authorities  to  quell 
the  disturbances,  and  as  they  were  gradually 
assuming  a  more  serious  aspect,  the  diplo- 
matic representatives  at  Peking,  on  January 
27th,  made  a  joint  protest  to  the  Tsung  li 
Yamen,  demanding  the  publication  of  an 
edict  proscribing  the  Bo.xer  organisation  and 
their  doctrines.  The  Chinese  authorities  after 
their  usual  manner,  attempted  to  evade 
responsihilitv,  but,  finding  that  the  European 
powers  were  in  earnest,  they  intimated  that 
thev  would  issue  the  required  edict.  A 
proclamation  of  some  kind  was  made,  but  it 


was  utterly  futile,  and  the  rcvoUitionary 
mowinent  sained  new  streiisth  and  activity 
with  the  immunity  it  enjoyed.  Towards  the 
end  ot  April  outtireaks  iKXurred  at  Tientsin. 
directed  by  a  bnmch  organisation  known  as 
the  Stct  of  the  Red  Fish.  Native  Christians 
were  the  special  objects  of  attack,  and 
property  belonging  tt)  the  French  missionaries 
greatly  suffered.  Urgent  protests  were  lodged 
against  the  kiwlessness  of  the  mob.  but  the 
authorities  either  would  not  or  could  not 
control  the  disruptive  forces  which  had  been 
let  loose.  Soon  the  outbreak  extended  to 
Peking,  and  the  streets  became  full  of  roughs 
who  attacked  native  converts  and  insulted 
every  foreigner  they  met.  At  length  the 
ri»>ting  tixik  the  alanning  form  of  tearing  up 
the  rails,  and  so  severing  communic~ition  with 
the  t-oast.  Impressed  with  the  growing 
seriousness  of  the  situation,  the  diplomatic 
representatives  called  for  assistance  from 
their  respective  squadrons,  and  some  four 
hundred  and  fifty  men  were  sent  up.  The 
trouble  now  assumed  an  even  graver  form. 
Violent   outbreaks   occurred   in   North   China, 

the  foreigners  with  increasing  violence  and 
determination,  murdering  and  destroying 
wherever  the  hated  influence  was  apparent. 
An  urgent  call  from  the  Legations  to  the 
Admirals  for  reinforcements  led  to  the 
prompt  despatch  from  Tientsin,  on  June  loth, 
of  a  mixed  force  of  fifteen  hundred  sailors, 
under  the  personal  command  of  Admiral  Sir 
Edward  Seymour,  the  senior  naval  ofticer  on 
the  station.  The  detachment  entrained  for 
Peking,  but  at  I.o-Ja  they  found  that  the 
permanent  way  had  been  destroyed,  and  that 
the  route  was  barred  by  a  large  body  of 
Boxers.  As  he  had  with  him  only  three 
obsolete  field  pieces,  and  a  badly  equipped 
commissariat.  Admiral  Seymour  deemed  it 
advis;ible  not  to  attempt  to  proceed.  He 
conducted  a  masterly  retreat  to  a  point 
outside  Tientsin  where  he  remained  en- 
trenched until  his  little  force  was  relieved  by 
a  column  of  allied  troops  on  June  25th.  On 
the  following  day  the  united  force  marched 
into  the  foreign  settlements,  taking  their 
wounded  with  them  in  safety.  While 
Admiral   Seymour's   expedition   was   proceed- 


and  to  the  destruction  of  the  railway  at 
Paoting  Fu,  was  added  the  murder  of  Messrs. 
Norman  and  Kobcrtson.  two  missionaries  at 
Yunching.  and  the  wholesale  assassination  of 
native  Christians  wherever  met  with.  A 
culminating  feature  of  the  occurrences  was 
the  murder  of  the  Chancellor  of  the  Japanese 
Legation  in  the  streets  of  Tientsin.  The 
seriousness  of  the  situation  had  by  this  time 
impressed  itself  upon  the  foreign  Govern- 
ments, and  soon  a  strong  fleet — the  largest 
ever  seen  in  Chinese  waters — assembled  at 
Taku.  But  the  crisis  had  now  got  beyond 
the  point  when  any  naval  demonstration, 
however  imposing,  could  ameliorate  it.  The 
Boxers  caught  up  in  their  movement  all 
classes  of  the  population.  In  some  places 
the  officials  openly  identified  themselves  with 
it ;  in  others  they  were  powerless  to  resist 
it  Later  it  became  perfectly  evident  that  the 
Government  itself  was  deeply  involved  in  the 
propaganda.  At  Peking,  as  June  advanced. 
the  position  of  affairs,  owing  to  the  calculated 
inactivity  of  the  authorities,  became  alarming. 
The  Boxers  cairied  on  their  crusade  against 

ing,  momentous  events  had  occurred  else- 
where. On  Saturday,  June  i6th,  owing  to 
the  menacing  character  of  the  situation  in 
Chihli,  the  Admirals  sent  in  a  demand  for 
the  cession  of  the  Taku  forts  before  the  next 
morning.  The  Chinese  not  only  rejected  the 
ultimatum  but  commenced  hostilities  against 
the  fleet.  The  inevitable  result  followed. 
The  forts  were  successfully  attacked  by  the 
fleet,  and  finally  occupied  by  the  allied  forces. 
Two  days  after  these  occurrences  the 
Tsung  li  Yamen  sent  a  notification  to  the 
Embassies  demanding  their  withdrawal  by 
4  p.m.  the  following  day.  The  reason 
assigned  for  this  step  was  the  attack  by  the 
Allies  on  the  Taku  forts,  but  the  general 
concensus  of  opinion  of  those  who  had 
opportunities  of  watching  on  the  spot  the 
development  of  the  crisis,  is  that  the  Chinese 
authorities  were  already  at  this  period  so 
deeply  involved  in  the  anti-foreign  movement 
that  the  Taku  affair  only  indirectly  influenced 
their  action.  However  that  may  have  been, 
the  foreign  ministers  declined  to  entertain 
the    demand    of    the    Yamen.      They    were 

influenced  in  their  decision  by  the  palpable 
inability  of  the  Chinese  Government,  even  if 
its  good  faith  were  beyond  reproach,  to 
afford  adequate  protection  during  tlie  journey 
to  the  coast,  and  by  the  unavoidable  necessity 
which  would  arise  of  leaving  thousands  of 
native  Christians  who  had  taken  refuge  in 
Peking  to  be  slaughtered  by  the  Boxers. 
When  it  became  known  that  the  Legations 
intended  to  remain,  the  situation  swiftly 
advanced  to  a  tragic  daioitemeiii.  On  the 
very  next  day  the  German  Minister,  Baron 
Von  Ketteler,  was  brutally  murdered  in 
the  Peking  streets  while  on  his  way  to 
interview  the  Chinese  Ministers.  The 
attack  made  on  him  was  the  work  of 
imperial  soldiers,  and  there  can  be  little 
doubt  of  the  direct  complicity  of  high-placed 
ofiicials  in  it.  Its  grave  significance  was  too 
obvious  to  be  ignored  by  the  greatest 
optimist  amongst  the  foreign  ministers. 
Immediately  measures  were  taken  to  place 
the  Legations  in  a  condition  of  defence  to 
withstand  the  attacks  which  it  was  clearly 
seen  were  impending.  Before  twenty-four 
hours  had  elapsed  the  historic  siege  of  the 
Legations  had  been  entered  upon.  The 
details  of  that  thrilling  episode  in  Chinese 
history  are  too  fresh  in  public  memory  to 
require  to  be  related  here.  It  is  only 
necessary  to  say  that  after  weeks  of  almost 
continuous  fighting,  during  which  the 
defending  force  showed  a  splendid  spirit  of 
valour  and  endurance,  the  Legations  were 
relieved  by  an  international  relief  column, 
which,  leaving  Tientsin  on  August  3rd,  and 
pushing  steadily  onwards,  arrived  before 
Peking  on  August  13th,  and  almost 
immediately  raised  the  siege.  On  the  day 
previously  the  imperial  family  had  taken 
flight  into  Shansi  en  route  for  Si-an-fu, 
where  it  was  to  remain  for  many  months  in 
a  not  too  honourable  exile.  The  foreign 
military  occupation  of  the  Chinese  capital 
continued  for  a  rather  lengthened  period,  and 
even  when  the  main  forces  were  withdrawn 
strong  detachments  were  left  behind  as  a 
permanent  measure  of  protection.  Apart 
from  the  humiliation  involved  in  this 
measure  the  Chinese  Government  had  to 
pay  dearly  for  the  ineffaceable  infamy  of  its 
conduct.  The  Peace  Protocol,  finally 
arranged  between  the  envoys  of  the  Treaty 
Powers  and  Prince  Ching  and  the  late  Li 
Hung  Chang,  provided  for  the  payment  of 
an  indenmity  of  ;t65'00°'°°o>  spr^-'i'd  over 
a  period  of  39  years,  and  for  a  revision  of 
commercial  treaties  on  lines  which  were 
little  to  the  taste  of  tlie  reactionary  Chinese 
oflicialdom.  Eventually  three  new  treaties 
were  concluded,  one  with  the  United  King- 
dom, the  second  with  the  United  States,  and 
the  third  with  Japan.  Under  the  British 
Treaty  Changoha  in  Hunan  was  opened  to 
foreign  trade,  and  the  arrangements  with  the 
United  States  and  Japan  provided  for  the 
inclusion  of  Mukden,  Tatunkow,  and  Antung, 
in  Manchuria,  amongst  the  Treaty  ports. 

China  was  not  involved  as  a  belligerent 
in  the  Kusso-Japanese  War  of  1904-5,  but 
the  titanic  struggle  between  the  giant  power 
of  the  north  and  the  little  island  empire 
profoundly  affected  her  interests  directly,  and 
indirectly  it  has  exercised,  and  still  is  e.xer- 
cising,  a  powerful  influence  on  her  people. 
The  stirring  of  the  dry  bones  of  Chinese 
life,  which  is  one  of  the  remarkable  inter- 
national phenomena  of  the  day,  is,  there  can 
be  little  doubt,  an  aftermath  of  the  war. 
The  spectacle  of  the  Japanese  triumphing 
over  the  colossal  might  of  Russia  by  virtue 
of  her  thoroughgoing  adoption  and  intelligent 
application  of  Western  principles  of  life  and 
government,  has  created  in  the  minds  of  the 


Chinese  people  a  divine  discontent  with  the 
old  order  of  thinjis.  and  from  one  end  of 
the  empire  to  the  other  the  spirit  of  reform 
is  abroad.  Men  wlio  formerly  shouted  arro- 
gantly with  the  crowd  that  China  was  all- 
suHicient  and  needed  nothing  from  without, 
are  now  crying  aloud  in  the  market  places 
for  the  introduction  of  the  features  of 
European  civilisation,  which  has  enabled  to 
be  performed  what  seems  to  the  Eastern 
mind  to  be  the  greatest  miracle  of  the  age. 
Me  would  be  a  bold  man  who  would 
prophesy  how  far  the  movement  will  go. 
Chinese  conservatism,  though  it  has  been 
driven  from  its  entrenchments  by  the  events 
of  the  past  few  years,  is  still  lurking  in  the 
background,  and  circumstances  may  in  the 
future,  as  in  the  past,  bring  it  into  active  life 
once  more.  Looking,  however,  at  the  depth 
and  intensity  of  the  popular  desire  for 
changes  designed  to  be  a  buckler  ag.iinst  the 
assaults  from  without,  which  aforetime   have 

brought  such  lamentable  humiliation  upon 
the  empire,  it  would  appear  that  China  has 
at  last  really  reached  the  parting  of  the  ways. 
The  telegraphs,  the  posts,  and  the  railways, 
which  are  covering  the  vast  dominions  with 
a  network  of  civilised  organisation,  are 
infusing  new  blood  into  the  outworn  arteries, 
and  the  rapidly  growing  native  press  is 
educating  the  inhabitants  to  new  conceptions 
of  life.  Official  policy,  too,  is  taking  to  itself 
more  and  more  of  the  progressive  views 
which  dominate  the  best  systems  of  Western 
government,  while  the  machinery  of  govern- 
ment is  being  in  many  respects  improved  by 
the  mere  elimination  of  old  abuses.  In  time 
there  is  hope  for  China — hope  that  she  may 
yet  rise  to  the  full  height  of  her  greatness 
and  take  her  position  in  the  world  as  one  of 
its  mightiest  forces.  The  fears  entertained 
in  some  quarters  that  a  real  awakening  on 
her  part  would  be  of  disastrous  import  to 
the  peace  of  the  world  are   probably   chimer- 

ical. The  Chinese  are  traditionally  an 
unaggressive  race,  and  there  is  no  reason  to 
suppose  that  the  adoption  of  Western  ideas 
would  work  a  change  within  their  nature. 

Whatever  danger  there  may  be  for  Western 
nations  in  the  regeneration  of  China  lies 
probably  exclusively  in  the  industrial  sphere. 
There,  indeed,  we  may  look  for  startling 
results  when  the  teeming  population  of  the 
empire  is  organised  on  scientific  lines  and 
its  energies  are  turned  to  the  production  of 
manufactures  of  which  Europe  and  America 
have  now  practically  the  monopoly.  Hut 
the  competition,  strenuous  though  it  will  be, 
will  not  necessarily  be  destructive,  for  we 
may  rely  upon  Western  energy,  aptitude  and 
pliability  of  thought,  providing  means  by 
which  the  handicap  of  cheap  Eastern  labour 
will  be  met.  In  any  event  there  will  be  no 
disposition  to  place  obstacles  in  the  way  of 
Chinese  progress  if  her  victories  are  sought 
exclusively  in  commercial  fields. 



ONGKOXG  was  created  a 
Crown  Colony  by  Royal 
Charter  bearing  date  April 
5,  1843,  and  on  the  same 
day  a  Royal  Warrant  was 
issued  appointing  the  Chief 
Superintendent  of  Trade  in 
China,  Sir  Henry  Pottinger,  Bart.,  K.C.B., 
Governor  and  Commander-in-Chief  of  the 
Colony  and  its  Dependencies.  The  Charter 
provided  for  the  constitution  of  a  Legislative 
Council,  with  whose  advice  the  Governor 
was  empowered  to  enact  Ordinances  "for 
the  peace,  order,  and  good  government  of 
the  Colony."  that  would  have  the  force  of 
law,  subject,  of  course,  to  the  Royal  veto. 
The  constitution  of  the  Government  was 
subsequently  amended  several  times  by  the 
issue  of  Letters  Patent,  but  tlie  alterations 
were  of  a  minor  character,  extending  the 
Governor's  power  of  granting  pardons  to 
criminals  and  remitting  lines,  and  providing 
for  the  administration  of  the  Government  in 
the  event  of  the  Governor's  death,  incapacity, 
or  absence. 

Upon  the  receipt  of  the  original  Charter  of 
1843,  a  Government  was  promptly  organised, 
and  an  E.xecutive  and  Legislative  Council 
were  formed,  each  consisting  of  three  Official 
members,  exclusive  of  the  Governor.  On 
January  11,  1844,  the  newly  appointed  Legis- 
lative Council  commenced  their  sittings,  and 
in  the  next  four  months  passed  on  an  average 
one  Ordinance  a  week.  Dissatisfaction  soon 
arose  owing  to  the  exclusively  official  char- 
acter of  the  Legislative  Council,  which,  a 
local  journalist  declared,  had  no  real  power. 
"  Such  a  Council,"  he  added,  "  may  suit  the 
Pacha  of  Egypt,  but  in  a  British  Colony  it 
is  shameful." 

Various  changes  took  place  in  the  con- 
stitution of  the  Councils  during  the  next 
year  or  two,  but  in  spite  of  the  continuous 
demands  of  the  British  community  for 
representation,  Sir  John  Davis  refused  during 
his  Governorship  (1844  48)  to  make  any  con- 
cession. The  leading  merchants  of  the 
Colony  drew  up  a  petition  to  the  Home 
Government  in  January,  1849,  praying  for 
some  form  of  popular  representation  on  the 
governing  body— a  privilege  which,  it  was 
pointed  out,  had  not  been  w.thheld  from  any 
other  British  Colony.  Nine  months  later.  Sir 
George  Bonham,  who  was  then  Governor, 
invited  the  Justices  of  the  Peace  to  select 
two  of  their  number  for  admission  to  the 
Legislative  Council. 

When  Sir  J.  Bowring  became  Governor  in 
1854,  the  Legislative  Council  was  presided 
over  by  the  Lieut. -Governor,  and  consisted 
of  six  members — four  officials,  including  the 
President,  and  two  non-ofiicials.  In  the 
following  year  a  proposal  was  submitted  to 
Mr.  Labouchere,  the  Secretary  of  State  for 
the  Colonies,  for  enlarging  the  basis  of  the 
Legislative  Council  by  introducing  four 
additional  official  and  three  non-official  mem- 
bers, giving  a  total  of  thirteen  members, 
exclusive  of  the  Governor.  Mr.  Labouchere 
demurred  to  so  great  an  enlargement,  but 
sanctioned  a  moderate  addition,  and  at  the 
same  time  expressed  his  approval  of  the  steps 
which  had  been  taken  in  laying  the  estimates 
before  the  Legislative  Council,  and  inviting 
their  observations  upon  the  items  of  public 
expenditure.  The  Colonial  Treasurer  and 
Chief  Magistrate,  and  a  third  representative 
of  the  general  community  were  accordingly 
introduced,  the  relative  proportions  of  offi- 
cials and  non-officials  being  thus  preserved — 
the  Council  consisting  of  six  members  of  the 
Government  and  three  representatives  of  the 

Sir  J.  Bowring  subsequently  added  the 
Surveyor-General  and  then  the  Auditor- 
General  to  the  Council.  This  evoked  a 
spirited  protest  on  December  4,  1858,  from 
the  unofficial  members,  who  pointed  out  that 
His  Excellency  had  now  arrived  at  the  lunn- 
ber  of  official  members  (8)  proposed  by  him 
and  disapproved  by  Mr.  Labouchere,  whereas 
the  unofficial  elem<;nt,  during  the  same  period, 
had  been  increased  by  only  one.  The  pro- 
test appears  to  have  had  no  effect  beyond 
eliciting  an  expression  of  opinion  from  Sir 
H.  Robinson,  who  succeeded  to  the 
Governorship  shortly  afterwards,  that  for 
the  future  the  official  members  should  never 
bear  to  the  unoflicial  members  a  greater 
proportion  than  two  to  one. 

In  the  meantime,  in  consequence  of  the 
independent  attitude  which  was  adopted  by 
so  ne  of  the  officials  —  notably  by  the 
Attorney-General  and  the  Chief  Magistrate — 
it  was  provided  in  1858,  by  order  of  the 
Home  Government,  that  henceforth  they 
must  either  vote  in  favour  of  Government 
measures  or  resign  their  seats.  The  censure 
of  the  Colonial  Treasurer,  under  this  order, 
in  1865,  for  seconding  the  motion  of  an 
unofficial  member  to  eliminate  Irom  the 
estimates  the  item  relating  to  the  military 
contribution  of  the  Colony  brought  a  protest 
from  the  general  community,  who  urged  that 

their  three  representatives  were  practically 
powerless  when  opposed  to  seven  officials 
acting  in  concert.  In  deference  to  this 
representation,  Sir  R.  MacDonnell,  the 
Governor,  on  August  27,  1869,  appointed 
another  unofficial  member  to  a  seat  vacated 
by  an  official,  thereby  reducing  the  disparity 
from  7 — 3  to  6 — 4. 

Subsequently,  however,  the  proportion  fell 
to  five  officials  and  three  unofficials,  and,  on 
February  26,  1880,  the  Hon.  P.  Ryrie  asked 
whether  the  Governor  would  recommend  an 
addition  to  the  number  of  unoflicial  mem- 
bers on  the  ground  that  the  proportion  of 
three  unofficial  members  to  live  official 
members,  besides  the  Governor,  was  unsatis- 
factory. Sir  J.  P.  Hennessy  answered  that 
he  had  already  suggested  to  the  Secretary 
of  State  that  the  number  of  unofficial  mem- 
bers should  be  raised  to  four  or  five,  and  in 
the  following  year  another  unofficial  member 
was  added. 

A  small  measure  of  popular  representation 
was  conceded  by  the  Home  Government  in 
1883,  in  deference  to  the  advice  of  Sir 
George  Bowen,  Ihe  Governor,  and  the 
right  of  nominating  one  member  each  was 
accordingly  given  to  the  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce and  the  Justices  of  the  Peace.  In 
opening  the  first  meeting  of  the  newly  con- 
stituted Legislative  Council,  on  February 
28th  of  the  following  year,  the  Governor 
used  these  memorable  words:  "It  will 
always  be  one  of  the  most  satisfactory 
reminiscences  of  my  long  public  career  that 
I  have  been  able  to  procure  a  more  ade- 
quate representation  in  this  Council  of  the 
community  at  large.  I  am  confident  that 
the  Government  will  derive  valuable  aid 
from  the  local  knowledge  and  experience  of 
the  unofficial  members,  and  I  also  believe 
that  you  will  agree  with  me  that  tliere 
neither  is,  nor  ought  to  be,  any  antagonism 
between  the  official  and  the  unofficial 
element  in  the  Legislature.  All  the  members 
can  have  no  other  object  but  to  secure  the 
general  welfare,  and  to  advance  the  progress 
of  the  Colony."  His  Excellency  went  on  to 
point  out  that  the  debate  on  the  Governor's  ad- 
dress at  the  opening  of  each  annual  session 
would  afford  the  members  Ihe  usual  constitu- 
tional opportunity  of  expressing  their  opinion 
on  the  conduct  ;uid  proposals  of  the  Govern- 
ment, and  he  recommended  the  appointment 
of  a  Committee  of  Finance  (consisting  of  the 
whole  Council),  a  Committee  of  Laws,  and 
a    Committee    of    Public   Works   to   examine, 


in  the  hrst  instance,  the  details  o(  every 
propt^sed  vote  and  measure. 

By  ro>-al  instrument,  in  1886,  the  number 
of  official  members  of  the  Legislative 
Council  was  fi.\ed  at  seven,  and  that  of  the 
unofficial  members  at  five. 

In  l9*^  an  appeal  was  addressed  to  the 
House  of  Commons  by  the  residents  of  the 
Colony,  in  favour  of  (I)  the  majority  of  the 
Legislative  Council  being  composed  of  elec- 
ted representatives  of  British  nationality ; 
(2)  perfect  freedom  of  debate  for  the  official 
members,  with  power  to  vote  according  to 
their  conscientious  con\ictions  ;  (3)  complete 
control  in  the  Council  over  loc"al  expen- 
diture ;  (4)  the  management  of  local  affairs, 
and  (5)  a  consultative  voice  in  questions  of 
an  imperial  character.  The  Marquess  of 
Ripon.  in  replying  to  the  petitioners,  ex- 
pressed the  opinion  that  the  Colony  had 
been  well  governed.  The  fact  that  such  a 
politically  timid  race  as  the  Chinese  had 
settled  in  the  Colony  in  such  large  numbers 
was  practical  and  irrefutable  evidence  that  the 
Government  must  at  least  have  possessed 
some  measure  of  strength  and  of  justice. 
Though  holding  out  no  hope  that  Hongkong 
would  cease  to  be  a  Crown  Colony,  and 
stating  that  he  was  not  inclined  to  add  to 
the  numbers  of  the  unofficial  members  of 
the  Legislative  Council  without  increasing 
also  the  number  of  official  members,  the 
noble  Marquess  went  on  to  suggest  that 
"some  understanding  might  be  come  to, 
that,  in  the  case  of  discussion  of  specified 
local  subjects— at  any  rate  so  long  as  there 
was  no  municipality  in  existence  in  Hong- 
kong —  one  or  more  unofficial  members 
should  be  summoned  to  take  part  in  the 
proceedings  in  the  Executive  Council,  with- 
out giving  them  seats  on  the  Council  for  all 
purposes."  On  May  29,  1896,  Mr.  Cham- 
berlain, who  had  meanwhile  succeeded  the 
Marquess  of  Ripon  as  Secretary  of  State  for 
the  Colonies,  wrote,  in  continuation  of  the 
same  subject  :  '•  As  Hongkong  is  to  remain 
a  Crown  Colony,  no  useful  purpose  would 
be  served,  but,  on  the  contrary,  a  consider- 
able amount  of  needless  irritation  would  be 
caused,  by  balancing  even  the  unofficial 
members  and  the  officials.  But,  having 
regard  to  the  fact  that,  in  the  absence  of  the 
Governor,  the  officer  commanding  the  troops 
will  in  future  administer  the  Government,  I 
consider  that  it  would  be  of  advantage  that 
he  should  be  a  member  of  the  Legislative 
Council,  and,  if  he  is  added  to  it,  I  am 
willing  to  add  one  unofficial  member  to  the 
unofficial  bench.  Who  the  latter  should  be, 
and  what  special  interest,  if  any,  he  should 
represent,  I  leave  to  the  Governor  to  deter- 
mine. I  may  observe,  however,  that  the 
Chinese  community  is  the  element  which 
is  least  represented,  while  it  is  also  by  far 
the  most  numerous,  and  that  I  should  regard 
as  valuable  any  step  which  tended  to  attach 
them  more  closely  to  the  British  connexion 
and  to  increase  their  practical  interest  in 
public  affairs."  Mr.  Chamberlain  added  that, 
"in  view  of  the  fact  that  the  Colonial  Govern- 
ment was  discharging  municipal  duties, 
representatives  of  the  citizens  might  fairly 
be  given  a  place  on  the  Executive."  He 
therefore  proposed  that  "the  Executive 
Council  shall  in  future  include  two  unofficial 
members  to  be  selected  at  the  discretion  of 
the  Governor.  It  is  obviously  desirable," 
he  proceeded,  "  that  they  should,  as  a  rule, 
be  chosen  from  among  the  unofficial  mem- 
bers of  the  Legislative  Council,  and  the 
choice  should,  and  no  doubt  will  be,  inspired 
by  consideration  of  personal  merit,  and  have 
no  reference  to  the  particular  class  or  race 
to  which  the  persons  chosen  belong." 

In  accordance  with  the  terms  of  this 
despatch,  the  number  of  public  representa- 
tives upon  the  Legislative  Council  was 
increased  to  six,  and  two  unofficial  members 
were  added  to  the  E.xecutive  Council.  At 
the  present  day  the  Executive  consists  of 
eight  members,  and  the  Legislative  Council 
of  thirteen  members,  not  including  the 
Governor,  who  presides. 

Concurrently  with  the  demand  (or  some 
measure  of  popular  representation  on  the 
Legislative  Council  in  January,  1849,  an 
agitation  arose  in  favour  of  a  system  of 
Municipal  Government.  In  reply  to  a  clause 
urging  this  reform  in  the  petition  submitted 
to  the  House  of  Commons  by  the  leading 
merchants  of  the  Colony,  Earl  Grey,  in  the 
following  October,  wrote  that  he  could  see 
no  general  objection  to  the  proposal,  but  he 
hesitated  to  pronounce  upon  it  until  some 
definite  scheme  was  formulated.  Accordingly, 
in  November,  Sir  George  Bonham,  the  Gover- 
nor, after  expressing  his  agreement  with  the 
principle  of  giving  the  ratepayers  some  form 
of  Municipal  Government,  although  doubting 
the  practicability  of  its  application  to  Hong- 
kong, requested  fifteen  unoflicial  Justices  of 
the  Peace,  whom  he  summoned  to  a  con- 
ference, to  consult  together  upon  the  organi- 
sation of  a  "  Municipal  Committee  of  Police 
Commissioners."  At  their  first  meeting  on 
December  6,  1849,  the  Justices  of  the  Peace 
passed  the  following  resolutions  : — First,  that 
no  advantage  could  be  derived  from  having  a 
Municipal  Council  unless  the  entire  manage- 
ment of  the  police,  of  the  streets  and  roads 
within  the  precincts  of  the  town,  and  of  all 
other  matters  was  given  to  the  Corporation  or 
confided  to  it ;  and,  secondly,  that,  whereas  the 
mode  of  raising  so  much  of  the  revenue  from 
land  rents  is  only  retained  as  being  the  most 
convenient  and  is  in  lieu  of  assessment  and 
taxes,  consequently  the  amount  raised  from 
that  source,  together  with  the  ;^3,ooo  or 
;f4,ooo  raised  from  licences  and  rents,  should, 
with  the  police  assessments,  be  made  applic- 
able, so  far  as  may  be  required,  for  municipal 

In  response  to  this.  Sir  George  Bonham, 
being  desirous  of  meeting  the  wishes  of  the 
community  as  far  as  possible,  offered,  on 
January  10,  1851,  to  place  the  whole 
management  of  the  police  under  the  control 
of  a  Municipal  Committee,  on  condition  that 
the  entire  expense  of  the  force  was  met  by  an 
adequate  police  tax.  He  further  proposed  to 
hand  over  to  this  Committee  of  Management 
all  streets,  roads,  and  sewers,  on  the  under- 
standing that  the  necessary  funds  were 
provided,  either  by  an  assessed  tax  on  real 
property,  or  by  a  tax  upon  horses  and  car- 
riages, as  the  general  revenue  of  the  Colony 
would  prove  insufficient  for  the  purpose.  The 
Justices  replied  declining  both  the  Governor's 
offers.  Whilst  expressing  their  willingness 
to  undertake  the  duties  of  a  Municipal  Com- 
mittee, they  objected,  first,  that  any  further 
tax  would  be  injurious,  as  the  cost  of  living 
was  already  exorbitant  ;  and,  secondly,  that 
the  police  tax  would  not  be  sufficient  to 
provide  the  necessary  funds,  because,  whilst 
the  Colony  remained  a  rendezvous  for  pirates 
and  outlaws,  the  police  force  was  too  small, 
and  was  composed  of  too  untrustworthy  and 
ill-paid  material.  The  discussion  closed  with 
the  Governor's  declaration,  on  March  15, 
1851,  that  "As  the  Justices  objected  to  any 
further  taxes,  and  as  application  to  the  Home 
Government  for  further  grants  would,  in  view 
of  recent  discussions  in  the  House  of 
Commons,  be  of  no  avail,  it  was  impossible 
for  him  to  meet  the  views  of  the  Justices." 

From  this  date  the  matter  seems  to  have 
lain     dormant    in     the    minds    of    the    local 

community  until  1894,  when  a  memorial  on 
this  and  cognate  subjects  was  addrcssetl  to 
the  Home  Government,  as  previously  stated. 
The  Marquess  of  Ripon  replied  that,  althoujih 
he  would  like  to  see  a  Municipal  Council 
established  in  Hongkong,  he  was  not  prepared 
to  sanction  any  important  change  of  adminis- 
tration "  until  the  necessary  measures  for 
protecting  the  health  of  the  Colony  had  been 
finally  decided  upon  and  brouglit  into  opera- 
tion." Moreover,  his  Lordship  foresaw  the 
difficulty  of  separating  Municipal  from  Colonial 
matters.  Referring  to  the  subject  in  his 
famous  despatch  of  May  29,  1896,  Mr. 
Chamberlain,  who  was  then  Secretary  of 
State  for  the  Colonies,  declared  that  it 
seemed  to  him  impracticable  to  grant  a 
Municipal  Council  to  Hongkong,  "for  this 
reason,  among  others  :  that  the  Colony  and 
the  Municipality  would  be  in  great  measure 
co-extensive,  and  it  would  be  almost  im- 
possible to  draw  the  line  between  Colonial 
and  Municipal  matters."  In  these  circum- 
stances, as  has  been  seen,  the  right  hon. 
gentleman  advocated  the  inclusion  of  two 
unofficial  menihcrs  in  the  Executive  Council. 

In  the  meantime,  that  is  to  say  in  1883,  as 
the  result  of  a  report  made  by  Mr.  Osbert 
Chadwick  on  the  deplorable  sanitary  con- 
dition of  the  Colony,  a  permanent  Sanitary 
Board,  consisting  of  eight  members,  had  been 
established  with  a  nominated  unoflicial 
element.  This  Board  was  reconstituted  under 
the  Public  Health  Ordinance  of  1887,  and 
the  public  were  granted  the  right  of  electing 
two  representatives,  an  unofficial  majority 
being  also  conceded.  In  1895,  "i'^  Medical 
Officer  of  Health  was  appointed  to  a  seat  on 
the  Board,  whereupon  all  the  unoflicial 
members,  save  one,  resigned  as  a  protest. 
Eventually  the  storm  subsided,  and,  in 
deference  to  the  opinion  of  the  general 
community  ascertained  by  a  plebiscite  taken 
by  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  an  ordinance 
was  passed  in  1901  n.\ing  the  official  repre- 
sentation at  four,  and  the  unofficial  at  six. 
Two  years  later,  however,  the  Sanitary  Board 
was  converted  into  a  Sanitary  Department  of 
the  Government,  presided  over  by  the 
Principal  Civil  Medical  Officer,  who  was 
held  directly  responsible  for  the  administra- 
tion of  sanitary  matters.  By  tliis  change, 
which  was  based  upon  a  report  presented  by 
Mr.  Chadwick  and  Prof.  Simpson,  the  Board 
became  little  more  than  an  advisory  com- 
mittee. In  1907  a  Commission  deplored  this 
practical  disfranchisement  of  the  public,  and 
recommended  that  any  matters  relating  to 
sanitation  (except  control  of  the  water  supply, 
public  roads,  and  sewers),  building  nuisances, 
and  the  construction  or  alteration  of  buildings 
which  were  then  dealt  with  by  the  building 
authority  should  be  transferred  to  the  Sanitary 
Board,  to  be  hereafter  designated  the  Sanitary 
and  Building  Board  —  composed  of  four 
official  and  six  unofficial  members — which 
should  elect  its  own  president,  have  the 
complete  ordering  of  its  own  affairs,  and  be 
accountable  to  the  Governor  for  the  expen- 
diture of  funds  voted  by  the  Legislative 
Council,  on  estimates  furnished  by  the  Board. 

In  response  to  these  recommendations,  the 
Government  introduced  a  Bill  in  March,  1908, 
which  provided  for  the  transference  of  the 
duties  of  the  Board,  under  the  Building 
Ordinance  to  the  Public  Works  Department, 
as  a  means  of  ending  the  division  of 
authority,  of  which  complaint  had  been  made. 
The  constitution  of  the  Board  it  was  arranged 
should  be  altered  by  the  withdrawal  of  the 
Principal  Civil  Medical  Officer,  and  the 
Captain  Superintendent  of  Police,  in  whose 
stead  a  cadet,  with  experience  of  the  Chinese, 
and    the    Medical    Officer   of    Health   should 


be  appointed.  The  cadet  was  to  act  as 
administrative  head  of  the  department,  and 
be  responsible  to  the  Government,  and  not,  as 
the  Commission  sujigested,  to  the  Sanitary 
Board.  In  regard  to  the  other  points 
raised,  it  was  proposed  that  the  head  of 
the  department  should,  before  March  31st 
of   each    year,   lay   the   estimates   before    the 

Sanitary  Board  for  discussion,  together  with 
any  proposals  which  he  might  liave  to  make 
regarding  works  of  a  sanitary  nature  included 
in  the  vote  for  public  works  e.xtraordinary ; 
that  he  should  consult  the  Sanitary  Board 
on  all  changes  giving  effect  to  sanitary  bye- 
laws  ;  that  he  should  inform  the  Board  of 
any  change  in   the  organisation   of  the   staff  ; 

that  he  should  inform  them  regarding  any 
recommendations  for  appointment  or  leave 
or  dismissal  of  the  European  staff  ;  and  that 
he  should  lay  before  them  any  complaint  of 
the  public  regarding  the  staff.  This  measure 
encountered  strong  opposition,  but  it  passed 
into  law  in  substantially  this  form  on  July  3, 


When  the  East  India  Company's  monopoly 
of  trade  in  China  ceased,  an  Act  was  passed 
in  the  third  and  fourth  years  of  the  reign  of 
William  IV.,  conferring  upon  the  Crown  the 
power  of  appointing  Superintendents  of  Trade 
and  of  governing  by  Orders  in  Council  all 
British  subjects  within  the  dominions  of  the 
Emperor  of  China.  Under  the  powers  granted 
by  this  Act  a  Court  of  Justice  was  appointed 
in  Canton,  with  criminal  and  admiralty  juris- 
diction, for  the  trial  of  all  offences  and  the 
settlement  of  all  cases  that  might  be  brought 
before  it.  Of  this  court  the  Superintendent 
of  Trade  was  president.  When,  under  the 
Treaty  of  Nanking  in  1842,  Hongkong  was 
ceded  to  Great  Britain,  and  four  other  ports 
were  thrown  open  to  trade,  the  Emperor  of 
China  renounced  all  authority  over  British 
subjects,  and,  accordingly,  in  the  sixth  and 
seventh  years  of  the  reign  of  Queen  Victoria 
Acts  were  passed  empowering  the  Superin- 
tendent of  Trade,  at  that  time  the  Governor 
of  Hongkong,  to  enact,  with  the  advice  of 
the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Colony,  such 
laws  and  ordinances  as  might  seem  "  neces- 
sary for  the  peace,  order,  and  good  govern- 
ment of  Her  Majesty's  subjects  within  the 
dominions  of  the  Emperor  of  China,"  and 
"  within  any  vessel  not  more  than  100  miles 
from  the  coast." 

By  an  order  of  the  Privy  Council  dated 
January  4,  1843,  the  Criminal  and  Admiralty 
Courts,  which  had  been  held  at  Canton  since 
1833,  were  removed  to  Hongkong,  and  they 
were  granted  jurisdiction  over  British  subjects 
in  the  "  island  and  within  the  dominions  of  the 
Emperor  of  China,  and  the  ports  and  havens 
thereof,  and  on  the  high  seas  within  100  miles 
of  the  coast  of  China."  It  was  further  directed 
that  the  Court  should  be  held  by  the  Chief 
Superintendent  of  Trade. 

In  the  meantime  formal  official  possession 
had  been  taken  of  the  island  of  Hongkong, 
and  on  April  30,  1841,  Captain  Elliott,  the 
British  plenipotentiary  in  China,  issued  a 
warrant  appointing  Major  Caine  Ciiief  Magis- 
trate, requiring  him  in  the  case  of  natives 
to  exercise  authority  "  according  to  the  laws, 
customs,  and  usages  of  China,"  and  in  the 
case  of  all  others  "  according  to  the  customs 
and  usages  of  British  police  law."  The  proviso 
was  added  that  the  head  of  the  Government 
should  be  consulted  in  any  case  where  the 
crime,  according  to  Chinese  law,  involved 
imprisonment  for  more  than  three  months, 
penalties  exceeding  ?4oo,  corporal  punishment 
exceeding  a  hundred  lashes,  or  capital  punish- 
ment. On  the  same  date  were  published 
"  rules  and  regulations  for  the  British  mer- 
chant shipping  and  for  the  marine  magis- 
trates." In  the  following  year  the  powers 
of  the  Chief  Magistrate  and  of  the  Marine 
Magistrate  were  increased  in  certain  respects, 
the  jurisdiction  of    the    Chief   Magistrate    in 

civil  matters  being  raised  to  $250,  with  power 
to  confine  debtors  if  necessary. 

In  the  Charter  under  which  Hongkong 
was  created  a  Crown  Colony  in  1843, 
clauses  were  contained  authorising  the  estab- 
lishment of  properly  constituted  courts  to 
administer  the  law,  the  Governor  being 
empowered  to  remit  any  fine  not  exceeding 
£50,  to  suspend  the  payment  of  penalties 
above  that  amount  until  the  Royal  pleasure 
was  ascertained,  and  to  grant  a  free  and 
unconditional  pardon  to  any  convicted 
person.  The  Chief  Magistrate  remained  the 
chief  judicial  officer  in  the  Colony  until 
1844,  when  a  Chief  Justice  was  appointed. 
In  October  of  the  same  year  the  Supreme 
Court  was  opened,  and,  except  for  the 
Criminal  and  Admiralty  Court  presided  over 
by  Sir  Henry  Pottinger,  the  Governor  and 
Chief- Superintendent  of  Trade  under  the  old 
law,  this  was  the  first  time  that  a  regularly 
constituted  Criminal  Court  for  trial  by  jury 
had  sat  in  China. 

It  was  enacted  that  the  law  of  England 
should  be  in  full  force  except  where  it 
might  be  inapplicable  to  the  local  circum- 
stances of  the  Colony  or  its  inhabitants,  and 
that  in  all  matters  relating  to  the  proceed- 
ings of  the  Supreme  Court  the  practice  of 
the  English  courts  should  obtain  unless,  and 
until,  otherwise  ordered  by  rule  of  the  Court. 
The  same  jurisdiction  as  that  whicli  was  law- 
fully held  by  the  judges  in  England,  both  on 
the  Common  Law  and  Chancery  side,  was 
conferred  upon  the  Supreme  Court  of  Hong- 
kong, and  express  power  was  given  to  the 
Court  to  admit  and  enrol  barristers  and 
solicitors  to  practice  their  profession  in  the 
Colony.  Power,  also,  was  given  to  the 
Chief  Justice  to  order  the  arrest  of  abscond- 
ing debtors. 

A  court  with  Admiralty  jurisdiction  within 
the  Colony  was  created  by  Letters  Patent  of 
January  10,  1846.  It  was  coinposed  of  the 
Governor,  the  Chief  Justice,  the  Officer 
Commanding  the  Troops,  the  Colonial 
Secretary,  the  Chief  Police  Magistrate,  and 
the  flag  officers  or  captains  of  ships  of  war 
in  the  harbour.  Either  of  these  com- 
missioners could  examine  or  commit  those 
charged  with  piracy.  Trials  could  be  held 
by  three  of  the  commissioners,  including 
the  Governor  or  the  Chief  Justice.  The 
Court  was  opened  on  January  14,  1847,  with 
a  grand  jury  and  petty  jury  in  attendance. 
It  was  abolished  in  1850,  and  its  functions 
were  transferred  to  the  Supreme  Court. 

In  1847,  the  Supreme  Court  was  so  over- 
burdened with  trivial  cases  that  the  powers 
of  the  Magistrates  and  Justices  of  the  Peace 
were  extended.  With  the  object  of  further 
relieving  the  congestion,  a  Court  of  Petty 
Session  was  established  in  1849.  This  court 
sat  once  a  week,   and   was    composed    of    a 

Magistrate,  who  occupied  the  chair,  and  such 
of  the  Justices  of  the  Peace  as  cared  to 
attend.  Although  this  change  was  a  step  in 
the  right  direction,  the  Ordinance  under 
which  it  was  effected  unfortunately  left  the 
stipendiary  during  the  remaining  five  days 
of  the  week  invested  with  powers  which 
were  formerly  exercised  only  by  a  judge 
and  jury. 

This  arrangement  continued  in  force  until 
1862,  when  a  Court  of  Summary  Jurisdiction, 
presided  over  by  a  judge  called  the  Judge 
of  the  Court  of  Summary  Jurisdiction,  was 
established,  with  power  to  deal  with  cases 
in  which  the  amount  involved  did  not 
exceed  $r,ooo.  In  order  to  make  provision 
for  the  salary  of  the  new  judge,  the  salaries 
of  the  Chief  Magistrate  and  the  Assistant 
Magistrate  were  abolished,  and  two  Police 
Magistrates  were  appointed  in  their  stead. 
From  this  date  the  Justices  of  the  Peace 
ceased  to  have  any  criminal  jurisdiction,  and 
at  the  present  day  their  powers  are  confined 
to  granting  licenses,  visiting  the  gaol,  hos- 
pitals, and  asylums,  and  awarding  punishment 
to  refractory  prisoners  when  the  power  of 
the  Superintendent  of  the  Gaol  is  not  sufficient 
to  deal  adequately  with  the  case.  The  Court 
of  Summary  Jurisdiction  was  abolished  in 
1873,  its  powers  being  transferred  to  the 
Supreme  Court,  over  the  summary  jurisdiction 
of  which  a  puisne  judge  was  appointed  to 

By  an  Order  in  Council  dated  April  17, 
1844,  Her  Britannic  Majesty's  Consular  Officers 
residing  at  the  several  ports  were  invested 
with  jurisdiction  over  British  subjects  within 
their  respective  districts  for  the  repression 
and  punishment  of  crime,  and  for  the  settle- 
ment of  disputes  and  contentions.  In  the 
exercise  of  this  authority  it  was  stipulated 
that  they  were  to  be  governed  by  the  laws 
and  ordinances  promulgated  by  the  Super- 
intendent of  Trade  (who  was  at  that  time, 
and  for  many  years  after,  the  Governor  of 
Hongkong)  with  the  advice  of  the  Legislative 
Council  of  Hongkong.  The  right  of  appeal 
to  the  Supreme  Court  of  Hongkong  in  certain 
cases  was  allowed.  By  an  Order  of  the 
Queen  in  Council  in  November,  1853,  the 
powers  of  the  Consular  officers  and  Super-, 
intendent  of  Trade  were  extended,  authority 
was  vested  in  the  Chief  Superintendent  of 
Trade  (as  distinct  from  the  Governor  of 
Hongkong),  and  in  the  Consuls  and  Vice- 
Consuls  in  their  respective  districts,  subject 
to  the  approval  of  the  Chief  Superintendent, 
to  make  and  enforce  by  fine  and  imprison- 
ment rules  and  regulations  for  the  observance 
of  treaties,  and  for  the  peace,  order,  and 
good  government  of  British  sul)jects  within 
the  dominions  of  the  Emperor  of  China. 
The  Consuls  were  further  authorised  to  hear 
and    decide    all    civil    suits    between    British 


subjects  or  between  British  subjects  and 
Chinese,  subject  in  the  former  case  to  appeal 
to  the  Supreme  Court  of  Hongkong  should 
the  sum  in  dispute  exceed  $1,000.  and  to 
the  Chief  Superintendent  in  a  suit  for  less 
than  that  amount.  The  Consuls  were  em- 
powered to  inquire  into  all  crimes  and 
offences  charged  against  any  British  subject, 
and.  on  conviction,  to  iuHict  the  punishment 
provided  for  under  the  Order.  They  were 
also  invested  with  the  power  of  deporting 
refractory  subjects.  Appeals  from  the  de- 
cisions of  the  Consular  Court  relating  to 
breaches  of  rules  and  regulations  lay  lo  the 
Chief  Superintendent.  For  all  other  crimes 
and  offences  recognised  as  such  under  Ihe 
law  of  England,  the  Chief  Superintendent, 
Consuls,  or  Vice-Consuls  were  empowered 
to  impose  a  fine  not  exceeding  $1,000,  to 
inflict  a  sentence  of  twelve  months'  imprison- 
ment, or  to  send  the  case  for  trial  before 
the  Supreme  Court  of  Hongkong. 

The  new  regime  was  not  altogether  satis- 
factory. In  the  case  of  murder  or  arson  the 
maximum  punishment  which  the  Consuls 
could  award  was  inadequate,  yet  it  was  the 
only  one  that  could  with  certainty  be  applied. 
To  send  a  criminal  to  Hongkong  for  trial 
was.  as  a  general  rule,  equivalent  to  acquit- 
ting him,  for  in  the  case  of  serious  crimes 
against  Chinese  it  was  impossible  to  adduce 
sufficient  evidence  to  obtain  a  conviction 
from  a  Hongkong  jury.  In  civil  suits,  which 
were  increasing  daily  in  number  and  impor- 
tance with  the  growth  of  trade,  the  Consular 
Officers  were  without  that  knowledge  of  the 
law  which  alone  could  ensure  a  proper 
respect  for  their  decisions,  and  merchants 
and  others  were  put  to  great  expense  by 
being  obliged  to  take  their  cnses  either 
directly,  or  indirectly  by  appeal,  to  the 
Supreme  Court  of  Hongkong,  where  the 
judgments  of  Ihe  inferior  courts  were  in- 
variably reversed. 

After  1859  the  Governor  of  Hongkong  had 
no    jurisdiction    beyond    the   territorial   limits 

of  the  Colony.  The  Minister  Plenipotentiary 
and  Chief  Superintendent  of  Trade  at  the 
Court  of  Peking  had  power  to  make  and 
enforce  all  such  rules  and  regulations  as 
appeared  to  him  necessary  or  expedient  for 
the  preservation  of  peace  and  order  among 
British  subjects  of  all  classes  in  China,  and 
for  the  maintenance  of  friendly  relations  with 
the  Chinese.  In  all  cases  that  arose  under 
these  rules  and  regulations  he  was  the  judge 
of  appeal.  Her  Britannic  Majesty's  Minister 
in  Japan  was  granted  similar  power  in  that 

On  March  9,  1865,  a  Queen's  Order  in 
Council  was  passed  which  hnally  severed  the 
British  communities  in  China  and  Japan  from 
the  Colony  of  Hongkong  by  giving  them  a 
Supreme  Court  of  Civil  and  Criminal  Judica- 
ture at  Shanghai,  with  subordinate  tribunals 
at  the  various  courts.  Shortly  after  this 
there  was  an  agitation  in  favour  of  making 
the  Supreme  Court  of  Hongkong  the  head 
Court  of  Appeal.  This  agitation  arose  in 
consequence  of  different  decisions  which  had 
been  given  with  regard  to  the  bankruptcy 
laws  by  the  Chief  Justice  of  Hongkong  and 
the  Chief  Judge  of  Shanghai.  The  one  in- 
sisted that  before  a  firm  could  file  a  petition 
in  bankruptcy  it  was  necessary  for  all  the 
partners  to  be  present,  whereas  the  other 
held  that  the  atiendance  of  the  resident 
partner  or  partners  was  sufficient.  Nothing, 
however,  resulted  from  the  agitation  or  from 
the  demand  which  was  put  forward  in  1878 
for  the  creation  of  a  Court  of  Appeal  inter- 
mediate between  the  Supreme  Courts  of 
Hongkong,  China,  and  Japan  and  the  Privy 

The  constitution  of  the  Supreme  Court  of 
Hongkong  was  amended  in  1873  by  an  ordi- 
nance which  enacted,  inter  alia,  that  a  puisne 
judge  should  be  appointed  to  perform  any 
judicial  or  other  act  which  the  Chief  Justice 
was  authorised  to  perform  ;  and  that  there 
should  be  an  appeal  from  every  decision  of 
either  of  the  judges,  or  from  the  decision  of  a 

magistrate,  to  a  full  court,  consisting  of  the 
Chief  Justice  and  the  Puisne  Judge,  the  former 
possessing  a  double  or  casting  vote  in  the 
event  of  there  being  a  difference  of  opinion. 

This  Ordinance  remains  in  force  to-day. 
Criminal  Sessions  are  held  monthly,  and 
they  are  presided  over  by  the  Chief  Justice, 
or,  in  his  absence,  by  the  Puisne  Judge. 
When  there  is  a  heavy  calendar  both  Judges 
hold  courts,  and  have  power  to  pass 
sentence  of  death  subject  to  the  veto  of 
the  Governor  in  Council.  In  normal  cir- 
cumstances the  principal  duties  of  the  Puisne 
Judge  are  to  preside  over  the  Court  of 
Summary  Jurisdiction,  which  is  analagoiis 
to  a  County  Court  in  Great  Britain.  For 
obvious  reason  the  constitution  of  the  Court 
of  Appeal  is  regarded  as  capable  of  improve- 
ment, and  for  some  time  there  has  been  a 
demand  for  the  appointment  of  a  third 
judge,  for  which  the  pressure  of  work  in 
the  Supreme  Court  alone  furnishes  ample 
justification.  In  the  case  of  a  suit  involving 
not  less  than  ;£l500  there  is  a  final  appeal  to 
the  Privy  Council. 

Barristers  and  attorneys  who  have  qualified 
in  the  United  Kingdom  are  alone  entitled  to 
practise  before  the  courts.  In  the  early 
days  both  branches  of  the  legal  profession 
were  amalgamated,  but  later  on,  when  the 
number  of  legal  practitioners  increased,  they 
were  kept  distinct,  in  spite  of  the  protests  of 
the  general  community.  By  an  Ordinance 
passed  in  1856  it  was  provided  that  any 
person  who  had  served  for  not  less  than 
three  years  as  Registrar,  Deputy  Registrar, 
Clerk,  or  Interpreter  of  the  Supreme  Court, 
or  of  a  judge  of  that  court,  as  a  clerk  to 
the  Attorney-General,  or  as  a  clerk  of  the 
peace,  should  be  eligible  to  practise  as  an 
attorney,  solicitor,  or  proctor  upon  satisfying 
a  Board  of  Examiners,  consisting  of  the 
Attorney-General,  a  Barrister  or  Registrar  of 
the  Supreme  Court,  and  two  practising 
attorneys,  of  his  fitness.  This  Ordinance, 
however,  was  repealed  in  1871. 


By  C.   D.    WILKINSON,    Solicitor,   Hongkong. 

By  the  first  Charter  of  the  Colony  of  Hong- 
kong in  1843,  it  was  provided  that  the  laws 
then  existing  in  England  should  be  in  force 
in  Hongkong,  except  so  far  as  they  were 
inapplicable  to  the  ItK-al  circumstances  of  the 
Colony  or  of  its  inhabitants.  The  local  cir- 
cumstances necessarily  rendered  inapplicable 
certain  laws  then,  and  still,  in  force  in 
England  ;  such,  for  instance,  as  the  Mortmain 
Act,  which,  although  the  question  of  its  appli- 
cability to  Hongkong  has  never  arisen  in  the 
Court  of  this  Colony,  was  declared  by  the 
House  ol  Lords  in  the  case  of  Whicker  v. 
Hume  17.  H.L.,  124I  not  to  be  applicable  to  any 
of  the  colonics.  It  would  appear  never  to  have 
been  definitely  settled  by  the  Supreme  Court 
of  Hongkong  that  any  particular  statute  or 
statutes  in  force  in  England,  prior  to  1843, 
has  or  have  no  application  to  this  Colony. 
The  question  seems  to  have  arisen  but  once, 
when  two  persons  were  convicted  by  the 
magistrate  of  the  criminal  offence  of  champerty 
and  maintenance.  The  defendants  in  this  case 
appealed  to  the  full  Court  against  the  magis- 
trate's decision,  and  on   their  behalf  it  was 

argued,  upon  the  strength  of  the  judgment 
of  the  Privy  Council  in  the  case  of  Ram 
Coomar  Coondoo  and  Anor  v.  Chundar  Canto 
Mookerjee  (2  Ap.  Ca.  :  186),  that  the  old 
English  laws  with  regard  to  champerty  and 
maintenance,  which,  though  unaltered,  had 
fallen  into  desuetude  in  England,  were  as 
much  inapplicable  to  the  inhabitants  of  Hong- 
kong as,  it  was  held  in  the  case  cited,  they 
were  to  the  inhabitants  of  India.  The  full 
Court  did  not  decide  the  point,  but  allowed 
the  appeal  on  other  grounds. 

The  provisions  of  the  Ordinance  of  1845 
that  "  the  law  of  England  shall  be  in  full 
force  "  made  it  appear  that  all  statutes  already 
enacted  in  England  after  April  5,  1843,  and 
thereafter  to  be  enacted,  were  by  that  Ordi- 
nance extended  to  the  Colony  ;  but  this  not 
being  the  intention  of  the  Legislature,  an 
Ordinance  (No.  2  of  1845)  was  in  the  following 
year  passed,  which  provided  that  such  of  the 
laws  of  England  only  (subject  to  the 
exception  of  their  applicability  to  the  circum- 
stances of  the  Colony  and  its  inhabitants),  and 
such  portion   of  the  practice  of  the   English 

courts,  as  existed  on  April  5,  1843,  should 
be  in  force  in  the  Colony  from  thenceforth. 
However,  although  many  statutes  of  impor- 
tance were  enacted  in  England  after  1843, 
the  provisions  of  which  might  have  been 
usefully  introduced  into  the  Colony,  very  little 
trouble,  apparently,  was  taken  for  many  years 
by  the  Legislature  to  amend  the  law  in  this 
Colony  as  it  had  been  amended  in  England. 
Occasionally,  necessary  ordinances  were 
passed  relating  to  procedure,  adopting  tlie 
methods  provided  by  English  statutes  then 
recently  enacted.  Of  course  no  provision 
made  by  a  local  ordinance  of  a  Colony  could 
deprive  the  Home  Government  of  power 
expressly  to  extend  to  the  Colony  the  pro- 
visions of  any  statute  enacted  subsequently 
to  1843.  Moreover,  the  right  of  our  Sovereign 
to  make  all  such  laws  as  might  appear 
necessary  for  the  peace,  order,  and  good 
government  of  the  Colony  was  expressly 
reserved  by  the  Charter. 

The  first  Ordinance  of  any  particular 
importance  which  was  passed  after  the 
Colony  obtained  a  local   legislature  by  virtue 


of  its  Charter,  was  one  which  provided  for 
the  registration  of  deeds,  documents,  and 
judgments  affecting  landed  property  in 
Honglvong,  Ordinance  No.  3  (now  styled 
No.  I)  of  1844,  whereby  a  land  office  was 
established,  in  which,  it  was  provided,  all 
such  deeds,  documents,  and  judgments  should 
be  registered  within  the  period  of  time 
mentioned — one  month  after  execution  in  the 
case  of  all  documents  executed  in  the  Colony, 
or  twelve  months  if  executed  in  any  other 
place.  Neglect  to  obey  the  provisions  of  this 
Ordinance,  it  was  further  provided,  should 
render  such  deeds  and  documents  absolutely 
null  and  void  to  all  intents  and  purposes  as 
against  any  subsequent  boihi  fide  purchaser 
or  mortgagee  of  the  property  affected. 

The  establishment,  by  this  Ordinance,  of  a 
register  of  titles  to  landed  property  rendered 
conveyancing  a  comparatively  easy  matter, 
although  considerable  difficulties  have  occa- 
sionally been  experienced  by  reason  of  the 
custom  among  the  Chinese  of  purchasing 
property  in  a  "Tong"  name,  that  is  to  say, 
a  name  invented  to  represent  a  family,  or  a 
body  of  persons  descended  from  a  common 
ancestor.  In  the  early  days  of  the  Colony 
this  custom  was  apparently  unknown  to  legal 
practitioners,  with  the  result  that  titles  to 
some  properties  were  subsequently  found  to 
be  much  complicated.  Of  late  years,  however, 
the  Chinese  themselves  have  come  to  under- 
stand that  in  dealing  with  landed  property  in 
this  Colony,  use  must  not  be  made  of  a 
"Tong"  name. 

The  tenure  of  practically  all  the  land  in 
Hongkong  and  its  dependencies  is  under 
lease  from  the  Crown  for  a  term  of  either 
999  years  or  75  years,  the  Colony  deriving 
a  very  large  part  of  its  revenue  from  the 
Crown  rents  payable  under  these  leases. 
Crown  leases  for  the  shorter  term  usually 
contain  a  provision  giving  the  lessee  a  right 
of  renewal  of  the  lease  upon  the  expiration 
of  the  term,  when,  however,  the  Crown 
rent  may  be  readjusted. 

In  the  early  days  of  the  Colony  by  far  the 
greater  number  of  residents  were  not  British 
subjects,  but  Chinese.  Many,  as  at  the  present 
time,  were  aliens  from  European  countries. 
For  some  reason,  which  is  by  no  means 
clear,  doubts  arose  regarding  the  rights  of 
other  than  natural-born  British  subjects  to 
hold  and  transfer  landed  property  within  the 
Colony.  Accordingly  an  Ordinance  was 
passed  in  1853  for  the  purpose  of  removing 
these  doubts,  and  it  was  provided  that  it 
should  be  lawful  for  any  alien  to  acquire, 
hold,  sell,  and  transfer  any  lands,  or  other 
immovable  property  in  the  Colony  as  fully 
and  effectually  to  all  intents  and  purposes,  as 
if  he  were  a  British  subject  residing  in  the 
Colony.  Recently  similar  doubts  have  arisen 
with  regard  to  foreign  corporations,  and, 
although  it  is  conceived  that  the  necessity  for 
such  provision  does  not  arise,  inasmuch  as 
the  Mortmain  Acts  do  not  apply,  and  a 
foreign  corporation  is  for  all  other  purposes 

regarded  by  our  law  as  an  entity,  it  has  been 
considered  advisable  to  provide  expressly  by 
Ordinance  that  a  foreign  corporation  shall  be 
entitled  to  hold  and  transfer  land  in  the 
Colony.  The  transmission  and  devolution  of 
landed  property  in  the  Colony  is  governed  by 
the  laws  of  England  as  they  existed  prior  to 
1843.  The  Statute  of  8  and  9  Vict.,  c.  106, 
not  having  been  expressly  extended  to  the 
Colony,  and  its  provisions  not  having  been 
introduced  here  by  any  Ordinance,  it  is  un- 
necessary for  the  purpose  of  rendering  valid 
at  law  a  lease  of  landed  property  for  a  term  of 
over  three  years,  to  make  such  lease  by  deed. 
Nevertheless,  it  has  been  the  invariable  practice 
in  the  Colony  to  follow  the  home  practice  in 
this  respect,  and  also  in  regard  to  assign- 
ments of  property.  The  Conveyancing  Act 
of  1881  not  being  in  force  in  Hongkong, 
deeds  relating  to  land  are  necessarily  more 
lengthy  than  they  are  now  required  to  be  in 

On  the  death  intestate  of  the  owner  of 
landed  property  in  the  Colony,  the  land, 
being  leasehold,  devolves  upon  his  adminis- 
trators in  trust  for  his  next  of  kin.  Should 
the  owner  of  property  die  leaving  a  will, 
the  terms  of  that  will  govern  the  devolution 
of  such  property,  provided  the  will  is  exe- 
cuted in  due  form,  according  to  English  law. 
But  in  the  case  of  a  will  made  by  a  Chinese 
testator,  whether  a  native  of,  or  domesticated 
in,  Hongkong  or  the  Empire  of  China, 
special  provision  was  made  by  Ordinance 
in  1856  to  the  effect  that  if  the  same  be 
proved  to  have  been  made  according  to 
Chinese  laws  and  usages,  it  shall  be  treated 
as  a  valid  will  for  the  purpose  of  trans- 
mitting property  in  the  Colony.  At  the  time 
of  the  passing  of  the  Ordinance  it  was  evi- 
dently not  comprehended  by  the  Legislature 
that  there  were  not  then,  as  there  are  not 
now,  laws  and  usages  in  China  with  regard 
to  wills  ;  but  that  property  in  that  country 
devolves  upon  the  next  succeeding  head  of 
the  deceased's  family,  who,  however,  is 
supposed  to  have  a  certain  regard  for  the 
wishes  of  the  deceased,  expressed  verbally 
or  in  writing,  and  whose  conduct  will  be,  to 
some  extent,  regulated  by  the  elders  of  the 
village.  The  Ordinance,  therefore,  is  prac- 
tically of   little  or  no  use. 

In  by  far  the  greater  number  of  instances 
where  a  Chinaman  has  amassed  property  in 
Hongkong  and  died,  he  has  learned  the 
advisability  of  making  a  will,  and  the 
necessity  for  having  two  attesting  witnesses 
to  it.  If  he  has  omitted  to  make  a  will  it  is 
believed,  though  the  fact  can  seldom  be 
proved,  that  after  his  death  a  will  is  pre- 
pared, appointing  executors,  which  purports 
to  have  been  executed  by  him,  and  to  have 
been  duly  attested.  Such  a  will,  however,  is 
generally  a  perfectly  just  one  according  to 
Chinese  ideas,  and  is  therefore  not  disputed, 
the  sole  object  in  propounding  it  being  to 
avoid  the  necessity  for  finding  the  security 
which  is  required  to  be  found  by  the  admini- 

strator of  an  intestate's  estate.  The  Chinese 
are  a  business  people,  and  a  Chinaman  be- 
coming surety  for  another  always  requires, 
and  is  considered  to  be  entitled  to,  payment 
for  his  services. 

The  Married  Women's  Property  Acts  in 
England  not  h.iving  been  extended  to  Hong- 
kong, the  old  law  at  home  remained  in  force 
here  until  quite  recently,  a  married  woman 
being  incapable  of  entering  into  valid  con- 
tracts, or  of  suing  or  being  sued,  except 
under  the  special  provisions  (Section  8)  of 
the  Supreme  Court  (Summary  Jurisdiction) 
Ordinance,  1873,  which  provides  that  no 
person  shall  be  exempted  from  suing  or 
being  sued  for  any  debt  or  damages  not 
exceeding  $1,000  by  reason  of  coverture 
where  the  husband  is  not  resident  in  the 
Colony.  However,  in  1906  it  was  con- 
sidered advisable  to  amend  the  law  in  this 
respect,  and  to  place  married  women  in 
Hongkong  in  the  same  position  as  their 
sisters  in  England.  Accordingly  an  Ordinance 
was  passed  introducing  into  the  Colony  prac- 
tically all  the  provisions  of  the  Married 
Women's  Property  Act,  1882,  whereby  it  is 
provided  that  a  married  woman  may  acquire, 
hold,  and  dispose  of  property,  and  may  sue 
and  be  sued  as  if  she  were  a  fcmmc  sole. 

The  tendency  in  the  Colony  at  the  present 
time  is  to  assimilate  its  laws,  so  far  as  it  can 
conveniently  be  done,  to  those  of  England. 
Undoubtedly  this  assists  very  much  the 
administration  of  justice,  rendering  it  com- 
paratively easy  for  the  judges  of  the  Hong- 
kong Court  to  arrive  at  a  correct  conclusion 
in  most  cases  in  which  points  of  law  are 
involved,  guided  as  they  are  by  the  decisions 
of  the  High  Court  in  England  on  similar 
subjects.  Unfortunately,  however,  in  some 
branches  the  law  of  the  Colony  differs  from 
the  law  in  England,  although  it  has  been 
intended  to  assimilate  it.  The  law  in  the 
Colony  with  regard  to  trade-marks  is  a  case 
in  point.  An  Ordinance  was  passed  in  1898 
which  had  been  prepared  on  the  lines  of  the 
Trade-marks  Acts  in  England  ;  and  it  was 
believed  by  many,  and  was  probably  intended, 
that  such  Ordinance  conferred  the  same 
rights  upon  registered  proprietors  of  trade- 
marks as  had  been  conferred  on  those  pro- 
prietors in  England  by  the  Home  Acts. 
Nevertheless,  it  has  been  held  by  the  Hong- 
kong Court  that  a  registration  of  a  trade-mark 
does  not  confer  any  actual  rights,  but  merely 
gives  to  the  person  registering  the  mark 
easy  means  of  proof  of  such  rights  as  he 
may  possess  at  common  law,  by  making 
registration  prima  facie  evidence  of  such 
rights.  The  law,  however,  with  respect  to 
trade-marks  will,  it  is  understood,  shortly  be 
amended  by  the  introduction  of  an  Ordinance 
framed  upon  the  existing  Trade-marks  Act  in 
England,  and  by  expressly  conferring  upon 
the  registered  proprietors  of  trade-marks  in 
the  Colony  such  rights  as  are  possessed  by 
registered  proprietors  in  England. 


I.      HOX.  COMMAXDKR   BASIL   K.    H.  TAYI.riK,    K.N. 

4,    Hox.  IJR.  J,  M.  AfKixs<ix.» 
7.    Hox.  Mr.  a.  M.  TH<)M.s<)X.» 

3.    Hox,  Mk.  a.  W.  Brkwix. 
His  Excellency  Maj()K-Gkxkr4i.  HR(>aiivv<k)I),  CM." 

.  2.    Hox   Mr.  H.  K.  Pollock.  K.C. 
Hox.  Mu.  Wii.i.iAM  Chatham,  C.M.G." 
o.    Hox.  Mu.  Kkes-Daviks." 

8.    His  Excellency  Sir  Frederick  Lucard,  K.C.M.G.,  C.H.,  U.S.O. 
10.    Hox.  Mb.  H.  Keswick. 

II.    Hox.  Mr.  E.  a.  Hewett.* 
15.    Hox.  MR.  WEI  YUK.  CMC. 

14.    Hox.  Dr.  Ho  Kai,  M.B.,  C.M.G. 
3.    Hox.  Sir  Paiil  Chater,  Kt.,  C.M.G  «■ 

•  Membere  of  the  Executive  Council. 

Hox.  Mr.  F.  H.  Mav.»  ifi.    Hox.  Mii.  Edward  Osborxe. 

All  except  Hon.  Sir  Paul  Chater  are  members  of  the  Legislative  Council. 





Excellencv  the  Governor  of  Honjjkoiiji,  Colonel 
Sir  Frederick  Dealtry  Lugarcl,  K.C.M.G.,  C.H., 
D.S.O.,  has  spent  thirty  eventful  years  in  the 
service  of  his  country,  and  his  career  as  a 
soldier  and  administrator  has  been  one  un- 
broken series  of  successes. 

The  son  of  the  Rev.  K.  G.  Lugard,  and 
nephew  of  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  Edward 
Lugard,  P.C,  G.C.H.,  he  was  born  on  January 
22,  1858.  From  Rossall  he  proceeded  to 
Sandhurst,  and  in  May,  1878,  obtained  his 
first  commission  as  a  second-lieutenant  in 
the  gth  Foot,  or  Norfolk  Regiment.  He 
received  his  baptism  of  tire  in  the  "  affair  at 
Saidabad"  during  the  Afghan  War  of  1879-80, 
and  for  this  campaign  received  his  first 
medal.  On  January  i,  1881,  he  was  promoted 
lieutenant,  and  in  August,  1885,  was  given  his 
company.  In  the  same  year  he  was  employed 
with  the  Indian  contingent  in  the  Soudan 
Campaign.  He  was  present  at  "  Tofrek," 
better  known  as  "  McNeill's  Zareeba,"  and 
was  •'  mentioned  in  despatches."  For  his 
services  he  was  awarded  the  medal  with 
two  clasps  and  the  Khedive's  star. 

He  was  again  on  active  service  in  Burmah 
in  the  following  year,  where  he  acquitted 
liimself  with  such  distinction  that  he  was 
thiice  mentioned  in  despatches,  and,  in 
.iddition  to  receiving  another  medal  with 
two  clasps,  was  awarded  the  Distinguished 
Service  Order,  then  newly  instituted.  From 
Burmah  he  returned  to  England,  shattered 
in  health,  and  obtained  temporary  half-pay 
leave  on  medical  certiiicate.  Receiving  per- 
mission to  travel,  he  visited  the  advance 
camp  of  the  Italians  at  Saati  and  offered  his 
services  lo  them  in  their  campaign  against 
the  Abyssinians.  Negotiations  were,  how- 
ever, being  conducted  by  a  mission  under 
Mr.  (afterwards  Sir  Gerald)  Portal,  and,  since 
there  was  no  prospect  of  active  service, 
Captain  Lugard  left  for  Zanzibar.  Thence 
he  proceeded  to  Lake  Nyasa,  where  he 
heard  that  the  small  British  trading  station 
of  Karonga,  at  the  north  end  of  the  lake, 
was  invested  by  slave-raiders,  who  had  devas- 
tated the  whole  surrounding  district.  A  relief 
expedition  was  being  formed,  and  he  was 
unanimously  requested  by  the  British  resi- 
dents and  by  Her  Majesty's  Consul  to  take 
command  of  it  (May,  l888).  It  was  during 
this  expedition  that  he  received  his  most 
serious  wound — a  gunshot  wound  in  both 
arms  and  chest — of  which  he  gives  an 
account  in  his  book,  "  Our  East  African 
Empire."  The  trading  company  (African 
Lakes)  who  had  organised  the  defence  of 
Karonga,  were  now  in  straitened  circum- 
stances, and  declared  their  inability  to  con- 
tinue the  struggle  unless  they  received 
pecuniary  assistance.  Difficulties  had  also 
arisen  with  regard  to  the  import  of  the 
necessary  munitions  through  Portuguese  terri- 
tory. In  these  circumstances.  Captain  Lugard 
returned  to  England  to  make  known  the 
critical  situation,  for  he  was  convinced  that 
the  slave-traders  had  no  less  a  scheme  in 
view  than  to  join  hands  across  the  lake 
and  to  oust  the  British,  and  establish  their 
supremacy  in  Mid-Africa.      Mr.  Cecil  Rhodes 

was  anxious  to  adopt  the  scheme  drawn  up 
by  Captain  Lugard  for  patrolling  the  lake 
by  steamers,  and  was  desirous  that  Captain 
Lugard  should  himself  return  and  take  charge 
of  it,  which  he  was  quite  willing  and  eager 
to  do,  but  meantime  Her  Majesty's  Govern- 
ment had  intervened,  with  the  final  result 
that  Nyasaland  was  declared  a  British  Pro- 
tectorate and  added   to  the  Empire. 

Towards  the  close  of  the  year  (1889), 
therefore.  Captain  Lugard  was  free  to  accept 
service  with  the  newly-formed  British  East 
African  Company,  and,  after  some  months  of 
exploration  and  survey  work  on  their  behalf, 
he  accepted  the  difficult  mission  of  trying  to 
forestall  the  Germans,  and  of  concluding  a 
treaty  with  Uganda.  It  was  not  without  great 
difficulty  and  some  danger  that  this  treaty 
was  obtained,  for  the  country  was  divided 
with  factions  who  called  themselves  British, 
French,  and  Mahomedan,  and  all  were 
armed  with  rifles.  With  the  aid  of  the  two 
Christian  factions.  Captain  Lugard  defeated 
the  Mahomedans,  whom  he  repatriated 
later  in  Uganda  on  friendly  terms.  He  then 
proceeded  through  the  unexplored  and  hostile 
country  of  Unyoro,  wliose  army  he  defeated, 
and  reached  the  distant  Albert  Lake  by  way 
of  Ruwenzori  (the  Mountains  of  the  Moon). 
His  object  was  lo  engage  in  his  service  the 
troops  of  Emin  Pasha,  who  had  left  the 
Equatorial  Province  after  many  battles  with 
the  Madhi  and  were  now  on  their  own 
account  devastating  the  region  in  which  they 
had  settled.  With  much  difficulty  he  suc- 
ceeded in  this  task,  and  brought  them  with 
him  to  the  number  of  over  eight  thousand 
(men,  women,  and  children).  Most  of  these 
he  established  in  South  Unyoro  for  the  pro- 
tection of  the  district  of  Toro,  whose  king 
he  had  reinstated  ;  and,  proceeding  with 
comparatively  few  fighting  men,  he  reached 
Uganda  early  in  1892.  In  his  absence  the 
hostility  between  the  French  (or  Roman 
Catholic)  party  and  the  British  (or  Protestant) 
had  reached  a  climax,  and  very  soon  after- 
wards broke  out  in  open  war.  The 
"  French  "  included  Captain  Lugard  with  the 
British  and  he  had,  therefore,  unwillingly 
to  fight.  The  French  party  were  defeated, 
and  thereupon  he  made  a  re-settlement  of 
the  country,  repatriating  both  the  F'rench 
and  the  Mahomedans.  As  before  at  Nyasa, 
so  now  again  in  Uganda,  at  the  critical 
moment  the  Company  in  whose  behalf  he 
was  acting  declared  themselves  unable  to 
bear  any  further  expense,  and  ordered 
Captain  Lugard  to  evacuate  Uganda.  This 
he  declined  to  do,  but,  leaving  the  country 
in  peace  under  his  second  officer.  Captain 
Williams,  he  returned  to  England  to  prosecute 
a  more  difficult  campaign  for  the  "  Retention 
of  Uganda."  Though  little  used  to  public 
speaking,  he  found  himself  compelled  to 
address  audiences  throughout  England  and 
Scotland,  and  though  the  Cabinet  had  decided 
to  abandon  the  country,  the  feeling  became 
so  strong  that  the  decision  was  reversed,  and 
Uganda  was  included  in  the  Empire. 

Later,  Mwanga,  the  king  of  Uganda,  who 
had  originally  been  very  hostile,  wrote  to 
Queen   Victoria ;   "  I   want   you   to   send   this 

same  Captain  Lugard  back  again  to  Uganda 
that  he  may  finish  his  work  of  arranging 
the  country,  for  he  is  a  man  of  very  great 
ability,  and  all  the  Waganda  (natives)  like 
him  very  much  ;  he  is  gentle,  his  judgments 
are  just  and  true,  and  so  I  want  you  to  send 
him  back  to  Uganda." 

However,  the  country  was  now  under  the 
British  Government,  and  the  Foreign  Office, 
for  political  reasons,  considered  it  better  that 
Captain  Lugard  should  not  return.  In  1894, 
the  Royal  Niger  Company,  who  had  con- 
cluded treaties  with  the  kings  of  Borgu  and 
Gurma,  learned  that  the  F'rench  were  about 
to  make  overtures  to  the  king  of  Nikki  whom 
they  regarded  as  the  rightful  king  of  Borgu. 
The  Company  decided  to  protect  themselves 
doubly  by  securing  a  treaty  before  France 
could  do  so.  France,  however,  got  the  start. 
Captain  Decoeur,  leaving  for  Dahomey  on 
July  24,  1894.  Four  days  later  Captain 
Lugard  left  England,  determined  to  reach 
the  king  of  Nikki  first.  On  November  10th, 
he  saw  the  king  of  Nikki,  and  had  the  treaty 
signed  five  days  before  Captain  Decoeur 
arrived.  It  was  a  signal  victory,  and  assured 
the  position  of  the  Royal  Niger  Company. 
Just  alter  this  Captain  Lugard  received  his 
C.B.  In  April,  1895,  he  returned  to  England 
having  been  wounded  by  an  arrow. 

In  1896  he  led  an  expedition  across  the 
Kalahari  Desert  for  the  British  West  Charter 
Land  Company,  who  had  engaged  his  assist- 
ance because  of  the  difficulties — considered 
by  many  to  be  insuperable — of  crossing  the 
desert  without  oxen,  the  oxen  having  died 
of  rinderpest.  He  concluded  a  treaty  with 
Sekomi,  the  chief,  and  established  the  Com- 
pany's agents  there.  He  was  recalled  thence 
by  a  letter  from  Mr.  Chamberlain. 

There  was  a  "  crisis  "  in  West  Africa 
between  ourselves  and  the  French,  which 
seemed  likely  at  any  moment  to  develop 
into  war.  Major  Lugard  accepted  the  post 
of  Commissioner  and  Commandant  in  the 
Hinterland  of  Lagos,  and  took  command  of 
the  troops  there.  He  proceeded  to  raise  the 
West  African  Frontier  Force  (eventually 
some  three  thousand  strong),  and  upon  the 
organisation  of  this  force  the  whole  of  the 
troops  of  the  various  colonies  in  West  .Africa 
have  since  been  modelled.  The  crisis  with 
France  was  fortunately  brought  to  an  end  by 
the  Convention  of  June  14,  1898,  but  not 
before  the  hostile  forces  on  the  spot  had 
been  on  the  very  verge  of  hostilities. 

He  now  became  a  Lieut. -Colonel  on  half- 
pay,  and  received  the  medal  and  clasp 
awarded  for  these  operations.  He  returned 
to  England  to  assist  the  Colonial  Office  in 
the  negotiations  with  the  Royal  Niger  Com- 
pany, which  resulted  in  the  transfer  of 
Nigeria  to  the  imperial  administration  on 
January  i,  1900.  Then  he  returned  as  first 
High  Commissioner  (with  the  rank  of 
Brigadier-General),  with  the  task  of  creating 
an  administration. 

When  the  vast  area  known  as  Northern 
Nigeria  (about  300,000  square  miles),  was 
taken  over  by  the  Imperial  Government 
from  the  Royal  Niger  Company,  it  was  for 
the  most  part  wholly  independent  of  British 


control.  The  dominating  race  were  Mah<iine- 
dans  (Fulani).  wlio  raided  the  pagan  tribes 
for  slaves,  and  had  depopulated  vast  areas. 
During  the  first  year,  1900,  the  troops  of 
the  protectorate  (the  West  African  Frontier 
Force)  were  lent  to  Sir  J.  Willcocks  for 
the  Ashanti  War.  In  1901  two  of  the 
principal  and  most  aggressive  Emirs  and 
slave-raiders  were  subdued,  and  their  pro- 
vinces organised  under  residents.  In  1902 
the  kingdom  of  Bornu  was  annexed,  and 
several  Fulani  Emirs  were  conquered  who 
would  not  consent  to  desist  from  sending 
their  armies  to  raid  for  slaves.  Early  in 
1903  the  kingdoms  of  Sokoto  and  Kano 
were  organised  under  British  administration. 
Thus,  the  whole  of  Nigeria  became  amen- 
able to  British  rule,  and  slave-raiding  was 
entirely  stopped.  Before  General  Lugard 
left  Nigeria  in  June.  1906,  he  was  able  to 
report  that  the  country  was  entirely  peaceful, 
and  that  even  slave-dealing  was  almost 
extinct.  The  administration  had  meanwhile 
been  organised. 

Sir  Frederick  Lugard  arrived  in  Hongkong 
and  assumed  the  office  of  Governor  in  suc- 
cession to  Major  Sir  Matthew  Nathan, 
K.C.M.G.,  in  July,  1907. 

In  1902  Sir  Frederick  married  Miss  Flora 
Shaw,  daughter  of  the  late  General  Shaw, 
C.B.,  and  formerly  head  of  the  colonial 
department  of  The  Times,  for  which  news- 
paper she  undertook  special  commissions  to 
South  Africa.  Australia,  Canada,  and  Klon- 
dyke.  Lady  Lugard  has  published  several 
works,  including  "Castle  Blair"  (1878), 
"  Hector,'  a  tale  for  young  people  (1883), 
and  "A  Tropical  Dependency"  (1905). 

Sir  Frederick  and  Lady  Lugard's  English 
residence  is  '•  Little  Parkhurst,"  Abinger 
Common.  Surrey.  His  Excellency's  clubs 
are  the  Athena;um  (special  election),  St. 
James's  and  Royal  Societies',  and  he  is  a 
gold  medallist  of  the  Royal  Geographical 
Society,  a  silver  medallist  of  the  Scottish 
Royal  Geographical  Society,  and  was  elected 
a  life  fellow  of  the  Royal  Colonial  Institute. 

Captain  of  right  half  No.  2  Company  Volun- 
teer Artillerv,  the  section  wliicli  in  1907  won 
both  the  maxim  and  tifteen-pounder  competi- 
tions, and  the  cup  for  the  highest  etticiency. 
Captain  Armstrong  was  Hon.  Aide-de-Camp 
to  His  Excellency  Sir  Matthew  Nathan  and 
to  the  Hon.  Mr.  F.  H.  May  when  the  latter 
was  administering  the  Government. 



32nd  I-iiicers,  l..\.,  Aide-de-Camp  to  His 
Excellency  the  Governor,  was  the  only  son  of 
the  late  Lieut. -Colonel  A.  M.  Taylor,  com- 
manding the  19th  Hussars.  Educated  at 
Wellington  and  Sandhurst,  where  he  dis- 
tinguished himself  in  gymnastics  and  fencing, 
he  received  his  first  commission  on  August  5, 
1896,  and  for  a  year  was  attached  to  the  Dublin 
Fusiliers.  He  then  joined  his  present  regi- 
ment, receiving  his  captaincy  in  August.  1905. 
He  went  to  South  Africa  in  1900-1,  and  was 
present  at  several  engagements,  including 
Paardeburg,  the  relief  of  Kimberley,  Drie- 
fontein,  and  Wittebergen,  being  awarded  the 
Queen's  medal  with  six  clasps.  His  present 
appointment  as  Aide-de-Camp  to  the  Governor 
dates  from  June,  1907. 


Aide-dt-Camp  to  His  Excellency  the  Governor, 
is  Senior  Captain  of  the  Hongkong  Volunteer 
Corps,  to  which  he  has  belonged  since  1803. 
When  in  that  year  the  Corps  was  disbancfed 
and  reformed,  he  served  in  the  ranks  as  a 
gunner.  He  received  his  commission  in  May, 
1899,  and  was  appointed  Captain  on  October 
•5.  '903-  He  was  one  of  the  officers  who 
accompanied  the  Coronation  contingent  from 
Hongkong.      At    the    present     time    he    is 






Private  Secretary  to  His  Excellency  Sir  K. 
Lugard,  Governor  of  Hongkong,  is  a  nephew 
of  Lady  Lugard.  He  was  educated  at  Clifton 
College,  where  he  obtained  his  cricket  and 
running  colours.  When  the  war  broke  out 
in  South  Africa  he  served  his  country  for 
eighteen  months,  receiving  the  Queen's  medal 
and  three  clasps.  In  1901  lie  joined  the 
Transvaal  Civil  Service,  and  in  the  following 
year  was  appointed  Secretary  to  the  Inspector 
of  Mines,  Pretoria  district.  He  acted  in  a 
similar  ofiice  in  the  Krugersdorp  district  from 
1906  until  March,  1907,  when  he  left  the 
Transva:il  Civil  Service.  He  received  his 
present  appointment  on  June  20,  1907. 


QEOROE  BROADWOOD,  C.B.,  came  to  the 
Colony  in  1906  to  take  command  of  His 
Majesty's  P'orces  in  South  China  and  Hong- 
kong. Prior  to  that  date  he  had  held  com- 
mand of  the  troops  in  Natal  (1903-4),  and, 
as  Brigadier-General  of  the  troops  in  the 
Orange  River  Colony  district  (1904-6).  A 
son  of  the  late  Mr.  Thomas  Broadwood,  of 
Holmbush  Park,  Surrey,  he  was  born  on 
March  14,  1862,  and  commenced  his  military 
career  in  the  12th  Lancers  in  1881.  He  has 
seen  much  active  service.  In  1896  he  took 
part  in  the  expedition  to  Doiigola,  being 
present  at  the  operations  of  June  7tli  and 
September  loth.  He  was  mentioned  in  des- 
patches, received  the  Egyptian  medal  with 
two  clasps,  and  the  British   medal,  and   was 

given  the  brevet  rank  of  Lieut. -Colonel.  In  the 
lollowing  year  he  took  part  in  the  Nile  Ex- 
pedition, and  was  present  at  the  action  of 
Abu  Hamed  and  the  subsequent  occupation 
of  Berber,  gaining  two  further  clasps  to  the 
Egyptian  medal,  and  the  4th  class  Osnianieli. 
He  was  present  at  the  cavalry  reconnaissance 
of  April  4,  i8qS,  and  at  the  battles  of  Albara 
and  Khartoum.  Twice  he  was  mentioned  in 
despatches,  and  in  recognition  of  his  services 
the  brevet  rank  of  Colonel  was  bestowed 
upon  him,  whilst  he  received  two  additional 
clasps  to  the  Egyptian  medal  and  was  awar- 
ded the  British  medal.  During  the  South 
African  War,  1899  1902,  when  he  raised 
"  Roberts'  Horse  "  and  afterwards  commanded 
the  2nd  Cavalry  Brigade  he  was  live  times 
mentioned  in  despatches,  including  two  special 
mentions  by  Lord  Roberts.  He  was  made 
Aide-de-Camp  to  His  Majesty  the  King,  and 
was  awarded  the  Queen's  medal  with  six 
clasps  and  the  King's  medal  with  two  clasps, 
while  the  order  of  C.B.  also  was  conferred 
upon  him.  His  addresses  are  the  Military 
Headquarters,  Hongkong  ;  and  94.  Piccadilly, 
London,  W. 

C.M.Q,,  the  Colonial  Secretary,  completed 
twenty-six  years'  service  under  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  Colony  in  November,  1907,  and  a 
quarter  of  a  century's  service  in  the  Colony 
and  China  in  t'ebruarv,  1908.  The  fourth 
son  of  the  late  Right  Honble.  G.  A.  C  May, 
Lord  Chief  Justice  of  Ireland,  and  of  Olivia, 
daughter  of  Sir  Mathew  Barrington,  Bart., 
of  Glenstal,  Co.  Limerick,  he  was  born  on 
March  14,  i860,  at  Dublin  After  being  at 
Harrow  he  proceeded  to  Trinily  College, 
Dublin,  where  he  look  the  B.A.  degree,  and 
was  first  honoursman  and  prizeman  in 
Classics  and  Modern  Languages  in  i88r.  In 
the  same  year,  he  was  appointed,  after  a 
competitive  examination  to  a  cadetship  in 
Hongkong,  but  before  coming  out  to  the  East 
served  in  the  Colonial  Office  for  twelve 
months.  He  studied  the  dialect  at  Canton  for 
six  months,  and  has  since  written  a  ''Guide 
to  Cantonese."  From  the  end  of  1883  until 
the  beginning  of  1886  he  was  in  Peking 
learning  the  Mandarin  dialect,  and  at  the  end 
of  that  period  passed  the  higher  examination 
for  interpreters  in  the  Consular  service. 
Upon  returning  to  Hongkong,  Mr.  May  was 
employed  as  Assistant  Registrar-General  and 
as  interpreter  for  the  Governor  at  interviews 
with,  and  receptions  of,  high  Chinese  officials. 
His  subsequent  appointments  included  those 
of  Assistant  Colonial  Secrelary,  private  secre- 
tary to  His  Excellency  Sir  W.  des  Voeux,  to 
Sir  K.  Fleming,  and  to  Major-General  Barker  ; 
Acting  Colonial  Treasurer  ;  Vice-President  of 
the  Sanitary  Bo^ird ;  Captain  Superintendent 
of  the  Police  and  Fire  Brigade ;  and  Superin- 
tendent of  Victoria  Gaol.  In  1895  ''^  was 
awarded  the  Companionship  of  the  Most 
Distinguished  Order  of  St.  Michael  and  St. 
George  in  recognition  of  special  services 
rendered  during  the  plague  of  1894,  and  in 
suppressing  a  strike  in  1895  which,  while  it 
lasted,  paralysed  business  connected  with 
shipping.  In  1897  he  succeeded  in  bringing 
to  light  widespread  corruption  in  the  police 
force  under  his  command,  and  for  two  years 
he  was  engaged  in  purging  the  force  of 
dishonest  members  and  in  reorganising  the 
Criminal  Investigation  Department,  which  he 
kept  under  his  personal  control.  In  1899 
Mr.  May  organised  Ihe  police  administration 
of  the  New  Territories,  and  for  two  years 
subsequently  was  actively  employed  in  .sup- 
pressing the  lawlessness  which  was  very  rife 


in   the  newly-acquired  area.     As   Superinten- 
dent of  Victoria  Gaol — a  post  wliicli  lie  held 
in  conjunction  with  that  of  Captain  Superin- 
tendent  of    the    Police    and    Fire   Brifjade — 
Mr.  May  placed  the  whole  of  I  he  prison   on 
the   separate    system,   and,    while    increasing 
thereby  the  deterrent  effect  of  imprisonment, 
he  greatly  developed  the  means  of  affording 
industrial   employment    to    the    prisoners,   by 
whom   much   of   the   printing   work  required 
in    the    various    Government    departments    is 
now  carried  out.     It  was  in  1902  that  Mr.  May 
received    his    present    appointment,    but    his 
acquaintance    with    the    Colonial    Secretary's 
office  extends  as  far  back  as  January,    1887, 
when  he  was  Acting-Assistant  Colonial  Secre- 
tary, a   position   in    which   he   was  confirmed 
four  years  later.    Mr.  May  has  been  a  member 
of  the  Legislative  Council  since  1895,  and,  by 
virtue  of  his  office,  he  has  now  a  seat  also  on 
the  Executive  Council.     Upon  three  occasions 
Mr.   May   has   administered   the   Government 
of  the   Colony — for   eight    months    in    1903-4 
between   the  departure  of  Sir  Henry  Arthur 
Blake,  and  the  arrival  of  Sir  Matthew  Nathan  ; 
for  five  weeks  at  the  close  of   1906  and  the 
beginning    of    1907    during    the    absence    on 
sick-leave   of   Sir   Malthew   Nathan    after    an 
accident   at   polo ;    and   for   three   months   in 
1907  between  the  departure   of   Sir  Matthew 
Nathan     and     the     arrival     of     the     present 
Governor,     Sir     F.    D.    Lugard.       As    might 
naturally  be  expected    in  view   of   his  official 
position  and  long  residence  in  the  Colony,  Mr. 
May  is  connected  in  one  capacity  or  another 
with    a    number   of    local    institutions.     He   is 
Rector  of  the  Hongkong  College  of  Medicine  ; 
Chairman  of  the  Governing  Body  of  Queen's 
College  ;      Chairman      of      the      Board      of 
Examiners  ;     President  of   the   Y.M  C.A.  ;     a 
member  of  the  Colonial  Church  Council  ;     a 
steward  of   the  Jockey  Club  ;   Commodore  of 
the    Koyai    Hongkong    Yacht    Club  ;      and    a 
member   of   the   Committee  of  the  Volunteer 
Reserve   Association    and   of    the    Hongkong 
Gymkhana   Club.       An    all-round    sportsman, 
his  favourite  recreations  are  hunting,  shooting, 
fishing,   and    yachting.     He    is    the   author  of 
several    publications,   including    manuals    for 
use    in    the    police    force    and    a    history    of 
yachting     in     Hongkong.       Mrs.     May     is     a 
daughter     of     General     Sir     George     Digby 
Barker,     K.C.B.,    of     "  The     Priory,"     Clare, 

J. P.,  D.L.,  who  was  appointed  Attorney- 
General  for  the  Colony  in  1907,  was  born  on 
May  II,  1863,  and  is  the  eldest  son  of  the 
late  Sir  William  Davies,  of  Scoreston,  Pem- 
brokeshire, who  represented  his  county  in 
Parliament  from  1880  to  1892.  After  being 
at  Eton,  Mr.  Rees-Davies  proceeded  to  Trinity 
Hall,  Cambridge,  where  he  graduated  B.A. 
in  1885.  Two  years  later  he  was  called  to 
the  Bar  at  the  Inner  Temple,  and  joined 
the  South  Wales  Circuit.  In  1892  he  suc- 
ceeded his  father  in  the  representation  of 
Pembrokeshire,  in  the  Liberal  interest  for 
six  years.  During  this  time  he  was  private 
secretary  to  the  late  Sir  William  Harcourt, 
who  was  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  from 
1893  to  1895.  Mr.  Rees-Davies  is  a  Magistrate 
and  Deputy  Lieutenant  for  Pembrokeshire. 
He  was  Attorney-General  in  the  Bahama 
Islands  from  1898  to  1902,  acting  during  a 
portion  of  that  time  as  Chief  Justice,  and 
was  King's  Advocate  at  Cyprus  from  1902 
to  1907.  His  position  now,  at  Hongkong, 
entitles  him  to  a  seat  upon  the  Legislative 
Council.  He  is  also  on  the  Executive  Council 
and   the  Standing   Law    Committee.       He   is 

a  member  of  the  Reform  Club,  London,  and 
of  the  Hongkong  and  various  local  sporting 
clubs.  His  chief  recreations  are  riding  and 
shooting.  Mr.  Rees-Davies  married,  in  1898, 
Florence  Beatrice,  the  second  daughter  of 
Mr.  John  Birkett,  of  Kendal,  Westmoreland. 

THOMSON,  the  Colonial  Treasurer  of  Hong- 
kong, Is,  ex  officio,  a  member  of  the  Executive 
and  Legislative  Councils  with  a  seat  on  the 
Finance  and  Public  Works  Committees.  The 
second  son  of  Mr.  J.  W.  Thomson,  M.A.. 
schoolmaster  and  Isabella,  the  eldest  daughter 
of  the  late  Mr.  Alexander  Macdonald,  of 
Kindrought,  Portsoy,  N.B.,  he  was  born  on 
September  27,  i86j,  at  Turriff,  Scotland. 
He  had  a  successful  career  at  Aberdeen 
University,  taking  his  M.A.  degree,  with  first- 
class  honours  in  mathematics,  in  1883.  For 
the  following  two  years  he  was  lecturer  in 
mathematics  at  NainI  Tal  College,  North- 
West  Provinces,  India,  but  in  1887  returned 
to  Scotland,  and,  later,  took  up  the  appoint- 
ment of  Assistant-Professor  of  Mathematics 
at  Aberdeen.  In  the  same  year  he  entered 
the  Hongkong  Civil  Service  by  the  usual 
competitive  examination.  After  spending 
twelve  months  in  the  Colonial  Office,  during 
which  time  he  won  the  Bacon  Scholarship 
at  Gray's  Inn,  he  came  out  to  the  Colony, 
arriving  In  October,  1888.  Having  attained 
the  necessary  proficiency  in  the  Chinese  lan- 
guage, he  was  appointed,  In  October,  1890, 
to  fill  the  temporary  vacancy  of  Chief  Clerk 
in  the  Colonial  Secretary's  office.  Since  then 
he  has  occupied  numerous  administrative 
positions,  including  those  of' Clerk  of  Councils, 
Superintendent  01  Victoria  Gaol,  Assistant 
Colonial  Secretary,  Registrar-General,  Post- 
master-General, and  Colonial  Secretary  ;  and 
in  July,  1898,  was  appointed  permanently  to 
his  present  post.  During  his  residence  in 
the  Colony  he  has  served  on  the  Tung  Wall 
Hospital  Commission,  the  Registry  of  the 
Supreme  Court  Commission  ;  and  has  pre- 
sided over  the  deliberations  of  two  Committees 
which  have  been  appointed  with  regard  to 
the  subsidiary  coinage  question.  He  was  an 
original  member,  and  for  some  time  honorary 
secretary  of  the  governing  body  of  Queen's 
College  ;  was  a  trustee  of  tlie  Belillos  Scholar- 
ships ;  and  has  been  vice-president,  and  has 
acted  as  president,  of  the  Sanitary  Board. 
For  his  services  in  compiling  the  first  edition 
of  the  General  Orders  he  received  the  thanks 
of  the  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Colonies. 
Mr.  Thomson  is  a  member  of  the  Hongkong 
Club,  but  does  not  now  belong  to  any  other 
club,  having  ceased  for  some  years  to  take 
any  active  interest  in  sport,  his  chief  recrea- 
tion being  reading. 

C.M.Q.,  M.I.C.E.,  Director  of  Public  Works, 
a  member  of  the  Executive  and  Legislative 
Councils,  and  vice-president  of  the  Sanitary 
Board,  has  been  associated  with  the  develop- 
ment and  progress  of  the  Colony  for  seventeen 
years.  He  was  born  in  July,  1859,  and  was 
educated  at  the  Royal  High  School,  Edin- 
burgh, and  at  Edinburgh  University.  He 
went  first  as  assistant  to  Messrs.  Thos.  Meik 
&  Sons,  the  well-known  firm  of  civil 
engineers,  Edinburgh,  and  afterwards  to  the 
engineer  of  the  Bristol  Docks.  He  came  to 
Hongkong  as  Executive  Engineer  in  1890, 
and  in  1893  received  the  acting  appointment 
of  Director  of  Public  Works.     On  his  return 

from  leave  in  1897,  he  received  the  additional 
appointments  of  Water  Authority  and  mem- 
ber of  the  Legislative  Council.  In  1901  he 
acted  also  as  president  of  the  Sanitary  Board, 
and  in  October  of  the  same  year  was  con- 
firmed In  the  appointments  which  he  now 
holds.  Mr.  Chatham  was  a  member  of  the 
Queen's  Jubilee  Committee,  acting  as  honor- 
ary secretary  for  some  years,  and  taking  a 
leading  part  in  carrying  out,  at  a  cost  of 
^20,000,  the  construction  of  the  Jubilee  Road 
and  the  Hospital  for  Women  and  Children. 
During  1907  he  was  created  a  Companion 
of  the  Order  of  St.  Michael  and  St.  George 
in  recognition  of  his  long  service  in  the 
Colony.  Mr.  Chatham,  who  lives  at  the  Peak, 
is  a  member  of  the  Hongkong  Club. 



the  principal  Civil  Medical  Ollicer  of  Hong- 
kong, was  born  in  1856,  and  is  the  son  of 
the  late  Rev.  S.  Atkinson,  M.A.  He  was 
educated  at  Woodhouse  Grove  School  and 
at  Queen's  College,  Taunton.  His  medical 
training  was  sound  and  comprehensive.  He 
was  prizeman  at  the  London  Hospital 
Medical  College,  and  holds  the  degree  of 
M.B.  London,  and  the  diplomas  of  M.R.C.S. 
Eng.,  L.S.A.  Loud.,  and  D.P.H.  Cantab.  For 
nearly  eight  years  he  was  the  Resident 
Medical  Officer  of  St.  Mary  Abbott's  Infirmary, 
Kensington,  and  for  two  years  the  Medical 
Officer  of  one  of  the  districts  in  that  locality, 
before  coming,  in  1887,  to  take  up  the 
appointment  of  Superintendent  of  the  Govern- 
ment Civil  Hospital,  and  Medical  Officer  to 
the  Small  Pox  Hospital  and  the  Government 
Lunatic  Asylums,  Hongkong.  Seven  years 
later  he  was  acting  as  Colonial  Surgeon,  and 
in  1897  he  obtained  his  present  post.  During 
the  plague  epidemic  of  the  following  year 
his  services  in  preventing  the  spread  of 
infection,  and  stamping  out  the  disease,  were 
acknowledged  in  a  letter  of  thanks  from  the 
Secretary  of  State.  Dr.  Atkinson,  who  has 
been  president  of  the  Sanitary  Board  since 
1897,  and  a  member  of  the  Executive  Council 
since  1903,  has  from  time  to  time  contributed 
articles  to  the  Lancet  and  other  British 
medical  journals.  He  is  a  Fellow  of  the 
Royal  Colonial  Institute  and  of  the  Society 
of  Tropical  Medicine  and  Hygiene  ;  and  is 
an  honorary  life  member  of  the  St.  John 
Ambulance  Association.  He  resides  at  Vic- 
toria Hospital,  Barker  Road,  the  Peak. 

SIR  C.  PAUL  CHATER,  Kt.,  C.M.Q.— Prob- 
ably no  other  man  has  done  so  much  for 
the  commercial  advancement  of  the  Colony 
as  Sir  Catchick  Paul  Chaler,  Kt.,  C.M.G. 
To  him  Hongkong  owes  many  of  its  most 
prosperous  public  companies,  some  twenty  of 
which  still  include  him  on  their  directorate. 
The  son  of  Mr.  Chater  Paul  Chater,  of  Cal- 
cutta, Sir  Paul  was  born  in  1846,  and 
arrived  in  Hongkong  in  1864  as  an  assistant 
In  the  bank  of  Hindustan,  China,  and  Japan. 
He  resigned  this  position,  in  1866,  to  start 
business  as  an  exchange  and  bullion  broker. 
In  1886  he  was  chosen  by  his  fellow  Justices 
of  the  Peace  to  fill  a  vacancy  on  the  Legis- 
lative Council  caused  by  the  absence  on 
leave  of  Mr.  F.  D.  Sassoon,  and  when,  in 
1887,  Mr.  Sassoon  resigned  his  seat.  Sir  Paul, 
who  was  then  taking  a  holiday  in  India,  was 
unanimously  elected  in  his  stead  for  a  term 
of  six  years.  He  was  re-elected  for  a  further 
period  of  six  years  in  1893,  and  again  in 
1899,    retiring    upon    the    expiration    of    his 


third  tenn  of  office  in  January,  1906.  While 
Sir  Paul  was  a  member  of  the  Legislative 
Council  a  petition  from  the  leading  residents 
was  sent  to  the  SecrcLiry  of  State  in  favour 
of  the  formation  of  a  Municipal  Council. 
The  Secretary  of  Slate,  however,  would  not 
entertain  this  idea,  but  suggested  as  a  sort 
of  compromise  that  two  unollicial  members 
should  be  placed  upim  the  Executive  Council. 
This  suggestion  was  acted  upon,  and  Sir 
Paul  Chater  and  Mr.  J.  Bell  Irving  were 
appointed.  Sir  Paul  still  retains  this  appoint- 
ment, though  he  has  relinquished  the  duties 
of  the  Legislative  Council. 

In    18H4    Sir    Paul    started    a    wharf    and 
godown  business  at  Kowloon,  purchasing  the 
necessary    site   on    the    sea   shore    from    the 
Government.       He    established    the    existing 
Hongkong  and  Kowloon  Wharf  and  Godown 
Company,  and,  to  provide  facilities  for  carry- 
ing on  tlie   business,  reclaimed  some  of  the 
foreshore  and  erected   the   present  godowns 
and  wh.Trves.     P'our  years  later  the  business 
was    amalgamated    with    that   carried   on    at 
Messrs.    Jardine,    Matheson    &    Co.'s    wharf. 
He    originated    the    Praya    Reclamation,    in 
1887,    by    writing    to    the    Government    and 
submitting  a  scheme  which  was  accepted  by 
marine  lot-holders.    Later,  he  visited  England 
and  received  the  Secretary  of  State's  sanction 
to    carry    out    the    work.       The    foundation 
stone  was  laid,  at  the  corner  of  the  cricket 
ground,  by  the  Duke  of  Connaught,  in  1.90, 
Sir   Paul   Chater   presenting   a   statue  of  His 
Koyal  Highness  to  the  Colony  in  commemo- 
ration of  the  event.    The  work  was  concluded 
in  1905,  and  the  result  has  been  an  addition 
to  the  Colony  of  considerable  foreshore  upon 
which  have  been  erected  some  of  the  finest 
hongs  in   the   East.     In    1892  he  rendered  a 
signal   service  to  the  French  Government  in 
Tonkin    by   opening   up   coal   mines   in   that 
country.      He    formed    the    Societe    Kranyais 
Chart)onnages  de  Tonkin,  and  in  recognition 
of  his  services  he  received  that  much-coveted 
decoration,  the  I.egion  of  Honour.     Sir  Paul 
was   the   first    to   advocate    the    acquirement 
of   the    new    territory    on    the    mainland    of 
China.     He   wrote   to  the  Government  upon 
the  subject  four  years  before  the  actual  lease 
was  executed.     He   again   urged  the   matter 
upon    the    authorities    at    the    lime    of    the 
Chino-Japanese  War,  and  secured  the  support 
of    the    Chamber    of    Commerce,   the    China 
Association,   and   the    unofficial    members   of 
the     Legislative     Council.      Indeed,    he     has 
been   identified  with  most  public  movements 
since    his    arrival    in   the    Colony.     He    was 
treasurer,   and   afterwards   chairman,   of   the 
Queen's  Jubilee  Committee,  and  In  1897  was 
chairman  of  the  Diamond  Jubilee  Committee. 
At  this  period,  in  recognition  of  his  numerous 
public    services,    he    was    created    a   C.M.G. 
A   man   of  great  wealth,  his  purse  has  ever 
been  at  the  disposal  of  any  good  cause.     To 
take  but  one  example  of  his  generosity,  the 
first     Anglican     Church     at     Kowloon,     St. 
Andrew's,  was  erected  and  presented  by  him 
to    the    Colony.     In    1902    he    received    the 
honour   of    knighthood.     His    life    has    been 
one    ceaseless    round    of    activity,    and    his 
energies    seem    only    to    increase    with    ad- 
vancing years.     A  short  time  since  he  com- 
menced operations  in  a  new  sphere — mining. 
After  spending  a  great  deal  of  money  pros- 
pecting in  the  new  territory  for  minerals  he 
was  rewarded  by  a  rich   discovery  of  iron. 
The  Hongkong  Mining  Company  was  formed 
to  work  this  deposit,  which   promises   to   be 
an  immense  source  of  wealth  to  the  Colony. 
Sir   Paul   is  interested   in   all  kinds  of  sport. 
He   has   been  a  steward  of  the  Jockey  Club 
for   a   quarter   of   a   century   and    has    been 
its  president  for  many  years.    He  is  a  mem- 

ber of  the  Hongkong  Club,  and  is  the 
owner  of  one  of  the  finest  private  residences 
in  the  Colony,  Marble  Hall,  Conduit  Koad, 
where  he  has  galhered  together  a  collection 
of  curios  and  works  of  art  that  is 
un.ipproached  bv  any  other  collection  in  the 
Far  East. 


is  one  of  those  men  who,  coining  from  old 
county  families  and  choosing  business  careers, 
have   settled   In   some    far    country,   and,    by 
their  innate  ability,  their  enterprise,  and  their 
steadfast  perseverance  in  face  of  all  obstacles, 
and  rigid  adherence  to  the  highest  principles 
of  commercial  integrity,  have  done  much  to 
earn    England's    reputation    as    a    colonising 
power.       Mr.     Hewett,    who    was    born    on 
September  5,   i860,  is  the  second  son  of  the 
late   Sir   George  J.  K.  Hewett,  Bart.,  of  The 
Old  Hall,  Nealhcrseale,  Leicestershire.    Owing 
to  the  state  of  his  health,  which  was  by  no 
means  robust   in   his   younger   days,  he   was 
educated   mainly   by   private   tutors.      At   the 
age   of   seventeen    he   joined    the    Peninsular 
and  Oriental  Service  at  their   ollice  in 
London,  and  two  years  later  (in  1880)  came  to 
Hongkong.      He  acted  as  agent  for  the  com- 
pany  in   Shanghai   for    seven    years,   was  at 
Yokohama   for  two   years,   and  at   Kobe   for 
six    months.      For  the  last  six  years  he  has 
been  at   Hongkong,  and   has  had   the   super- 
intendence  of   the   whole   of  the    Company's 
traffic    in    the    Far   East   from   Yokohama   to 
Penang.     Two  years   ago    Mr.    Hewett  went 
home  on  a  short  trip  to  England.     This  was 
his   second   holiday   only   during  a  period  of 
twenty-seven  years,  so  unwilling  has  he  been 
to  absent  himself  from  his   office  and  public 
duties.      It  is  but  natural,  therefore,  that  the 
whole  of  his  interests  should  now  be  centred 
in    the     F"ar    East.      Public    affairs    he    has 
always  followed   with   the   greatest  altenlion, 
and  in  the  public  service  has  held  numerous 
positions.        He     was     a     member     of      the 
Shanghai    Municipal    Council    from    1897    to 
1901,  and   occupied  the  chair  for  two  years. 
During  the  trying  period  of  the  Boxer  Rising 
enlire    confidence   wis    reposed    in    him    by 
the    community,    and     he    achieved     a    high 
reputation  as  an  organiser  and  administrator. 
Throughout  the  whole  of  that  anxious  period 
he  made  aclive  preparations  for  the  defence 
of    the   town.      The   fleet   had    sailed    north, 
and  there  was  a  population  of  some  twelve 
thousand   whites  and    nearly   half    a    million 
Chinese   under   his   cluirge.      As   Civil   Com- 
mandant  of    the   volunteers    he   enrolled    all 
the    able-bodied    men,   and    had    a    force   of 
nearly   twelve    hundred   whites    under   arms. 
He  organised  the  first  comp,-iny  of  Japanese 
volunteers  that  had  ever  been  raised  outside 
of  Japan,   and   the   highest  encomiums  were 
passed   upon   him   subsequently   by   both   the 
naval    and    military    authorities.      For    these 
services  and    for  the   work   he    did    for   the 
army    and    navy    he    received    the    English 
medal    for    China,    the    fourth    class    Sacred 
Treasure  of    J<ipan   and   the   Iron   Crown   of 
Austria,  and   was   decorated  as  a  Knight   of 
the  Orange-Nassau  of  Holland.     F'or  several 
years    he   served    on   the   committee    of    the 
Chamber  of  Commerce,  Shanghai,  and  made 
two  special  visits   to    Peking  in   1901   as  the 
representative   of  the   Chamber,   In   order   to 
urge  upon  the  diplomatic  body  the  necessity 
for  pushing  forward  the  conservancy  of  the 
Whangpoo   River,    a   work    of    vital    impor- 
tance  to   the   prosperity  of    the   town.      Mr. 
Hewett    took    the    greatest     interest    in    this 
scheme  and  urged  its  importance   in   season 
and  out  of   season   during  the   whole  period 

of  his  residence  in  Shanghai.  As  the  result 
of  his  efforts  a  special  committee  was 
formed,  consisting  of  the  English,  German, 
American,  French,  and  Dutch  Ministers. 
They  discussed  the  whole  question,  with 
Mr.  Hewett  present  ;is  the  Chamber's  repre- 
sentative, and  adopted  the  proposals  of  the 
Chamber  of  Commerce,  which  were  em- 
bodied in  the  Peace  Protocol  of  1901.  The 
scheme  was  not  carried  out  owing  to 
Chinese  opposition,  but  now  the  Chinese 
themselves  are  doing  the  work  entirely  at 
their  own  expense,  under  the  supervision  of 
a  very  capable  Dutch  engineer.  The  im- 
provements, when  effected,  will  be  In  no 
small  measure  due  to  Mr.  Hewett's  initiative, 
and  they  are  largely  on  the  lines  originally 
suggested  by  him.  Almost  immediately  after 
his  arrival  in  Hongkong  Mr.  Hewett  was 
elected  vice-chairman  of  the  Chamber  of 
Commerce  (1902),  and  has  been  chairman 
since  1903.  On  April  26,  1906,  he  was 
chosen  to  represent  the  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce on  the  Legislative  Council,  and  im- 
mediately afterwards  the  Governor  appointed 
him  to  one  of  the  two  seats  held  by  nn- 
oOicials  on  the  Executive  Council.  In 
addition  to  holding  these  important  ol'tices 
Mr.  Hewett  is  a  member  of  the  Sanitary 
Board,  of  the  Governing  Board  of  Queen's 
College,  and  of  the  committee  of  the  Diocesan 
School.  He  was  appointed  a  member  of  the 
Medical  Board  in  May,  1904,  and  was  chosen 
by  the  Governor  to  act  as  cliairman  of  the 
commission  to  inquire  into  the  administra- 
tion of  the  sanitary  and  building  regulations, 
enacted  by  the  Public  Health  and  Building 
Ordinance  of  1893,  which  commission  sat 
from  May,  1906,  to  March,  1907.  Mr.  Hewett 
is  a  member  of  a  luimber  of  clubs,  including 
the  Hongkong  ;  the  Peak  ;  the  United,  Yoko- 
hama ;  the  Shanghai  ;  the  Country,  Shanghai  ; 
and  the  Wellington,  London.  He  resides  at 
"  Craig  Ryrie,"  the  Peak,  Hongkong. 

BREWIN,  the  Registrar-General,  has  spent 
practically  the  whole  of  his  life  in  the  service 
of  the  Colony.  Born  at  Settle,  Yorkshire, 
in  1867,  he  was  educated  at  Winchester,  and, 
entering  the  Civil  Service  as  the  result  of 
the  usual  competitive  examination,  he  came 
to  Hongkong  in  December,  1888.  He  went 
through  the  ordinary  routine  as  a  cadet,  and 
studied  Chinese  for  two  years  at  Canton. 
On  passing  the  final  examination  he  was 
attached  to  the  Registrar-General's  oFlice. 
In  May,  1891,  he  was  appointed  to  act  as 
Assistant  Registrar-General,  and,  with  the 
exception  of  four  years,  during  which  he 
held  the  post  of  Inspector  of  Schools,  he 
has  been  almost  permanently  connected  with 
this  department.  In  1901  he  was  appointed 
Registrar-General,  by  virtue  of  which  office 
he  became  a  member  of  the  Sanitary  Board, 
and  in  the  same  year  was  given  a  seat  on 
the  Legislative  Council.  Mr.  Brewin  is  a 
Justice  of  the  Peace  for  the  Colony,  and  a 
member  of  the  Board  of  Examiners. 

B.A.,  Captain  Superintendent  of  Police  In 
Hongkong,  was  born  on  March  27,  1868,  and 
was  educated  at  the  Clergy  Orphan  School, 
Canterbury,  and  at  Jesus  College,  Cambridge, 
passing  senior  optiine  in  the  Mathematical 
Tripos  of  1889.  He  came  to  the  Colony  as 
a  cadet  in  1890,  and  three  years  later,  having 
passed  in  Cantonese  and   Hindustani,  he  was 


appointed  Acting  Deputy  Superintendent  of 
Police.  He  lias  since  that  time  filled  various 
acting  appointments,  including  those  of  Assis- 
tant Registrar-General,  Assistant  Postmaster- 
General,  and  Assistant  Colonial  Secretary  and 
Clerk  of  Councils,  but  for  the  most  part  his 
duties  have  been  in  connection  with  the 
police  force.  He  was  appointed  Deputy 
Superintendent  of  Police  and  Assistant 
Superintendent  of  the  Fire  Brigade  in  1S95, 
and  took  up  his  present  appointment  as 
Captain  Superintendent  of  Police  and  of  the 
Fire  Brigade,  and  Superintendent  of  Victoria 
Gaol  in  igo2.  He  has  made  a  special  study 
of  the  tinger-print  system  of  identifying  re- 
cidivists. In  October,  i(;o6,  he  was  appointed 
to  a  seat  on  the  Legislative  Council,  and  is 
a  member  of  the  Standing  Law  Committee. 
Mr.  Badeley,  who  is  a  member  of  the  Hong- 
kong Club,  lives  at  "  Ardsheal,"  the  Peak. 

THE  HON.  DR.  HO  KAI,  C.M.Q.— Among 
the  Chinese  there  are  many  who  have  pro- 
fited by  a  thoroughly  sound  and  high-class 
European  education,  but  there  are  few  who 
have  had  a  more  distinguished  academical 
career,  or  who  have  used  their  advantages 
to  belter  purpose  than  Dr.  Ho  Kai.  Born  at 
Hongkong  in  1859,  he  is  the  fourth  son  of 
the  late  Kev.  Ho  Tsun  Shin,  of  the  London 
Missionary  Society.  He  was  educated  at  the 
Government  Central  School  in  Hongkong 
and  subsequently  in  England  at  Palmer 
House  School,  Margate  ;  at  Aberdeen  Uni- 
versity ;  at  St.  Thomas's  Medical  and  Surgical 
College,  and  at  Lincoln's  Inn.  He  took  the 
degrees  of  M.B.,  CM.,  Aberdeen,  became  a 
member  of  the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons, 
England,  and  was  Senior  Equity  Scholar, 
Lincoln's  Inn,  in  1881.  Upon  returiiing  to 
the  Colony  he  started  to  practise  medicine, 
but  found  that  the  Chinese  were  not  yet 
prepared  to  avail  themselves  of  Western 
treatment  unless  it  was  offered  free.  Dr.  Ho 
Kai  therefore  presented  the  Colony  with  the 
Alice  Memorial  Hospital,  named  after  his  late 
wife,  Alice,  eldest  daughter  of  the  late  Mr. 
John  Walkden,  of  Blackheath.  Dr.  Ho  Kai 
then  commenced  practice  as  a  barrister-at- 
law,  and  has  been  so  engaged  since  1882. 
He  served  as  a  member  of  the  Sanitary  Board 
for  over  ten  years,  and  on  the  Public  Works 
Committee  for  five  years.  He  is  now  senior 
unofficial  member  of  the  Legislative  Council, 
and  has  been  for  many  years  a  member  of  the 
following  public  institutions  : — The  Standing 
Law  Committee  ;  the  Examination  Board  ; 
the  Medical  Board  ;  the  Po  Leung  Kuk  Com- 
mittee ;  District  Watchmen's  Committee  ;  the 
governing  body  of  the  Free  Hospitals  ;  the 
Tung  Wah  Hospital  Advisory  Committee  ; 
the  governing  body  of  Queen's  College  ;  the 
Qualified  Architects'  Advisory  Board  ;  the 
Interpretation  Committee  and  the  Advisory 
Committee  of  the  Hongkong  Technical  Insti- 
tute ;  and  Rector's  Assessor  of  the  Hongkong 
College  of  Medicine,  of  which  he  was  one 
of  the  founders.  In  short  it  may  be  said  that 
he  has  had  the  distinction  of  serving  on  the 
committee  of  almost  every  public  board 
appointed  during  the  last  twenty-five  years, 
and  that  his  time  has  always  been  given 
ungrudgingly  in  the  public  service  no  matter 
at  what  sacrifice  to  his  own  interests  as  a 
professional  man.  For  upwards  of  twenty-six 
years  he  has  been  continuously  resident  in 
the  Colony  ;  for  twenty-six  years  he  has  been 
a  Justice  of  the  Peace  for  Hongkong,  and  for 
three  terms  (eighteen  years)  has  represented 
the  Chinese  community  on  the  Legislative 
Council.  Hence  it  is  not  a  matter  for  surprise 
that   he   is   looked  to   by   his    fellow    country- 

men for  advice  in  their  dealings  with  the 
Government,  and  is  also  often  consulted  by 
the  Government  in  their  transactions  with 
the  Chinese  community.  On  the  occasions 
of  both  visits  of  the  Duke  and  Duchess  of 
Connaught  and  of  Prince  Arthur  to  the 
Colony,  he  received  and  welcomed  their 
Royal  Highnesses  on  behalf  of  the  Chinese, 
and  in  recognition  of  his  many  public  works 
and  services  he  was  created  a  C.M.G.  in 
1892.  Among  his  publications  are: — "A 
Critical  Essay  on  China";  "The  Sleep  and 
Awakening"  ;  a  letter  addressed  to  Lord 
Charles  Beresford  on  "The  Open  Door"; 
"  An  Open  Letter  to  John  Bull  on  the  Boxer 
Rising"  ;  articles  on  Sir  Robert  Hart's 
Memorandum  on  the  Land  Tax  of  China  and 
his  army  and  navy  scheme,  1904  ;  the 
"Foundation  of  Reformation  in  China"; 
criticisms  of  the  views  of  Kang  Yau  Wei, 
1898  ;  criticisms  of  the  views  of  Viceroy 
Chang  Chi  Tung,  especially  on  his  recent 
work,  "  Encouragement  to  Learning,"  1899  ; 
Persons  responsible  for  Reformation  in 
China  ;  and  Two  Critical  Essays  on  the 
Progress  of  Reformation  in  China.  Dr.  Ho 
Kai's  address  is  7,  West  Terrace,  Hongkong. 

THE    HON.   MR.  WEI    YUK,   C.M.G.— As  a 

conscientious  worker  on  behalf  of  the 
Chinese  community  of  Hongkong,  and  as  a 
man  who  has  done  a  great  deal  to  produce 
the  present  good  relations  existing  between 
the  Government  and  the  Chinese,  the  Hon. 
Mr.  Wei  Yuk's  name  deserves  to  be  specially 
remembered  by  all  sections  of  society  in 
the  Colony.  On  many  occasions  he  has  been 
of  invaluable  assistance  to  the  officials,  and 
his  counsel  has  been  largely  instrumental, 
notably  at  times  of  riots  and  strikes  during 
the  past  quarter  of  a  century,  in  settling 
matters  amicably  before  they  assumed  the 
serious  proportions  which  they  threatened  to 
do  in  several  instances.  Mr.  Wei  Yuk  is  a 
Cantonese  (Heungshan  District),  born  in  Hong- 
kong in  1849,  and  conies  of  excellent  family. 
His  father,  the  late  Mr.  Wei  Kwong,  was  a 
well-known  banker,  and  formerly  compradore 
to  the  Chartered  Mercantile  Bank  of  India, 
London,  and  China,  in  Hongkong.  After  ten 
years'  study  of  Chinese,  under  private  tutors, 
Mr.  Wei  Yuk  commenced  his  English  educa- 
tion at  the  Government  Central  School,  under 
the  late  Dr.  F"rederick  Stewart,  LL.D.,  and  in 
1867,  at  the  age  of  eighteen  years,  he  pro- 
ceeded to  England  and  attended  the  Leicester 
Stoneygate  School  lor  twelve  months.  In 
1868  he  went  to  Scotland,  and  studied  for 
four  years  at  the  Dollar  Institution.  He  soon 
became  a  favourite  with  both  masters  and 
fellow  pupils,  and  the  impression  regarding 
his  nationality  that  he  made  and  left  behind 
him  became  a  tradition  in  the  school,  ensuring 
to  others  from  the  Far  East  a  most  friendly 
reception  at  that  institution.  Mr.  Wei  Yuk 
was  one  of  the  first  Chinese  to  go  abroad 
for  Western  education.  On  his  return  to 
the  East  in  1872,  after  a  European  tour,  he 
entered  the  service  of  the  Chartered  Mercan- 
tile Bank  of  India,  London,  and  China  (now 
the  Mercantile  Bank  of  India,  Limited),  in 
Hongkong,  and  on  the  death  of  his  father, 
in  1879,  he  (after  a  temporary  retirement, 
according  to  Chinese  custom)  took  up  the 
vacant  position  of  compradore.  This  position 
he  still  holds.  Mr.  Wei  Yuk  and  his  father 
have  served  the  bank  for  fifty-three  years  in 
Hongkong — that  is  to  say,  since  it  was  first 
opened.  In  1883  Mr.  Wei  Yuk  was  appointed 
a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and,  in  1896,  became 
an  unofficial  member  (representing  the 
Chinese      community)      of      the      Hongkong 

Legislative  Council.  He  works  in  the  greatest 
harmony  with  his  colleague,  the  Hon.  Dr. 
Ho  Kai,  C.M.G.,  M.B.,  CM.,  M.R.C.S.,  and 
while  not  noted  for  long  speeches,  is  regarded 
as  an  invaluable  adviser  in  connection  with 
all  legislation  in  any  way  touching  the 
interests  of  his  fellow  countrymen.  In  many 
other  capacities  also  he  has  striven  for  the 
public  good.  He  has  held  numerous 
appointments,  and  has  served  on  many 
committees,  for  when  his  help  has  been 
required  for  the  furtherance  of  the  public 
weal  it  has  never  been  withheld.  It  is 
impossible  to  give  a  complete  list  of  his 
appointments  in  a  brief  biographical  sketch 
such  as  is  here  essayed,  but  a  few  of  his 
appointments  may  be  mentioned.  He  was 
chairman  of  the  Tung  Wah  Hospital  (Hong- 
kong's leading  Chinese  charitable  institution), 
1881-83  "ind  1888-90  ;  a  permanent  member 
of  the  committee  of  the  Po  Leung  Kuk  for 
the  protection  of  destitute  women  and  children 
(of  which  he  was  one  of  the  founders)  since 
1893  ;  a  permanent  member  of  the  Hongkong 
District  Watchmen's  Committee  (which  was 
formed  on  his  suggestion)  ;  and  a  member 
of  the  Standing  Law  Committee  since  1896. 
Moreover,  he  has  served  on  all  the  com- 
missions appointed  by  the  Government  to 
inquire  into  matters  affecting  the  Chinese 
since  the  commencement  of  his  public  career. 
The  Chinese  Government  is  indebted  to  him 
in  no  small  degree  for  the  assistance  he  has 
rendered  in  bringing  to  justice  Chinese 
criminals  who  have  fled  from  Chinese 
territory  to  Hongkong  and  elsewhere.  For 
the  services  which  he  rendered  during  the 
plague  epidemic  of  1894,  the  general  public 
of  Hongkong  presented  him  with  a  gold 
medal  and  a  letter  of  thanks,  while  the 
Chinese  community  also  addressed  to  him 
a  letter  of  thanks.  Mr.  Wei  Yuk  may  be 
regarded  as  the  father  of  the  Sanitary  Board. 
VoT  many  years,  previous  to  the  formation  of 
the  present  body,  he  took  the  greatest  interest 
in  sanitary  matters,  and  he  was  the  friend  and 
adviser  of  Professor  Chadwick  when  that 
well-known  authority  visited  the  Colony  to 
report  on  the  sanitary  condition  of  the  city 
of  Victoria.  Seventeen  years  ago  he  sug- 
gested the  construction  of  a  railway  from 
Kowloon  to  Canton,  and  thence  to  Peking. 
He  spent  large  sums  in  furtherance  of  the 
scheme,  which  failed,  however,  owing  to  the 
obstacles  placed  in  its  way  by  Chinese 
oflicials,  who  at  that  time  strenuously  opposed 
the  introduction  of  anything  from  the  West. 
During  the  past  six  or  seven  years,  however, 
several  lines  of  railway  have  been  constructed, 
or  are  in  course  of  construction,  between  the 
places  named,  and  they  follow  closely 
Mr.  Wei  Yuk's  original  plans.  In  1872 
Mr.  Wei  Yuk  married  the  eldest  daughter 
of  the  late  Hon.  Mr.  Wong  Shing,  the  second 
Chinese  to  be  appointed  to  the  Hongkong 
Legislative  Council.  Mr.  Wei  On,  M.A., 
solicitor,  and  Mr.  Wei  Piu,  barrister-at-law, 
both  distinguished  Cheltonians,  are  the  Hon. 
Mr.  Wei  Yuk's  brothers.  Mr.  Wei  Yuk's 
name  figured  in  the  last  list  of  Birthday 
Honours  as  a  recipient  of  a  Companionship 
of  the  Order  of  St.  Michael  and  St.  George. 


K.C.,  an  unofficial  member  of  the  Legislative 
Council,  has  been  connected  with  the  Colony 
for  nearly  twenty  years,  and,  during  that  time, 
has  become  intimately  associated  with  all  the 
more  prominent  phases  of  its  life.  Born  in 
December,  1864,  and  educated  at  Charter- 
house, he  was  called  to  the  Bar  by  the  Inner 
Temple  in  November,  1887.     He  was  admitted 


to  practise  in  Hongkong  in  April  of  the 
following  year,  and  from  September,  1888, 
until  August,  iSSq,  he  acted  as  Police  Magis- 
trate. In  June,  1892,  he  was  appointed  Acting 
Puisne  Judge,  and  continued  as  such  until 
December,  1892.  During  the  plague  epidemic 
of  1894  he  rendered  signal  service  to  the 
authorities,  and  in  recognition  of  this  was 
awarded  a  gold  medal.  For  nearly  three 
years,  at  intervals  tietween  181)6  and  1901,  he 
acted  as  .Attorney-General.  In  1900  he  was 
appointed  Queen's  Counsel,  and  since  the 
death  of  Mr.  J.  J.  Francis,  K.C.,  in  IQOI,  he 
has  been  the  senior  practising  counsel  in  the 
Colony.  He  went  to  Fiji  as  Attorney-General 
in  January,  1902.  but  left  in  the  following 
April  and  resigned  the  appointment  two 
months  later,  returning  to  Hongkong  in 
October  of  that  year.  In  1903  he  temporarily 
represented  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  on 
the  legislative  Council,  and  in  1905  he  was 
elected  to  represent  the  Justices  of  the  Peace 
on  that  body  upon  the  retirement  of  Sir  Paul 
Chafer.  C.M.G.  He  is  one  of  the  members 
of  the  Standing  Law  Committee.  Mr.  Pollock 
was  elected  a  member  of  the  Sanitary  Board 
in  March,  1903.  and  held  office  until  January, 
1906.  He  is  president  of  the  Hongkong 
Branch  of  the  Navy  League  and  of  the  Chess 
Club,  secretary  of  the  Odd  Volumes  Society, 
and  a  member  on  the  committee  of  the 
Royal  Hongkong  Yacht  Club.  Mr.  Pollock, 
who  married  in  March,  1906,  Lena  Oakley. 
lives  at  "  Harrington, "  the  Peak. 

MR.    WILLIAM    JARDINE    QRESSON    is    a 

son  of  the  late  Colonel  Gresson,  of  the  27th 
Inniskillings  and  65lh  Regiment.  Upon  the 
completion  of  his  education  at  Bedford 
School  he  entered  the  London  office  of  the 
Chartered  Bank.  In  1892  he  came  to  Hong- 
kong to  join  the  tirm  of  Jardine,  Matheson 
&  Co..  Ltd..  of  which  his  nncle,  Sir  Robert 
Jardine,  was  the  head.  Since  that  date  he 
has  represented  the  firm  both  at  Hongkong 
and  Shanghai.  To  his  duties  as  an  un- 
official member  of  the  Legislative  Council 
are  added  those  of  a  member  of  the  Public 
Works  Committee.  He  is  a  thorough  sports- 
man, and,  as  a  steward  of  the  Hongkong 
Jockey  Club,  takes  an  especially  keen  interest 
in  racing.  Mr.  Gresson  was  recently 


the  Secretary  of  the  Hongkong  and  Kowloon 
Wharf  and  Godown  Company,  is  one  of  the 
men  of  whom  the  Colony  has  great  reason 
to  be  proud.  During  his  twenty-six  years' 
residence  in  Hongkong  he  has  made  himself 
master  of  many  of  the  more  difficult  problems 
which  have  confronted  the  prime  movers  in 
commercial  enterprise,  and  his  opinion,  based 
upon  shrewd  observation,  is  widely  sought. 
Born  in  1 861,  and  educated  at  St.  Anne's, 
Streatham  Hill,  Mr.  Osborne  entered  the 
service  of  a  Durham  firm  of  solicitors,  and 
then  went  into  the  Ix>ndon  office  of  the 
Peninsular  and  Oriental  Company.      In  1882 

he  came  out  to  the  Company's  Hongkong 
office,  where  he  reni.iined  seven  years,  until 
the  formation  of  the  Hongkong  and  Kowloon 
Wharf  and  Godown  Company.  Since  i88g 
he  has  been  closely  identified  with  the 
Wharf  Company's  progress,  and,  as  secretary, 
he  has  encountered  innumerable  difficulties 
arising  out  of  the  organised  opposition  of 
the  Chinese  guilds  to  the  competition  of 
the  foreigner.  It  has  been  a  long,  uphill 
fight  on  his  part  against  tlie  co-operated 
exactions  of  the  Chinese  and  in  favour  of 
European  interests.  As  a  member  of  the 
Sanitary  Board,  to  which  he  was  elected  in 
1900,  Mr.  Osborne  devoted  considerable  time 
and  labour  to  fighting  the  plague,  and,  so  far 
as  concerned  the  Wharf  Company's  employees, 
found  that  the  most  effective  measures  were 
the  extermination  of  rats  and  the  enforcement 
of  simple  rules  of  health  and  cleanliness. 
With  a  few  other  gentlemen  he  was  instru- 
mental in  bringing  about  the  erection  of  the 
new  Hongkong  Club  building;  whilst,  :it  the 
request  of  the  Hongkong  and  Shanghai  Bank 
and  of  the  mortgagees  of  the  Hongkong 
Hotel  property,  he  was,  some  twelve  years 
ago,  largt-ly  responsible  for  rescuing  the 
Hotel  Company  from  imminent  bankruptcy 
and  placing  it  upon  a  dividend-paying  b.isis. 
He  also  assisted  in  bringing  about  the  forma- 
tion of  the  Star  Ferry  Company,  and  placing 
double-ended  boats  on  the  service  between 
Hongkong  and  the  mainland.  He  is  a  director 
of  the  Dairy  Farm  and  of  the  Steam  Laundry 
Company,  and  has  a  seat  on  the  Consulting 
Committees  of  A.  S.  Watson  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  and 
the  China-Borneo  Company.  In  May.  1906, 
he  succeeded  the  Hon.  Mr.  Gershom  Stewart 
on  the  Legislative  Council,  and  is  a  member 
of  the  Finance  and  Public  Works  Committees. 
A  lover  of  outdoor  sports,  with  a  leaning 
especially  towards  rowing,  riding,  and  shoot- 
ing. Mr.  Osborne  is  also  extremely  partial 
to  pedestrian  exercise.  He  has  seen  in  this 
way  a  good  deal  of  the  mainland  adjacent 
to  Hongkong,  and  was  in  Peking  just  after 
the  Boxer  troubles.  He  has  walked  across 
Korea,  through  parts  of  Japan,  and  recently 
went  on  foot  from  Hankow  to  Canton  by 
way  of  Kweilin.  In  February,  1904,  he 
was  married  to  Phyllis  Eliza,  a  daughter  of 
Mr.  G.  Whittey,  of  Weybridge,  by  whom 
he  has  three  children.  He  lives  at  the  Peak, 
where  he  went  to  reside  many  years  ago 
in  the  hope — since  completely  justified — of 
.securing  immunity  from  malarial  fever. 

HAMILTON  TAYLOR,  R.N.,  who  is  acting  as 
a  member  of  the  Legislative  Coinicil  during 
the  absence  on  leave  of  Mr.  Badeley,  the 
Captain-Superintendent  of  Police,  has  been 
connected  with  the  Harbour  Department  of 
the  Colony  since  July,  1899.  His  father  was 
the  late  Colonel  Thomas  Edward  Taylor, 
Chief  Conservative  Whip  for  many  years, 
and  for  forty-two  consecutive  years  Member 
for  County  Dublin.  He  was  Chancellor  of 
the  Duchy  of  Lancaster  in  Lord  Derby's  last 
Cabinet,  and  in  Lord  Beaconsfield's  Cabinet 
of    1874.     Commander    Taylor's    grandfather 

was  the  eldest  son  of  the  Rev.  the  Hon. 
Heiny  Edward  Taylor,  a  son  of  the  first 
Earl  of  Bective,  and  brother  of  the  first 
Marquis  of  Headfort.  Born  on  April  8,  1865, 
and  educated  at  a  private  school  at  Cheani, 
in  Surrey,  Commander  Taylor  entered  the 
Royal  Navy  in  1878.  He  served  in  the 
Egyptian  VVar  of  1882,  and  was  present  at 
the  bombardment  of  Alexandria  In  July  of 
that  year,  subsequently  landing  with  the 
Naval  Brigade  at  Alexandria  and  Port  Said 
for  police  and  guard  duties.  For  his  services 
he  was  awarded  the  Egyptian  medal, 
Alexandria  clasp,  and  bronze  star.  He  was 
commissioned  a  lieutenant  in  1888,  and 
served  on  the  Mediterranean,  North  American, 
China,  and  Home  Stations.  He  resigned  his 
commission  in  1898,  and  in  the  following 
year  was  appointed  Assistant  Harbour  Master 
of  Hongkong.  Since  that  time  the  total 
tonnage  of  vessels  entered  and  cleared  has 
doubled.  Great  improvements  have  been 
made  in  lighting  and  much  of  the  foreshore 
has  been  reclaimed.  Besides  being  Harbour 
Master,  Commander  Taylor  is  Marine  Magis- 
trate, Emigration  and  Customs  Officer, 
Registrar  of  Shipping,  Superintendent  of 
the  Gunpowder  Depot,  Collector  of  Light 
Dues,  Superintendent  of  Imports  and 
Exports,  and  Board  of  Trade  Agent  for 
Commercial  Intelligence.  He  was  confirmed 
in  these  appointments  on  his  return  from 
leave  in  February,  1907.  For  a  while  he 
acted  as  Assistant  Superintendent  of  the 
Water  Police,  but,  the  arrangement  by 
which  that  force  was  placed  under  the 
Harbour  Department  proving  unsatisfactory, 
It  was  discontinued.  In  1903  Comuiander 
Taylor  was  married  to  Harriet,  a  daughter 
of  Brigadier-General  H.  H.  Osgood,  of  the 
United  Slates  Army,  and  widow  of  the  late 
Major  Paul  Clendennis,  of  the  United  States 
Army.  He  Is  a  member  of  the  Carlton, 
Bath,  and   Hongkong  Clubs. 

MR.  HENRY  KESWICK,  who  is  acting  as 
a  member  of  the  Legislative  Council  during 
the  absence  of  Mr.  Gresson  from  the  Colony, 
is  the  eldest  son  of  Mr.  William  Keswick, 
M.P.,  of  Beech  Grove,  Dumfriesshire.  He 
was  born  in  Shanghai  In  1870,  and  was 
educated  at  Eton  and  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge, taking  his  H.A.  degree  in  1892.  Mr. 
Keswick  went  to  New  York  in  1893  for  the 
firm  of  Jardine,  Matheson  &  Co.,  Ltd.  Two 
years  later  he  came  East  and  remained  until 
the  outbreak  of  the  Boer  War  in  1900.  when 
he  went  to  South  Africa  and  served  as  a 
captain  in  the  3rd  King's  Own  Scottish 
Borderers.  Iti  the  following  year  he  returned 
East  to  take  charge  of  the  firm's  branch  at 
Yokohama,  and  in  1904  he  entered  upon  a 
similar  position  in  Shanghai.  He  w,-is  chair- 
man of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  and 
chairman  of  the  Municipal  Council  in 
Shanghai  during  J906-7.  Early  in  1907  he 
was  given  charge  of  the  head  office  in  Hong- 
kong. He  is  a  member  of  the  committees 
of  the  Chamber  of  Connncrce,  the  China 
Association,  and  the  Royal  Hongkong  Yacht 
Club,  and  a  steward  of   the  Jockey  Club. 




Honouf  Sir  Francis  Taylor  Pigyolt,  has  been 
from  his  early  years  in  the  profession  a 
writer  on  International  Law,  and  he  is  recog- 
nised as  an  authority  upon  the  rules  which 
govern  the  relationships  and  control  the 
intercourse  of  one  country  with  another. 
His  career  has  furnished  him  with  many 
opportunities  of  perfecting  his  knowledge  in 
this  particular  direction,  and  his  opinions, 
based  upon  facts,  many  of  which  have  come 
within  his  personal  experience,  are  embodied 
in  several  sturdy  volumes  and  held  in  high 
repute  by  the  members  of  his  profession. 
Born  in  London  on  April  25,  1852,  he  is  the 
son  of  the  Rev.  Francis  Allen  Piggott,  of 
Worthing.  His  early  education  was  obtained 
first  at  Worthing  College,  and  then  for  some 
time  in  Paris,  and  afterwards  at  Trinity  Col- 
lege, Cambridge.  Always  an  enthusiastic 
rifle-shot,  he  represented  his  University  on 
three  occasions  in  the  Inter-'Varsity  shooting 
contests  at  Wimbledon,  and,  one  year,  was  a 
member  of  the  English  eight  in  the  competi- 
tion for  the  ''Elcho"  Shield.  Still  retaining 
his  interest  in  the  sport  Sir  Francis  is  now 
a  member  of  the  Hongkong  Rifle  Association. 
Having  graduated,  and  taken  the  degrees  of 
Master  of  Arts  and  Master  of  Laws,  he  was 
in  1874  called  to  the  Bar  by  the  Inner 
Temple.  In  1887  he  attended  the  Colonial 
Conference,  in  connection  wilh  a  scheme  for 
the  enforcement  of  Colonial  judgments  in 
England,  which  he  had  put  forward,  and  in 
the  same  year  was  employed  by  the  Foreign 
Office  to  draft  a  convention  with  Italy  for 
the  mutual  execution  of  judgments,  the  negoti- 
ations in  connection  with  this  subject  being 
carried  on  in  Rome.  Afterwards  he  was 
selected  by  Sir  Julian  Pauncefote.  on  the 
application  of  the  Japanese  Government,  as 
legal  adviser  to  the  Prime  Minister  of  Japan, 
in  connection  with  the  drafting  of  the  consti- 
tution. He  resided  in  Tokyo  from  1888  to 
1 891,  and  named  his  second  son,  who  was 
born  in  Japan,  after  his  chief,  Count  (now 
Prince)  Ito.  During  his  slay  in  the  Island 
Empire  Sir  Francis  collected  the  data  for  his 
books,  "  The  Garden  of  Japan "  and  the 
"Music  and  Musical  Instruments  of  the 
Japanese,"  published  a  few  years  later.  In 
1893  he  assisted  Sir  Charles  Russell,  then 
Attorney-General,  in  drafting  the  British 
argument  for  the  Behring  Sea  Arbitration, 
and  as  secretary  to  Sir  Charles  attended  the 
sittings  of  the  Tribune  in  Paris,  and  a  series 
of  letters  from  his  pen,  on  the  subject  of 
the  arbitration,  appeared  in  The  Times. 

Appointed  Procureur  and  Advocate-General 
for  Mauritius  in  1894,  he  held  that  position 
until  1905,  acting  for  two  years  as  chief 
justice  during  1895  96.  In  1897  he  revised 
the  laws  of  the  Colony,  and  completed  a 
second  and  more  comprehensive  revision 
before  leaving  the  Colony.  He  also  published, 
in  two  volumes,  a  complete  and  revised 
collection  of  the  "  Imperial  Statutes  applicable 
to  the  Colonies."  After  coming  to  Hongkong 
as  Chief  Justice,  he  received  the  honour  of 
knighthood  in  1905.  Besides  those  works 
already  mentioned.  Sir  Francis  has  published 
a  series  of  books  on  foreign  judgments  : 
"  Principles  of  Law  of  Torts,"  1885  ;  "  Ex- 
territoriality and  Consular  Jurisdiction,"  1892  ; 
"  Service  out  of  the  Jurisdiction,"  1892  ; 
"  Nationality  and  Naturalisation  and  the  Eng- 

lish Law  on  the  High  Seas  and  Beyond 
the  Realm,"  1904.  In  Hongkong  his  chief 
recreation  has  been  golf  ;  he  is  a  member 
of  the  Golf  Club,  the  Hongkong  Club,  and 
the  "  Thatched  House,"  London.  Sir  Francis 
married  Mabel  Waldron,  eldest  daughter  of 
Jasper  Wilson  Johns,  J. P.,  D.L.,  and  has  two 

WISE,  Puisne  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court, 
Hongkong,  was  born  at  Colombo,  Ceylon,  on 
-August  15,  1854,  and  was  a  son  of  the  late 
Mr.  Alfred  Wise,  a  well-known  planter. 
Educated  at  Repton  and  at  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge,  he  was  called  to  the  Bar  by 
Lincoln's  Inn  in  1878,  and  at  the  age  of 
twenty-eight  came  to  Hongkong,  and  on 
January  i,  1884  was  appointed  Police  Magis- 
trate. In  1892  he  became  Registrar,  Official 
Administrator,  Official  Trustee,  Registrar  of 
Companies,  and  Registrar  in  the  Colonial 
Court  of  Admiralty,  and  three  years  later  he 
entered  upon  his  present  appointment.  Twice 
he  has  acted  for  the  Attorney-General  and 
twice  for  the  Chief  Justice.  In  1902  he  was 
elected  chairman  ol  the  Squatter's  Board. 
He  is  married  to  Augusta  Frances,  a  daughter 
of  Mr.  A.  N.  C.  R.  Nugent.  He  is  a  member 
of  the  Conservative,  Thatched  House,  and 
Hongkong  Clubs. 

MR.  ARATHOON  SETH,  I.S.O.,  the  Regis- 
trar of  the  Supreme  Court,  Hongkong,  was 
born  in  1852.  When  only  sixteen  years  of 
age  he  was  appointed  Hindustani  interpreter 
to  the  Magistracy,  Hongkong,  having  acquired 
a  knowledge  of  the  language  in  Hongkong, 
and,  except  for  a  comparatively  short  interval 
when  he  was  attached  to  the  Peninsular 
and  Oriental  Company,  he  has  been  in 
the  Civil  Service  ever  since.  He  re-entered 
the  Magistracy  as  third  clerk  in  September, 
1872,  and  received  steady  promotion,  be- 
coming first  clerk  in  1875,  and  Clerk  of 
Councils  and  chief  clerk  in  the  Colonial 
Secretary's  office  six  years  later.  He  was 
created  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  in  1882, 
and  was  called  to  the  Bar  by  Lincoln's  Inn 
in  1893.  After  serving  as  Superintendent  of 
the  Opium  Revenue  and  of  Imports  and 
Exports,  was  appointed  Secretary  to  the 
Board,  under  the  ''Taipingshan  Resumption 
Ordinance,"  and  subsequently  received  the 
thanks  of  the  Government  for  his  services. 
He  has  held  a  variety  of  other  posts  from 
time  to  time,  including  those  of  Acting  Assis- 
tant Registrar-General,  Official  Receiver  in 
Bankruptcy,  Acting  Registrar  of  the  Supreme 
Court,  Acting  Land  Officer,  Acting  Registrar 
of  Companies,  Official  Administrator,  and 
Official  Trustee  ;  was  appointed  to  his  present 
position  in  October,  1903.  Mr.  Seth  is  a 
member  of  the  Hongkong  Club  and  lives  at 
Norman  Cottage,  Peak  Road. 

PERTZ,  the  first  Police  Magistrate  and 
Coroner  of  Hongkong,  has  spent  nearly 
twenty   years    in    the   Civil    Service,   his    ap- 

pointment as  a  cadet  dating  from  1890.  For 
nearly  seven  years  he  was  in  the  Straits 
Settlements,  and  during  that  time  he  acted 
in  a  magisterial  capacity  on  several  occa- 
sions, and  also  as  Deputy  Registrar  of  the 
Supreme  Court,  Penang.  He  tame  to  Hong- 
kong in  August  of  1897  as  Assistant  Regis- 
trar-General, and  served  on  the  Commission 
appointed  to  report  on  the  interpretation 
scheme.  Before  receiving  his  present  posi- 
tion, in  October  of  1907,  he  was  for  two 
years  president  of  the  Land  Court,  and  had 
acted  as  Police  Magistrate,  Attorney-General, 
and  Puisne  Judge.  He  is  a  Bachelor  of  Arts 
of  Oxford  and  a  member  of  the  Bar  (1899). 
He  speaks  the  Tie-Chin,  Hok-kien  and  Can- 
tonese dialects. 



second  Police  Magistrate  of  Hongkong,  was 
appointed  Clerk  to  the  Puisne  Judge  in 
November,  1878,  and  subsequently  discharged 
the  duties  of  First  Clerk  of  the  Supreme 
Court  and  Marshal  of  the  Colonial  Court  of 
Admiralty,  Acting  Chief  Clerk  in  the  Colonial 
Secretary's  office  and  Acting  Clerk  of  Coun- 
cils, and  Deputy  Registrar.  While  on  leave 
in  1899  he  was  called  to  the  Bar  by  Lincoln's 
Inn.  Since  his  return  to  the  Colony  in  the 
following  year  he  has  served  for  several 
long  terms  as  Acting  Police  Magistrate  and 
Coroner.  His  present  substantive  appoint- 
ment dates  from  1901. 

THE  ATTORNEY-GENERAL.— A  biographi- 
cal sketch  of  Mr.  William  Rees-Davies,  the 
Attorney-General,  will  be  found  under  the 
heading  "  Executive  and  Legislative  Councils." 


Crown  Solicitor  and  Notary  Public,  was  born 
in  1868,  at  Bristol,  and  received  his  educa- 
tion at  the  Bristol  Grammar  School.  He  was 
admitted  a  Solicitor  in  London  in  1890,  and 
in  1893  came  to  Hongkong  to  join  Mr. 
H.  L.  Dennys.  Seven  years  later  he  was 
appointed  Crown  Solicitor  in  succession  to 
Mr.  Dennys,  and  at  the  same  time  undertook 
the  duties  of  Secretary,  Librarian,  and  Curator 
at  the  City  Hall,  which  he  fulfilled  for  six 
years.  He  is  on  the  committee  of  the  Hong- 
kong Law  Society. 


has  been  in  the  Hongkong  Government  Ser- 
vice for  about  seven  years  and  has  held  the 
position  of  Land  Oflicer  and  Official  Receiver 
in  Bankruptcy  since  August,  1905,  was  born 
on  June  15,  1866,  and  educated  at  Cams 
College,  Cambridge.  He  was  appointed 
Assistant  Land  Oflicer  on  June  29,  1900,  and 
was  made  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  in  the  same 
year  Mr.  Wakeman  is  an  enthusiastic  rifle- 
shot, and  in  1906-7  was  honorary  secretary 
of  the  Volunteer  Reserve  Association,  founded 
by  Sir  Matthew  Nathan. 

I.    O.  I).  Thomson.  Esc^ 
4.    F.  A.  Hazkhnd.  Esg.. 
Second  Holice  Ma((i»trate. 
7.    J.  Scott  Hakstox.  Es^.,  f>. 


II.    Arathoos  SrTH.  Esq.. 
14.    G.  C.  C.  Master,  Esq..  i.V 



2.    Paui,  M.  HoD(isf>x.  Es(j..  3.    H. 

5,    F.  B.  L.  Bowi.EY.  Esq.. 
Crown  Solicitor. 
Mr.  Ji;stice  Wise.  <>.    Sir  F.  T.  Piggott.  Kt., 

Puisne  JudKC.  Chief  Justice. 

12.    F.  X.  D'AI.MADA  K  Castro,  Esq..  13. 

C.  D.  WiLKiKsox,  E.SQ.,  16.    G.  A.  Hastings.  Esq.. 

Solicitor.  SoUcltor. 

W.  LooKKK,  Esq., 

6.    H.  H.  J.  GoMPKRiZ,  Esq., 
First  Magistrate. 
10.    G.  K.  Hai-I.  Hrittox,  Esq.. 
Sir  Hkxky  S.  Bekkelev, 

17.    P.  W.  GoLitHixG,  Esq.. 


By    the    Hon.    Mr.    A.    M.    Thomson.    Colonial    Treasurer. 

HE  Treasurer  is  tlie 
officer  in  ciiarge  of  all  finan- 
cial operations,  subject  to  the 
P'inancial  Instructions  and 
such  orders  as  may  be  trans- 
mitted to  him  from  time  to 
time.  He  is  also  Collector  of 
Stamp  Revenue.  The  staff  of  the  Treasury 
is  of  the  usual  clerical  nature,  and  heads  of 
departments  are  regarded  as  sub-accountants 
under  the  Treasurer  so  far  as  they  are 
required  to  transact  financial  business. 

In  the  early  days  the  Imperial  CJovernment 
bore  practically  the  whole  of  the  expenses  of 
the  Colony,  voting  a  sum  annually  for  the 
purpose  of  carrying  on  the  business  of  the 
Government.  During  the  Governorship  of 
Sir  George  Bonham  (1848  54)  this  grant, 
which  had  been  reduced  to  _^25,ooo,  was 
further  reduced  to  £9,200,  and  soon  after- 
wards was  withdrawn  altogether.  Two 
grants  of  ;fio,ooo  each,  however,  were  ren- 
dered necessary  by  public  works  in  1857  and 
1858.  Since  that  time  the  Colony  has  been 

The  revenue  for  1907  amounted  to 
16,602,280,  of  which  the  principal  portions 
were  derived  from  the  opium  farm  and 
assessed  taxes.  The  former  is  now  tet  at 
$1,452,000  per  annum,  and  the  latter  item  is 
practically  a  general  charge  of  13  per  cent. 
on  rateable  property  in  the  Colony,  yielding 
something  like  $1,397,730  per  annum.  Land 
sales  form  an  item  of  extraordinary  revenue, 
but  the  amount  derived  from  them  in  1907 
was  only  $159,750.  Two  factors  have  con- 
tributed to  the  decline  in  the  receipts  from 
this  source.  In  the  first  instance,  most  of 
the  valuable  land  in  the  business  centres  has 
been  alienated  ;  and,  in  the  second,  owing 
to  the  geneial  depression  of  trade  during 
the  last  two  years  very  little  capital  has 
been  put  into  new  enterprises  for  which 
land  might  have  been  required,  though  there 
are  plenty  of  suitable  factory  sites  available. 
For  the  first  few  years  of  the  Colony's  exis- 
tence leases  were  granted  for  a  term  of 
75  years,  but,  in  accordance  with  the 
general  wishes  of  the  community,  a  change 
was  made,  and  leases  were  granted  for 
999  years.  About  ten  years  ago,  however, 
the  Secretary  of  State  issued  a  new  rule  to 
the  effect  that  the  original  term  of  75  years 
should  again  be  introduced,  and  that  rule 
remains  in  force  at  the  present  day.  All 
Crown  leases  are  sold  by  auction.  Hong- 
kong being  a  free  port,  there  are  no  customs 
or  excise  duties  in  the  Colony. 

The  rateable  value  of  the  city  of  Victoria 
for    1907  8    was    $8,892,205,    a    decrease    of 

3'42  per  cent,  on  that  of  the  previous  twelve 
months,  while  that  for  the  whole  Colony, 
$10,654,338,  sliowcd  a  falling-off  of  2-52 
per  cent. 

The  expenditure  for  1907  came  to 
S5.757i203,  including  a  sum  of  $728,650  spent 
on  extraordinary  public  works,  exclusive  of 
the  railway  to  Canton,  which  is  being  pro- 
vided for  by  advances  from  a  special  fund 
to  a  special  account.  The  Colony  pays  a 
military  contribution  of  20  per  cent,  on  its 
annual  revenue,  exclusive  of  land  sales. 

The  following  table  shows  the  revenue  and 
expenditure  of  the  Colony  during  the  last 
ten  years  : — 

Statement  of   Kevknuk  and  Expenditure 

I'UOM  1898  ' 

ro  I 










...   2,918,159 





...   3,610,143 





...   4,202,587 





...   4,213,893 





...   4,901,073 





-   5,238,857 





...   6,809,047 





...   6,918,403 





...   7.035,011 





...   6,602,280 




At  the  end  of  1907  the  excess  of  assets 
over  liabilities,  exclusive  of  loan  liabilities, 
was  $[,444,738,  as  will  be  seen  from  the 
following  statement  : — 

Assets.  $  c. 

Balance  in  bank 393,54'  38 

Advances 168,501  50 

Crown  agents'  deposit 569,897  96 

Subsidiary  coins  in  stock         ...  645,521  75 

Profit  on  Money  Order  Office...  10,000  00 
Suspense  account  (advanced  for 

railway  construction) 863,271  40 

Total         $2,650,733  99 

Liabilities.  $  c. 

Bills  on  Colonial  Office  in  transit  395,876  29 

Deposits  not  available 656,505  90 

Military   contribution    in    excess 

of  estimate       64,590  00 

Pensions  not  paid          30,400  00 

Balance  overdrawn   in    London  27,503  71 

Miscellaneous       ...  31,119  23 


...$1,205,995     13 

The    above    does    not    include    arrears    of 
revenue,  amounting  to  $88,978-33. 

The  first  loan  ever  raised  by  the  Colony 
was  negotiated  in  1886,  when  ;^20o,ooo  was 
borrowed  for  public  works — chiefly  the 
Tytam  W.aterworks.  In  course  of  time 
this  loan  was  repaid.  The  existing  con- 
solidated loan  amounts  to  ;£i,485.732.  There 
is  a  credit  of  £60,704  (present  market  value 
of  securities)  at  sinking  fund  account,  and  it 
is  expected  that  the  whole  liability  may  be 
extinguished  about  1943,  including  the  amount 
which  may  be  advanced  from  the  special 
fund  for  railway  construction.  The  first 
portion  of  the  consolidated  loan  was  raised 
in  1893,  when  £342,000,  approximately,  was 
borrowed  at  3  J  per  cent,  for  the  purpose  of 
extending  the  Praya  Reclamation,  constructing 
the  Central  Market,  and  carrying  out  other 
public  works  extraordinary,  in  .addition  to 
paying  off  the  balance  of  the  1886  loan, 
amounting  approximately  to  £142,000.  The 
remaining  portion,  borrowed  in  1905,  costs 
the  Government  £3  13s.  per  cent,  for  interest 
annually,  but  this  last  loan  was  raised  to 
provide  an  advance  of  £1,100,000  to  the 
Viceroy  of  Wuchang,  repayable  by  him  in 
yearly  instalments  of  £110,000,  and  bearing 
interest  at  4.J  per  cent.  These  repayments 
and  the  inteiest  on  the  balance,  form  the 
special  fund  above  referred  to. 

There  is  a  Widows'  and  Orphans'  Pension 
Fund  in  existence,  on  the  same  lines  as  in 
other  Colonies,  the  finances  being  managed 
by  the  Treasurer.  There  is  no  Government 
Savings  Bank. 

biographical  sketch  of  the  Hon.  Mr.  A.  M. 
Thomson,  the  Colonial  Treasurer,  will  be 
found  under  the  heading  '•  Executive  and 
Legislative  Councils." 

IMR.    HUGH    RICHARD    PHELIPS,    who   has 

been  in  the  service  of  the  Hongkong  Govern- 
ment as  Local  Auditor  since  December,  1904, 
was  born  on  January  6,  i86g,  and  was  edu- 
cated at  Weymouth  College  and  at  Queen's 
College,  Oxford.  He  was  appointed  Local 
Auditor  for  the  Niger  Coast  Protectorate,  West 
Africa,  in  October,  1894,  and  two  years  later 
became  Assistant-Auditor  of  tlie  East  Africa 
Protectorate.  He  was  Local  Auditor  of 
Uganda  in  1897,  and  held  a  similar  position 
in  the  East  Africa  Protectorate  in  1901.  For 
services  rendered  to  the  Government  in 
1897  9  he  was  awarded  the  Uganda  Mutiny 
medal  and  clasp.  Since  his  arrival  in  the 
Colony  Mr.  Phelips  has  been  made  a  Justice 
of    the    Peace.     He   is   attached   to   Somerset 



House,  and  is  a  member  of  the  Sports  Clbb, 
London.  Mr.  Phelips  married,  in  1903, 
Jacquette  Edith,  youngest  daughter  of  the  Kev. 
George  Lanibe.  of  •'  Highlands,"  Ivybridge, 
Devon.  He  resides  at  No.  72,  Mount  Kellel, 

biograpliy  of  Mr.  A.  Chapman,  the  Assessor 
of  Kates,  appears  in  the  Volunteer  section 
of  this  work. 


The  currency  of  Hongkong  consists  of  the 
dollar,  half-dollar,  twenty-,  ten-,  tive-,  and  one- 
cent  pieces,  and  of  cash  (or  mil)  represent- 
ing the  thousandth  part  of  a  dollar.  The 
one-cent   piece   and   the   cash   are  of  copper. 

the  rest  of  silver.  The  cash  is  practically 
never  used.  Notes  of  seven  denominations, 
ranging  in  value  from  one  dollar  to  S500 
each,  are  issued  by  the  Chartered  Hank, 
the  Hongkong  and  Shanghai  Bank,  and  the 
National  Bank  of  China.  These  notes  had 
an  average  circulation  in  December,  1907, 
representing  $16,916,166. 

Two  kinds  of  dollar  are  in  circulation, 
namely  the  British  and  the  Mexican. 
Formerly  coins  were  issued  from  a  mint 
that  was  opened  in  Hongkong  in  1866  on 
the  site  now  occupied  by  the  Sugar  Refinery 
at  East  Point,  and  run  for  two  years  at  a 
cost  of  ;£9,ooo  a  year,  but  they  are  never 
met  with  at  the  present  day. 

The  value  of  the  dollar  is  not  fixed,  but 
varies  in  accordance  with  the  prevailing  rate 
of  silver.  The  highest  point  that  it  lias 
touched  during  the  List  twenty  years  is 
4s.  3ld.,  in  1877,  and  the  lowest  is.  6Jd., 
in     1902.     The    greatest     variation     in     any 


AND   CHINA.  [Sec  page  iiS.] 

twelve   months   occurred   in    1890,   when   the 
price  fell  from  3s.  lojd.  to  3s.  ojd. 

This  liability  to  thictualion  introduces,  of 
course,  a  serious  speculative  element  into  the 
commercial  operations  of  the  Colony,  and 
suggestions  have  been  made  from  lime  to 
time  for  fixing  the  value  of  the  dollar,  as  it 
has  been  fixed  recently  in  the  Straits  Settle- 
ments. The  insuperable  difficulty  in  the 
way  of  carrying  out  this  very  desirable 
reform  lies  in  the  fact  that  Hongkong  is 
little  else  but  a  shipping  centre  between 
China  and  the  rest  of  the  world,  and  in 
China  there  is  no  fixed  currency.  Indeed,  in 
the  Chinese  Empire  taels,  or  weights  of 
silver  equal  to  an  ounce  and  a  third,  and 
doll.irs  that  have  been  cut  into  sections  are 
accepted  .it  their  intrinsic  value  as  a  medium 
of  exchange.  Silver  dollars,  therefore,  may 
be  regarded  merely  as  a  commodity  whose 
value  is  determined  by  supply  and  demand. 
In  these  circumstances,  even  if  the  dollar 
were  fixed  in  Hongkong  it  would  not  be 
accepted  at  its  face  value  in  China,  and 
therefore  the  responsibility  of  dealing  with 
the  exchange  question  would  only  be  trans- 
ferred from  commercial  houses  in  Hongkong 
to  their  representatives  in  Canton.  Under 
existing  conditions,  prudent  merchants  en- 
gaged in  transactions  between  Canton  and, 
say,  London  make  arraTigements  with  the  local 
banks  for  a  fixed  dollar  from  time  to  time, 
and  are  thus  enabled  to  quote  on  a  safe 
basis.  As  a  rule  the  banks  will  allow  their 
offers  to  remain  open  for  twenty-four  hours. 
Although  by  this  arrangement  it  is  often 
impossible  to  compete  with  the  trader  who 
is  ready  to  gamble  by  quoting  at  the  current 
rate  of  exchange  and  calculating  upon  a  fall 
in  the  value  of  the  dollar,  it  is  the  only  safe 
method  of  carrying  on  business. 

Since  1863  quantities  of  subsidiary  silver 
coinage  have  been  minted  in  London  and 
issued  by  the  Hongkong  Government  for  use 
in  the  Colony.  The  Chinese,  finding  this 
subsidiary  coinage  a  much  more  convenient 
form  of  exchange  than  long  strings  of 
copper  cash,  about  1,000  of  which  went  to 
the  dollar,  used  it  extensively  ;  indeed  it  is 
estimated  that  not  more  than  10  per  cent,  of 
the  coins  minted  by  the  British  authorities 
remain  in  the  Colony  at  the  present  day. 
In  course  of  time  the  Chinese  Government, 
recognising  the  demand  that  existed  for  these 
small  coins,  began  minting  them,  with  the 
consequence  that  the  importation  of  British 
coins  received  a  serious  check  and  the 
Colony  was  flooded  with  the  Chinese  coin- 
age, which,  although  of  the  same  weight 
and  fineness  as  Hongkong  coins,  are  not 
fractions  of  a  legal  standard  as  the  latter 
are.  At  the  time  of  writing,  both  the 
British  and  Chinese  subsidiary  coins  are  at 
about  5  per  cent,  discount  ;  in  other  words, 
a  British  or  Mexican  dollar  will  buy  loj 
ten-cent  pieces.  The  consequent  disarrange- 
ment of  local  trade  and  the  injustice  which 
Chinese  coolies  suffer  by  being  paid  by  their 
headmen  in  small  coinage  at  the  rate  of  loo 
cents  to  the  dollar  engaged  the  attention  of 
a  specially  appointed  committee  in  the  latter 
part  of  1907.  While  agreeing  that  the  only 
effectual  method  of  dealing  witli  the  question 
was  by  Government  intervention,  since  con- 
certed individual  action  was,  in  practice, 
impossible,  the  committee  found  themselves 
hopelessly  divided  when  they  came  to  the 
formulation  of  a  definite  scheme.  The 
majority  advocated  the  prohibition  of  the 
importation  and  circulation  of  all  alien  sub- 
sidiary coinage  ;  while  the  minority,  fearing 
that  this  might  bring  about  a  further 
depreciation  in  the  value  of  Canton  coins 
and    lead   to   financial    disabilities,    if    not    to 



[See  page  118.] 


measures  of  retaliation  by  the  Cliinese 
authorities,  adversely  affecting  the  trade  of 
the  Colony,  urged  that  the  Chinese  Govern- 
ment should  he  pressed  to  reform  its 
currency  in  the  terms  of  the  Mackay  Treaty, 
and  that  an  attempt  should  be  made  to 
secure  an  undertaking  that  the  Canton  Mint 
would  cease  coining  subsidiary  coin  until 
Hongkong  and  Canton  subsidiary  coins 
reached  par  value,  and  that  thenceforward 
both  parties  should  agree  to  restiict  minting 
to  actual  retiuirements. 


The  first  mention  of  Banking  in  the  olVicial 
summary  of  the  history  of  the  Colony  is  that 
a  branch  of  the  Oriental  Banking  Corporation 
was  established  in  April,  1845— the  year  in 
which  the  first  unsuccessful  attempt  was 
made  to   place   the  currency  of    the   Colony 

on  a  gold  basis.  The  establishment  of  this 
institution  was  welcomed,  it  being  regarded 
as  indiaitive  of  the  sanguine  expectations 
entertained  by  the  comnumity  as  to  the 
island's  commercial  future.  Two  years  later, 
and  before  it  was  chartered,  this  bank  put 
into  circulation  over  56,000  dollars'  worth  of 
notes,  "to  the  great  relief  of  local  trade,"  as 
the  historian  informs  us. 

The  subject  of  banking  from  that  date 
onwards,  for  a  period  of  nearly  twenty  years, 
is  practically  ignored  by  the  records,  though 
there  are  frequent  references  to  the  currency 
question.  The  issue  of  the  prospectus  of  the 
Hongkong  and  Shanghai  Banking  Corporation 
in  July,  1864,  is  the  next  mention,  and,  iiici- 
denlally,  Ur.  Eitel  alludes  to  the  existence 
at  that  time  of  six  banking  institutions — the 
Oriental  Bank  already  referred  to,  the  Agia 
and  United  Service  Bank ;  the  Central  Hank 
of  Western  India  ;  the  Chartered  Hank  of 
India,  Australia  and  China ;  the  Chartered 
Mercantile  Bank  of  India,  London,  and  China; 
and  llie  Commercial  Bank  of  India.     This  list 


[See  page  119.] 

does  not  appear  to  be  a  complete  one,  how- 
ever, for  some  of  the  older  inhabitants  of  the 
Colony  well  remember  that  there  were  also  in 
operation  the  Comptoir  Nalionale  d'Kscomple 
de  Paris ;  the  Bank  of  Hindustan,  China,  and 
Japan  ;  the  Asiatic  Bank  ;  and  the  Hank  of 
India.  In  fact,  the  manager  of  the  French 
bank,  Mr.  Victor  Kresser,  became  the  Inst 
manager  of  the  newly  formed  Hongkong  Bank, 
and  the  accountant  of  the  Hank  of  Hindu- 
stan, Mr.  John  Grigor,  its  first  accountant. 

Of  all  these  institutions  only  three — the 
Chartered  Bank  of  India,  the  Mercantile 
Bank  of  India,  and  the  Hongkong  Hank — 
actually  survive  to-day,  whilst  the  financial 
interests  of  a  foiu-th,  the  Comptoir  Natioiiale 
d'Ksconipte  di;  Paris,  were  taken  over  in  181/) 
by  the  Hanque  de  I'lndo  Chine.  The  exact 
fate  of  tile  others  has  hitherto  escaped  record 
for  the  most  part,  but  they  were  all  severely 
shaken  by  the  great  Bombay  crisis  of  1866, 
brought  about  by  the  failure  of  Prenichand 
K'oychand's  "  Back  Bay"  scheme  of  reclama- 
tion, and  of  many  other  companies  floated  by 
him,  in  which  millions  of  money  were  lost. 
In  the  same  year  the  failure  of  Overend, 
(Jurncy  &  Co.,  a  big  London  firm,  created 
widespread  panic,  and  in  consequence,  there 
was  a  run  on  the  vaiious  banks  in  the  Colony. 
There  was  something  of  a  scandal  at  the 
time,  for  in  those  days,  before  the  advent 
of  the  cable,  news  filtered  in  slowly,  and, 
in  the  excitement  of  tlie  moment,  some  of 
tlie  earliest  recipients  took  matters  into  their 
own  hands,  grabbing  notes  from  the  bank 
counters,  and  in  some  cases  landing  them- 
selves by  their  unseemly  behaviour,  in  the 
police  court.  These  causes,  with  the  failure 
of  Dent  &  Co.,  Lyall,  Still  &  Co..  and  other 
lirms,  added  to  the  general  depression  in  the 
trade  of  the  Colony  which  characterised  the 
years  1866  69,  led  nllimately  to  the  failure 
or  closing  of  the  Commercial,  the  Central, 
the  Hindustan,  the  Asiatic,  the  Agra,  and 
probably  other  of  the  banks.  Even  the  Hong- 
kong and  Shanghai  Hank,  with  its  capital  of 
two  and  a  half  million  dollars  and  its  influen- 
tial directorate,  passed  through  unpleasant 
vicissitudes  of  fortune,  culminating  in  1874  75 
in  its  inability  to  pay  a  dividend  ;  and  it  was 
not  until  Sir  Thomas  Jackson,  probably  the 
greatest  financier  the  Colony  has  ever  known, 
assumed  the  management  of  its  affairs,  and 
there  was  a  revival  of  local  prosperity,  that 
the  shareholders'  fears  were  allayed,  and  the 
bank  fulfilled  the  promises  of  its  early  years. 
The  banks  in  existence  in  the  Colony  at  the 
present  day  are  the  Hongkong  and  Shanghai 
Bank  (attached  to  which  is  the  Hongkong 
Savings  Bank),  the  Chartered  Bank  of  India, 
Australia  and  China,  the  National  Bank  of 
China,  the  Mercantile  Bank  of  India,  the  Inter- 
national Bank,  the  Banque  de  I'lndo  Chine, 
the  Kusso-Chinese  Bank,  the  Nederlandsch- 
Indische  Handelsbank,  the  Deutsch-Asiatische 
Hank,  and  the  Hank  of  Taiwan.  The  premises 
of  the  more  important  banks  are  in  close 
proximity  to  one  another,  and  are  amongst 
the  most  imposing  buildings  in  a  city  remark- 
able for  its  architectural  features.  That 
Hongkong  should  have  risen  to  such  emin- 
ence in  the  financial  world  is  due,  as 
Alexander  Michie  points  out  in  his  well- 
known  work,  not  to  its  local  resources,  but 
to  its  strategical  position  which  has  enabled 
it  "to  retain  the  character  of  a  pivot  upon 
which   Far  Eastern  commerce  turns." 

The  circulation  of  bank-notes  in  the  Colony, 
first  started  by  the  Oriental  Hank  in  1847, 
has  risen  to  an  average  of  something  like 
17,000,000  dollars'  worth,  the  majority  being 
notes  issued  by  the  Hongkong  and  Shanghai 
Banking  Corporation.  The  history  of  their 
gradual  introduction  is  marked  by  a  curious 


passage,  as  recorded  by  Dr.  Eitel.  In 
1873,  when  the  value  of  tlie  notes  hi  cir- 
culation had  reachtd  three  and  a  qiiaiter 
million  dollars,  "  the  Governor  (Sir  A.  E. 
Kennedy!  received  an  intimation  that  the 
Lords  Commissioners  of  Her  Majesty's  Trea- 
sury disapproved  of  the  issue  of  one  dollar 
notes  on  the  ground  that  the  notes  would  be 
largely  in  the  hands  of  the  poorest  Chinese, 
who  might  be  even  more  subject  to  panics 
than  the  mercantile  classes.  The  (Jovernor 
was  instructed  to  order  the  withdrawal 
of  these  notes  unless  serious  public  incon- 
venience should  result  from  such  a  course. 
When  the  Governor  accordingly  called  upon 
the  bank  (February,  1874)  to  show  cause 
why  the  one  dollar  notes  should  not  be 
called  in,  the  whole  community  took  up  the 
matter,  and  a  numerously  signed  memorial, 
supported  by  a  special  resolution  of  the 
Chamber  of  Commerce,  was  forwarded  to 
Her  Majesty's  Government  (March,  1874)  in 
favour  of  the  retention  of  these  one  dollar 

The  Hongkong  and  Shanghai  Bank  is 
authorised,  in  accordance  with  its  Ordinance 
of  Incorporation,  to  issue  up  to  10,000,000 
dollars'  worth  of  bank-notes,  including  notes 
issued  in  Hongkong  as  well  as  by  any  of  its 
agencies  in  any  part  of  the  world.  Beyond 
that  the  Corporation  may  issue  notes  to  any 
extent,  provided  that  the  actual  bullion  is 
deposited  previously  in  the  joint  custody  of 
the  Colonial  Secretary  and  the  Colonial 
Treasurer.  The  Chartered  Bank  of  India, 
Australia,  and  China,  is  the  only  other  bank 
in  Hongkong  authorised  to  issue  notes  by 
charter  from  the  Home  Government.  Tlieir 
limit  for  the  Colony  of  Hongkong  under  the 
charter  is  4,000,000  dollars'  worth.  At  the 
same  time  if  Ihey  deposit,  dollar  for  dollar, 
bullion  value,  they  also  may  issue  in  excess 
of  that  amount.  In  1895  the  National  Bank 
of  China  began  to  issue  notes,  unauthor- 
ised by  the  Government  either  by  ordinance 
or  charter,  and  the  result  of  this  was  the 
passing,  at  a  special  sitting  of  the  Legislative 
Council,  of  Ordinance  No.  2  of  1895,  pro- 
hibiting the  issue  of  notes  in  the  Colony 
e.vcept  by  permission,  but  allowing  the  circu- 
lation of  aTiy  notes  actually  in  circulation 
before  March  20,  1895,  a  schedule  of  which 
had  to  be  supplied  to  the  Colonial  Treasurer 
on  application.  The  National  Bank  has, 
therefore,  450,000  dollars'  worth  of  notes  in 
circulation,  though  these  notes  are  not  recog- 
nised by  the  Hongkong  Government. 

Two  big  bank  robberies  are  recorded  in 
the  earlier  annals.  In  July,  1862,  a  huge 
fraud  was  perpetrated  upon  the  Chartered 
Mercantile  Bank  by  an  Indian  merchant, 
who,  with  the  assistance  of  an  Englishman 
in  charge  of  the  opium  stored  in  the  receiv- 
ing-ship Tropic,  forged  opium  certificates  to 
a  total  of  $2,000,000.  In  1864  and  1865 
there  was  great  activity  on  the  part  of  certain 
ingenious  Chinese  burglars  who  came  to  be 
known  as  "drain  gangs."  The  godowns  of 
Smith,  Archer  &  Co.,  and  the  jewellery  store 
of  Douglas  Lapraik  were  raided  in  1864,  and, 
emboldened  by  these  successes,  a  master- 
stroke was  planned  early  in  the  following 
year.  Tlie  story  cannot  be  belter  narrated 
than  in  the  words  of  Mr.  Norton-Kyshe,  in  his 
"History  of  the  Laws  and  Courts  of  Hong- 
kong." He  writes  :  "A  serious  bank  robbery 
took  place  between  the  evening  of  Saturday 
the  4th  and  the  morning  of  Monday  the  6th 
of  February,  when  the  Central  Bank  of 
Western  India  was  robbed  of  $115,000  in 
notes,  gold,  and  silver,  by  thieves  who  entered 
the  bank's  treasury  vaults  from  the  drains. 
The  principal  labour  seems  to  have  been  that 
of  tunnelling  a  passage  of  twenty  yards  from 

an  adjacent  drain  lo  a  spot  ex.'ictly  below  the 
treasury  vault.  A  perpendicular  shaft,  ten 
feet  in  length,  of  sufiicient  diameter  to  allow 
the  passage  of  one  mnn,  was  next  made,  and 
tliis  brought  the  borers  to  the  granite  boulders 
on  which  the  floor  of  the  vault  rested.  These 
naturally  sank  down  as  they  were  under- 
mined, and  nothing  remained  but  lo  force  up 
a  slab,  when  ingress  became  free.  Sixty- 
three  thousand  dollars  in  mixed  notes  were 
carried  off,  along  with  ^"ir,ooo  in  gold 
ingots  marked  with  the  stamp  of  the  bank." 
As  far  as  could  be  ascertained,  the  gang 
consisted  of  nine  men,  of  whom  three  only 
were  brought  up  for  trial — one  being  dis- 
charged, and  the  others  being  sentenced  lo 
four  years  penal  servitude.     They   would   be 

^100,  plus,  of  course,  his  profit  and  the  cost  of 
freight,  which  may  be  ignored  for  the  purpose 
of  this  illustration.  On  arrival  of  the  goods  in 
London  six  weeks  or  so  later  the  dollar  might 
have  risen  to  2s.  2d.,  which,  in  the  ordinary 
way,  would  mean  that  when  the  ;^ioo  was 
cabled  out  lo  him  he  would  receive  only  about 
S923.  In  order  to  guard  against  this,  mer- 
chants arrange  with  their  bankers  for  a  fixed 
rate  of  exchange,  and  are  thus  guaranteed  a 
specified  number  of  dollars  whatever  may  be 
the  fluctuations  of  exchange.  An  importer  of 
European  goods  for  the  Chitiese  market,  adopts 
of  course,  a  similar  method  of  insuring  himself 
against  loss.  The  bank's  quotations  in  such 
cases  depend  upon  whether  the  dollar  is  con- 
sidered likely  to  become  cheaper  or  dearer. 

PREMISES    OF    THE    YOKOHAMA    SPECIE    BANK,    LTD.        [See  page  iiy] 

smart  thieves  who  could  effect  such  a  burglary 
at  the  present  day  I 

Owing  to  the  fluctuations  of  the  dollar  the 
Hongkong  banks  do  an  immense  business  in 
e.xchange  quotations.  A  merchant  who  pur- 
chases in  Canton  goods  for  export  to  England, 
must  have  some  firm  basis  upon  which  to 
make  his  calculations,  otherwise,  if  pending 
delivery  of  the  goods  the  dollar  increase  in 
value,  the  sterling  remitted  to  him  on  the 
completion  of  the  transaction  will  represent  in 
the  local  currency  something  less  than  he 
anticipated.  For  example,  if  at  the  time  of 
making  the  purchase  the  dollar  stood  at  2s.,  the 
merchant  would  have  to  pay  $1,000  in  Canton 
for  silk  which  he  agreed  to  sell  in  L<jndon  for 

In  the  European  banks  the  whole  of  the 
Chinese  business  is  controlled  by  a  compradore, 
a  Chinaman  of  considerable  financial  standing, 
who  hns  to  lodge  a  large  sum  of  money  with 
the  bank  as  guarantee.  The  compradore  acts 
as  an  intermediary  between  the  liank  and  its 
Chinese  clients.  If  a  native  bank  or  a  substan- 
tial Chinese  Government  official  or  merchant 
wants  a  loan,  the  compradore,  having  satisfied 
himself  as  to  the  financial  soundness  of  the 
applicant,  negotiates  with  the  manager  of  the 
bank  for  the  required  amount,  and  enters 
himself  as  surety  for  its  repayment  In  other 
respects  the  compradore  has  much  the  same 
functions  as  an  ordinary  general  broker, 
buying  and   selling  sterling  bills,  sovereigns, 



telegraphic  transfers,  &c.,  always  standing  as 
guarantee  to  the  hank  for  the  Iwna  tides  of 
the  contracts. 

In  addition  to  the  European  banks,  there 
are  upwards  of  thirty  native  hanks,  chief 
among  them  being  the  Yuen  Fung  Yan,  the 
Soy  Kut,  the  Hong  Yue.  the  Shing  Tak,  and 
the  Yue  Fung.  Some  of  them  are  substantial 
concerns,  having  their  own  compradores,  and 
capital  sums  ranging  up  to  two  or  three  lakhs 
of  dollars.  Their-  business  lies  chiefly  in 
receiving  money  on  deposit  and  in  lending 
money  against  security  of  goods.  They  also 
conduct  a  large  remittance  business  between 
Hongkong.  Canton,  and  the  interior  of  China, 
where  none  of  the  large  European  banks  have 
agencies  ;  indeed,  as  far  as  Chinese  business  is 
concerned,  they  act  to  a  large  extent  as  feeders 
of  the  European  banks.  Like  all  the  other 
establishments  they  speculate  a  little  on 

THE  CHARTERED  BANK.— The  distinction 
of  being  the  oldest  established  banking  insti- 
tution in  the  Colony  belongs  to  the  Chartered 
Bank  of  India,  Australia,  and  China,  its 
Hongkong  branch  having  been  founded 
nearly  half  a  century  ago.  Its  business  is 
that  of  an  exchange  bank.  The  head  office 
is  in  London,  and  there  are  branches  in 
New  York,  Hamburg,  and  numerous  places 
in  the  East.  The  paid-up  capital  is  ;£'i,20o,ooo, 
and  the  reserve  liability  of  the  proprietors  is 
;t8oo,ooo.  N'o  less  a  sum  than  £'1,475,000 
has  been  set  aside  as  a  reserve  fund,  so  that 
the  financial  soundness  of  the  concern  is 
assured.  The  manager  of  the  bank  is  Mr. 
John  Armstrong,  who  has  been  in  the  service 
of  the  bank  in  the  East  for  about  twenty- 
four  years.  The  bank's  premises  form  part 
of  the  handsome  row   of   similar   institutions 


[Sec  p.i)ie  119,] 

in  Queen's  Street  Central,  and  the  site  on 
which  the  building  stands  is  the  property 
of  the  Corporation. 

CORPORATION.  —  Largely  owing  to  able 
manaf;ement  and  to  the  foresight  of  successive 
directors,  the  Hongkong  and  Shanghai 
Banking  Corporation  is  to-day  the  premier 
bank  of  the  East.  Its  history  is  one  of  extra- 
ordinary prosperity,  and  though  at  one  time 
heavy  losses  were  encountered,  the  tide  soon 
became  once  more  favourable,  and  upon  it 
the  Corporation  has  been  carried  to  its  present 
strong  position  in  the  financial  world. 

Tlie  bank  was  started  in  1864  with  a  paid- 
up  capital  of  $2,500,000,  in  20,000  shares  of 
$125  each,  and  amongst  its  founders  were 
men  whose  names  are  associated  with  some 
of  the  largest  undertakings  of  the  last  half 
century.  Business  was  commenced  in  1865, 
shortly  before  the  opening  of  the  Suez  Canal 
revolutionised  the  trade  of  the  Far  East,  and 
incorporation  was  granted  in  1866.  The 
prosperity  anticipated  by  the  sliareliolders 
was  fully  realised  for  some  years  ;  then  came 
losses,  and  for  1874  and  the  first  half  of  1875 
no  dividend  was  paid.  In  1876,  Mr.  J.ickson 
(now  Sir  Thomas  Jackson,  Bart.),  was  ap- 
pointed chief  manager,  and  from  that  time 
onward  the  progress  of  the  bank  has  been 
most  marked. 

In  1874  the  Imperial  Chinese  Government 
contracted  a  loan  with  the  bank  of  £"600,000. 
Since  then  the  Hongkong  and  Shanghai 
Banking  Corporation  has  been  the  means  of 
placing  many  Chinese  Government  loans  on 
the  markets,  and  has  also  assisted  in  the  flota- 
tion of  Government  loans  for  Japan  and  Siam. 

Sir  Thomas  Jackson  finally  retired  from 
the  chief  managership  in  1902,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Mr.  J.  K.  M.  Smith,  the  present 
chief  manager. 

To-day  the  paid-up  capital  of  the  Corpora- 
tion is  8115,000,000.  The  authorised  note 
issue  is  §15,000,000.  The  sterling  reserve 
fund  amounts  to  £1,500,000,  which  at 
exchange  of  2/-  is  equal  to  $15,000,000, 
invested  in  sterling  securities  (mainly  Consols 
standing  in  the  books  at  82),  and  the  silver 
reserve  fund  to  $13,500,000— a  total  of 
$28,500,000.  Tlie  reserve  liability  of  the 
proprietors  is  $15,000,000. 

The  Court  of  Directors  is  composed  of 
Mr.  G.  H.  Medhurst  (of  Messrs.  Dodwell  & 
Co.,  Ltd.),  Chairman  ;  the  Hon.  Mr.  Henry 
Keswick  (of  Messrs.  Jardine,  Matheson  & 
Co.,  Ltd.),  Deputy  Chairman  ;  Messrs.  G. 
Friesland  (of  Messrs.  Melchers  &  Co.), 
A.  Kuclis  (of  Messrs.  Siemssen  &  Co.), 
E.  Goetz  (of  Messrs.  Arnhokl,  Karberg  & 
Co.),  C.  K.  Len/.mann  (of  Messrs.  Carlowilz 
&  Co.),  A.  J.  Raymond  (of  Messrs.  E.  D. 
Sassoon  &  Co.),  E.  Shellim  (of  Messrs.  David 
Sassoon  &  Co.,  Ltd.),  K.  Shewan  (of  Messrs. 
Shewan,  Tomes  &  Co.),  H.  A.  W.  Slade  (of 
Messrs.  Gihnan  &  Co.),  and  H.  E.  Tomkins 
(of  Messrs.  Keiss  &  Co.). 

Branches  and  agencies  of  the  bank  are 
established     at      Amoy,     Bangkok,     Batavia, 


Bombay,  Calcutta,  Colombo,  Koocliow,  Ham- 
burg, Hankow,  Kobe,  London,  Lyons,  Manila, 
Nagasaki,  New  York,  Peking,  Penang, 
Rangoon,  Saigon,  San  Francisco,  Sliangliai, 
Singapore,  Sourabaya,  Tientsin,  Yloilo.  and 

The  London  and  County  Banking  Company, 
Ltd.,  act  as  the  London  bankers  of  the  Cor- 

The  bank  premises  occupy  one  of  the  best 
business  sites  in  the  Colony.  The  main 
entrance  is  in  Queen's  Road,  Central,  to  which 
the  bank  has  an  imposing  frontage,  whilst 
the  back  of  the  premises  opens  on  Des  Voeux 
Road.  The  banking  hall  is  one  of  the 
finest  in  existence,  with  desks  and  counters 
on  either  side,  and  covered  by  a  spacious 
dome  of  pleasing  proportions. 

The  Corporation  also  conducts  the  business 
of  the  Hongkong  Savings  Bank. 

BANQUE  DE  L'INDO  CHINE.  The  Banque 
de  I'lndo  Chine,  which  represents  French 
interests  in  the  Colony  of  Hongkong  and 
throughout  the  Far  East  generally,  was 
established  in  the  Far  East  in  1875,  by 
special  charter  from  the  French  Government, 
with  a  capital  of  Fr36,ooo,ooo  and  a  reserve 
fund  of  Fr24,ooo,ooo.  The  Hongkong  agency 
was  opened  in  1896,  and  took  over  the  finan- 
cial interests  of  the  Comptoir  Nationale 
d'Escompte  de  Paris.  In  1900  an  agency  was 
also  started  in  the  neighbouring  Chinese  city 
of  Canton.  The  Hongkong  branch  is  managed 
by  Mr.  L.  Berindoague,  and  the  Canton  agency 
by  Mr.  G.  Garnier.  There  are  other  branches 
and  agencies  of  the  bank  at  Saigon,  Haiphong, 
Hanoi,  Tourane,  Pnom-Penh,  Noumea,  Shang- 
hai, Hankeau,  Bangkok,  Pondicherry,  Batlan- 
bang,  Peking,  Tientsin,  Papeete,  and  Singapore. 


— When  Japan  forsook  her  policy  of  isola- 
tion and  allowed  her  subjects  to  have  free 
intercourse  with  the  outside  world,  a  tremen- 
dous impetus  was  naturally  given  to  the 
trade  and  commerce  of  the  country.  Great 
business  corporations  sprang  into  being,  and 
the  rapid  advance  made,  from  the  commercial 
and  industrial  point  of  view,  by  the  people  of 
the  Empire  has  been  a  cause  of  astonishment 
to  all  nations.  There  are  many  financial 
houses  now  conducting  operations  upon  an 
extensive  scale,  and  one  of  the  most  impor- 
tant of  these  is  the  Yokohama  Specie  Bank 
(Yokohama  Shokin  Ginko).  Founded  in  1880 
with  an  authorised  capital  of  Y3,ooo,ooo, 
it  was  entrusted  with  the  management  of 
several  million  yen  of  the  Treasury  reserve, 
and  thus  had  an  ample  capital  at  its  disposal 
for  discounting  foreign  bills  of  exchange. 
In  1889,  however,  this  suppoit  was  withdrawn, 
and  in  place  of  it,  the  Bank  of  Japan  was 
ordered  to  re-discount  foreign  bills  of 
exchange  on  demand  of  the  Specie  Bank,  to 
an    amount    not    exceeding    Y20,ooo,ooo,    at 

the  rate  of  2  per  cent,  per  ammm.  In  1887, 
when  the  special  ordinance  respecting  the 
Specie  Bank  was  promulgated,  the  capital  of 
the  bank  was  raised  to  Y6,ooo,ooo.  The 
consequent  extension  of  business  necessitated 
in  the  same  year,  a  further  increase  of  capital 
to  Y  12,000,000,  and  in  1899  the  capital  was 
again  doubled.  The  business  carried  on  by 
the  bank  consists  of  foreign  exchange ;  inland 
exchange ;  loans  ;  deposit  of  money  and 
custody  of  articles  of  value  ;  discount  and 
collection   of   bills   of  exchange  ;    promissory 

Chang-Chung,  Hongkong,  and  Shanghai. 
The  London  office  is  the  agency  of  the  Bank 
of  Japan.  At  the  fifty-fifth  half-yearly  ordinary 
general  meeting  held  in  Yokohama  in 
September,  1907,  it  was  reported  that  the 
paid-up  capital  amounted  to  Y24,ooo,ooo, 
and  the  reserve  to  Y  15,050,000.  The  gross 
profit  for  the  half-year  was  Y 12, 17 1,077, 
from  which  Y9,266,oi8  were  deducted  for 
current  expenses,  interest,  &c.,  leaving  a 
balance  of  Y2,905,058  for  appropriation. 
An    additional    Y500,ooo    was    added    to   the 


notes  and  other  cheques ;  and  exchange  of 
coins.  The  bank  has  authority  to  buy  and 
sell  public  bonds,  gold  and  silver  bullion, 
and  foreign  coins.  It  is  also  entrusted  with 
matters  relating  to  foreign  loans  and  with 
the  management  of  public  moneys  for  inter- 
national account.  The  head  office  is  at 
Yokohama,  and  there  are  branches  and 
agencies  in  Tokio,  Kobe,  Osaka,  Nagasaki, 
London,  Lyons,  New  York,  San  Francisco, 
Honolulu,  Bombay,  Hankow,  Chefoo, 
Tientsin,  Peking,  Newchwang,  Dalny,  Port 
Arthur,   Antung,   Lioyang,    Mukden,    Tiding, 

[See  page  120.] 

reserve  fund,  a  dividend  of  12  per  cent, 
was  declared,  and  a  balance  of  Yi,o55,058 
was  carried  forward  to  the  credit  of  llie  next 
account.  The  Hongkong  branch  of  the 
bank  is  situated  in  Prince's  Buildings,  and  is 
managed  by  Mr.  Takeo  Takamichi. 



— The  Netherlands  Trading  Society  (Neder- 
landsche  Handel-Maatschappij),  which  has 
had  a  branch  at  Singapore  for  about  half  a 


THE    BANK    OF    TAIWAN,    LTD. 

century,  extended  its  operations  lo  Hongkong 
in  Febru.iry,  1906,  talcing  offices  in  Queen's 
Buildings.  The  bank  was  established  at 
Amsterdam  in  1824,  and  has  a  capital  of 
;f3,75o,ooo  with  a  reserve  fund  of  ;f4i7,ooo. 

The  head  office  in  the  East  is  at  Batavia, 
but  a  large  business  in  the  Far  East  is 
transacted  through  the  Singapore  office.  In 
its  early  days  the  Society  was  more  interested 
in  trading  than  in  banking,  but  at  the  present 

time  it  is  concerned  only  witli  banking  and 
cxcliaiige  business.  The  manager  at  Hong- 
Icong  is  Mr.  J.  L.  Van  Houten,  wlio  served 
with  the  bank  for  several  years  in  the  Straits 
Settlements  and  Sumatra. 


— This  financial  house— the  Nctheilands-lndia 
CommercHal  Bank — which  has  its  liead  office 
in  Amsterdam  and  its  chief  agency  in  Bat.ivia, 
was  establislied  in  1863  witli  an  authorised 
capital  of  ;t  1)250,000  (_t' 1,040,000  paid  up). 
Since  its  formation  it  has  been  largely  con- 
cerned in  the  sugar  industry  of  the  Dutch 
colonies,  especially  in  Java.  It  owns  eight 
large  plantations  with  factories,  and  finances 
about  fifteen  others.  The  eight  plantations 
and  factories  referied  to  are  operated  by  the 
Nederlandsch  -  Indische  Landbomv  -  Maats- 
chappij — Nelherlands-lndia  Agricultuia!  Com- 
pany -the  whole  of  the  shares  in  which  are 
held  by  the  bank.  During  recent  years  the 
sugar  trade  of  Java  with  Japan  and  China  has 
been  very  large,  and  with  the  object  primarily 
of  facilitating  business  the  bank  extended  its 
operations  to  Hongkong  and  established  a 
branch  at  16,  Des  Voeux  Road,  Central,  on 
November  i,  1906.  Mr.  J.  Boetje,  who  has 
been  for  ten  years  in  the  bank's  service,  is 
the  manager  at  Hongkong. 

THE  BANK  OF  TAIWAN,  LTD.  -Any  account 
of  the  financial  institutions  of  the  ColoEiy 
would  be  incomplete  without  some  reference 
to  the  Bank  of  Taiwan,  Ltd.,  a  large  and 
infiuential  house  with  its  headquarters  at 
Taipeh,  Formosa,  and  branches  and  agencies 
at  Amoy,  Swatow,  Newchwang,  Darien, 
P'oochow,  Keelung,  Kobe,  Osaka,  Tokio, 
Yokohama,  Moji,  Nagasaki,  London,  New 
York,  San  Francisco,  Shanghai,  Taichu, 
Tainan,  Takow,  Tamsui,  &c.,  established 
some  eight  years  ago,  it  is  the  Goverinnent 
bank  in  Formosa,  and  is  incorporated  by 
special  imperial  charter.  Two  years  after 
its  foundation  it  extended  its  operations  to 
Hongkong,  and  the  business  carried  on 
under  its  auspices  has  increased  steadily 
month  by  month,  until  now  it  holds  a 
prominent  place  in  the  commercial  life  of  the 
Colony.  The  capital  amounts  to  Ys,ooo,ooo, 
of  wliich  Y3, 750,000  is  paid  up,  and  there 
are  reserve  funds  amounting  to  Y830,ooo. 
The  statement  of  accounts  published  in  June, 
1907,  showed  a  net  profit  for  the  half-year 
of  Y299,45o.  Mr.  Kazuyoslii  Yagiu  is  the 
president,  Mr.  Totaro  Shimosaka,  is  the  vice- 
president,  and  Messrs.  Muneyoshi  Tatsuno  and 
Isolatsu  Kajivvara,  are  the  directors  of  the 
Company.  The  Hongkong  offices  are  in 
Princes  Buildings,  and  the  branch  is  managed 
by  Mr.  D.  Tohdow,  who  has  been  in  the 
service  of  the  bank  since  its  formation.  He 
has  the  assistance  of  an  excellent  general 
staff  and  a  Chinese  compradore. 


By    G.    H.    BATESON    Wright,    D.D.    (OXON.),   Headmaster  of   Queen's  College,   Hongkong. 

impress    upon 

ilONGKONG  is  siii  generis." 
Thirty  years  ago  this  was 
the  war  cry  of  the  eloquent 
Hon.  Mr.  Phineas  Ryrie, 
locally  known  as  the  Ru- 
pert of  Debate.  He  never 
wearied  of  endeavouring  to 
the  Government  that  it  was 
futile  to  attempt  to  apply  the  experiences  of 
England  and  India  to  the  conditions  of 
Hongkong.  Few  people  will  be  found  ready 
to  deny  that  a  sound  substratum  of  fact 
underlies  the  idea  ;  but  it  is  equally  certain 
that  for  many  decades  Hongkong  suffered 
from  undue  regard  to  the  conviction  that 
English  methods  could  not  solve  Chinese 

Prima  facie,  it  would  appear  probable  that 
Education  would  naturally  be  one  of  those 
subjects  in  which  great,  if  not  insuperable, 
difficulties  would  be  encountered  in  dealing 
with  a  large,  mixed,  cosmopolitan  community, 
the  bulk  of  which  belongs  to  the  most  con- 
servative of  nations  on  the  face  of  the  earth — 
the  Chinese.  Despite  the  hindrances  en- 
gendered by  this  conception,  a  cursory  review 
of  the  history  of  Education  in  this  Colony  will 
show  that,  after  all.  a  greater  similarity  obtains 
between  the  conditions  existing  in  the  mother 
country  and  this  little  Colony  than  might  at  the 
coup  d'oeil  be  supposed  possible. 

In  England,  from  1850  to  1870,  the  only 
elementary  schools  were  the  National  Schools, 
under  the  ;egis  of  the  Established  Episcopal 
Church,  the  British  Schools  supported  by  the 
Nonconformist  denominations,  and  the  Roman 
Catholic  Schools,  all  of  these  receiving  bonuses 
from  the  Government,  with  special  con- 
sideration to  the  Established  Church.  We 
need  not  be  surprised,  then,  to  find  that  for  the 
first  twenty  or  thirty  years  the  Hongkong 
Government  contented  itself  with  aiding 
missionary  efforts  by  grants  and  by  tlie 
establishment  of  Grant-in-aid  Schools  under 
the  control  of  an  Educational  Committee, 
of  which  Bishop  Smith,  and  subsequently 
Dr.  Legge,  was  chairman.  When  Board 
Schools  were  instituted  in  England  the  Forster 
Code  was  introduced  into  Hongkong,  with  the 
modifications  required  by  local  conditions. 
At  intervals  new  editions  of  the  local  Code 
were  published,  generally  increasing  both  the 
value  of  the  grant  and  the  severity  of  the 
standard.  Last  of  all,  Hongkong,  following  the 
lead  at  home,  abolished  the  necessity  of  an 
annual  examination  of  all  the  scholars  in  the 
Grant-in-aid  Scliools,  leaving  the  assessment  of 
the  proficiency  of  each  school,  and  the  extent 

to  which  it  shall  be  subject  to  examination, 
to  the  discretion  of  the  Inspector  of  Schools. 

So  far,  it  will  be  observed,  nothing  has 
been  recorded  indicative  of  any  necessity  for 
peculiar  treatment  of  educational  matters  in 
Hongkong.  Naturally',  however,  linguistic 
and  racial  problems  unknown  in  Great  Britain 
arise  in  this  Colony.  Of  a  total  population 
of  361,000,  no  fewer  than  340,000,  or  94  per 
cent,  are  Cliinese.  The  importance  to  these 
of  the  study  of  their  own  language  would 
appear  to  be  self-evident,  and  was  immediately 
recognised  by  the  local  Government  without 
discussion.  Under  Sir  J.  Pope-Hennessy's 
regime  (1877-82)  it  was  first  suggested 
that  the  entire  time  of  Chinese  students 
ought  to  be  devoted  to  the  acquisition  of  the 
English  language.  The  supporters  of  the 
then  existing  state  of  affairs  appealed  success- 
fully to  the  famous  dictum  of  Macaulay  relative 
to  the  maintenance  of  vernacular  instruction 
in  India.  The  matter  dropped  for  the  time 
to  be  revived  under  more  propitious  circum- 
stances during  the  governorship  of  Sir 
William  Robinson  (1891-97),  when  notice 
was  given  that  the  study  of  Chinese  was 
removed  from  the  curriculum  of  all  Govern- 
ment Schools,  and  that  in  future  no  new 
Grant-in-aid  School  teaching  Chinese  would 
be  accepted.  Later,  the  Government  reverted 
to  the  former  practice,  and  more  recently 
advanced  to  the  position  that  no  grant  would 
be  given  to  a  school  attended  by  Chinese 
unless  adequate  provision  weie  made  for  in- 
struction in  the  vernacular. 

Next  to  the  consideration  of  whether  the 
Chinese  language  should  be  taught,  came  the 
question  of  the  method  to  be  employed  in 
teaching  it.  At  first  sight  it  would  appear 
somewhat  presumptuous  fpr  foreigners  to 
undertake  to  devise  an  improvement  upon  the 
native  system  which  had  been  in  vogue  for 
several  centuries.  But  common-sense  and 
utilitarianism  prevailed.  It  is  the  custom  in 
China  for  the  first  two  or  three  years  of  a 
child's  school-life  to  be  spent  in  the  acquire- 
ment by  heart  of  several  volumes  of  native 
literature,  without  any  explanation  whatever 
of  the  subject-matter,  which  is  perfectly  un- 
intelligible to  the  scholar.  Even  when 
instruction  comes  later,  its  educational  value, 
apart  from  moral  lessons  such  as  filial  piety, 
&c.,  is  confined  to  the  composition  of  stilted 
essays  in  stereotyped  style  upon  topics  of  a 
very  limited  scope.  To  meet  the  requirements 
of  a  scheme  for  teaching  the  Chinese  their 
own  language  on  a  rational  system  several 
series  of  books  have  been  compiled  and  pub- 

lished by  missionaries  at  Shanghai.  Following 
the  plan  of  English  Readers,  they  begin  with 
the  use  of  the  simplest  characters  possible, 
and  treat  of  subjects  within  the  every-day 
ken  of  the  infant.  Lessons  are  given  on 
animals,  plants,  history,  and  geography,  while 
not  the  least  interesting  and  instructive  is  a 
work  dealing  with  the  composite  parts  of 
vai'ious  characters  and  their  meaning,  hitherto 
a  sealed  subject  to  the  average  Cliinaman. 
All  this,  an  entirely  new  departure  for  Chinese 
students,  is  of  high  educational  value  ;  and 
at  the  end  of  three  years,  instead  of  being 
on  the  threshold  of  learning,  as  by  the  native 
system,  the  pupils  have  acquired  a  variety  of 
useful  information  and  are  able  to  write  short 
letters  and  essays,  formerly  an  impossible 
feat  at  this  stage.  These  useful  books  have 
been  introduced  into  Hongkong  Government 
Schools  within  the  last  half-dozen  years,  and, 
though  some  are  too  childish  in  sentiment 
for  boys  twelve  years  of  age,  are  highly 

Beside  British  and  Chinese,  there  are  in 
Hongkong  boys  of  all  nationalities — American, 
Hindu,  Japanese,  Parsee,  Portuguese,  &c. 
For  many  years  there  was  a  great  agitation 
amongst  the  British  ratepayers  to  found  a 
separate  school  for  the  exclusive  use  of  boys 
and  girls  of  British  parentage.  Their  prayer 
has  now  been  granted.  The  first  opportunity 
was  afforded  by  a  new  school-building  erected 
hy  the  munificence  of  Mr.  Ho  Tung,  with  the 
proviso  that  no  boy  should  be  excluded  on 
the  ground  of  race  or  creed.  As  this  school 
was  conveniently  situated  for  the  children  of 
residents  in  the  Kowloon  Peninsula  opposite 
Victoria,  Mr.  Ho  Tung  was  induced  to  consent 
to  his  school  being  converted  into  a  school 
for  British  children  only,  on  the  under- 
standing that  the  Government  would  erect  in 
Yaumati,  a  mile  distant  on  the  same  side  of 
the  water,  a  school  for  Chinese  under  the 
charge  of  an  English  headmaster.  Mr.  D. 
James,  formerly  assistant  master  at  Queen's 
College,  Hongkong,  and  second  master  of 
the  King's  School  for  Siamese  Princes  at 
Bangkok,  was  appointed  headmaster,  and  Kow- 
loon British  School  was  formally  opened  in 
1902.  Soon  afterwards,  owing  largely  to  the 
instrumentality  of  Mr.  Irving,  a  similar  British 
School  was  opened  in  the  island  to  the  east 
of  'Victoria  and  called  the  Victoria  British 
School,  under  the  care  of  Mr.  VV.  H.  Williams, 
headmaster.  Both  these  are  mi.xed  schools, 
but  a  somewhat  grotesque  arrangement  has 
been  made  by  the  terms  of  which,  boys  over 
sixteen  may  not  attend   Kowloon  School,  but 


must  cross  over  to  Victoria,  and  girls  over 
sixteen  must  leave  Victoria  Sch(x>l  and  cross  to 
Kowloon,  which  seems  to  suggest  tliat  the 
Inspector  of  Schools  has  not  the  full  courage 
of  his  convictions. 

In  this  connection,  while  admitting  that  for 
other  reasons  the  establishment  in  a  British 
colony  of  schools  for  British  txiys  and  girls 
is  highly  desirable,  it  is  only  just  to  the 
denizens  of  the  ancient  and  enormous  Empire 
of  China  to  put  on  record  that  one  of  the 
reasons  urged  by  the  parents  for  this  segre- 
gation, viz.,  the  fear  of  moral  contamination  of 
their  children  from  association  with  Chinese 
schoolmates,  is  based  on  popular  prejudice, 
which  is  not  supported  by  the  evidence  of 
those  competent  to  form  an  opinion  founded 
upon  experience.  On  the  occasion  of  a 
visit  to  the  Central  School  in  1885,  General 
Cameron,  then  administering  the  government, 
asked  the  headmaster  his  opinion  of  the 
morals  of  his  Chinese  pupils,  and  received  the 
answer  :  "  .About  the  same  as  those  of  school- 
boys of  other  nations,  certainly  not  worse." 
Dr.  Stewart,  the  previous  headmaster,  on 
being  appealed  to,  corroborated  the  state- 
ment. Dr.  Eitel,  the  Inspector  of  Sch<K>ls, 
whose  experience  was  still  more  varied, 
as  he  had  been  for  many  years  a  missionary 
among  the  Hakka  population  on  the  mainland, 
then  made  the  following  important  pronounce- 
ment :  "  Taking  them  class  by  class,  Your 
Excellency,  the  Chinese  compare  very  favour- 
ably with  Western  nations  in  the  matter  of 
morality."  The  General  laughed,  and  said 
"That  is  your  opinion,  gentlemen.  Well, 
nobody  will  believe  you."  Here  we  have 
the  whole  affair  in  a  nutshell.  Popular  pre- 
judice is  tenacious  of  life.  Nobody  will 
accept  an  actual  fact  opposed  to  the  belief 
of   the  man  in  the  street. 

When  Inspector  of  Schools,  Dr.  Stewart 
endea%'Oured  to  induce  the  Government  to 
favour  a  policy  of  compulsory  education, 
then  exploited  in  England.  All  succeeding 
inspectors  of  schools  have  concluded,  and 
justly  so,  that  it  is  absolutely  impracticable 
to  dream  of  introducing  compulsory  education 
into  Hongkong.  The  enormous  army  of 
school  attendance  officers  necessary  to  render 
the  scheme  in  the  least  degree  efficient,  is 
in  itself  sufHciently  appalling  ;  to  say  nothing 
of  the  time  that  would  be  wasted  at  the 
magisterial  court  in  warning  and  fining 
offenders.  The  discrepancy  between  the 
estimated  number  of  children  of  school  age 
in  the  Colony,  and  those  attending  school 
is  largely  accounted  for  by  the  boating 
populati(jn  ;  though  even  tliese  are  not 
indifferent  to  the  advantages  of  Western 
education,  as  Queen's  College  and  Yaumati 
Government  School  can  testify.  From  what- 
ever cause,  however,  there  has  been  in  the 
last  few  years  a  very  perceptible  decrease 
in  the  number  of  children  seen  toiling  up 
the  hillside  with  loads  of  brick  and  earth. 

Chinese  boys  are  for  the  most  part  docile, 
well-behaved,  and,  to  some  extent,  eager  to 
learn.  They  have,  however,  a  disposition  to 
be  eclectic.  If,  for  instance,  they  do  not 
see  the  present  advantage  of  the  study  of 
geography  or  geometry,  they  neglect  these 
subjects  as  far  as  the  rules  of  the  school  may 
permit.  They  do  not  recognise  that  in  a 
commercial  career,  a  correct  knowledge  of 
cities  and  countries,  of  their  manufactures 
and  products,  may  be  of  real  service  in 
after  life  ;  nor  do  they  appreciate  the  fact 
that  the  average  Chinaman  is  incapable  of 
sustaining  an  argument,  starting  with  false 
or  indeterminate  premisses  and  cheerfully 
pursuing  a  circuitous  course  to  the  point 
from  which  he  started,  the  only  cure  for 
which  is  a  rigid  course  of  geometrical  study. 

There  is,  perhaps,  no  characteristic  of  the 
Chinese  nation  more  universally  admitted 
than  their  possession  of  a  marvellous  memory. 
But  the  questions  arise  :  Is  it  a  serviceable 
memory  ?  Is  it  not  rather  an  agent  for 
cramming  .'  Are  there  not.  as  a  matter  of 
fact,  nearly  99  per  cent,  of  them  incapable 
of  renieml)ering,  after  the  lapse  of  a  year, 
the  salient  points  of  any  subject  (say  history) 
in  which  they  have  passed  an  examination 
successfully  ?  Again,  though  like  most 
Eastern  nations,  the  Chinese  show  a  greater 
aptitude  for  the  acquisition  of  knowledge  in 
arithmetic,  algebra,  and  trigonometry,  than 
is  possessed  by  the  average  Western  school- 
boy, they  can  hardly  be  ciedited  witli  the 
matliematical  genius  accorded  to  them  by 
popular  opinion.  Their  memory  is  not 
accretive  ;  too  often  will  they  be  found  to 
have  forgotten  elementary  principles,  with 
which  they  were  acquainted  two  or  three 
years  previously.  As  a  rule  they  are  lacking 
in  initiative  ;  they  can  repeat  the  same 
mathematical  exercise  provided  the  conditions 
are  the  same,  but  will  be  at  a  loss  if  a  slight 
change  is  introduced  requiring  the  exercise 
of  independent  thought.  In  spite,  however, 
of  these  points  of  adverse  criticism,  Chinese, 
taking  them  all  round,  are  more  apt  and 
willing  pupils  than  European  boj's. 


The  growth  of  education  in  this  Colony 
has  been  unostentatious  and  slow.  Like  a 
germinating  plant,  it  at  first  followed  the 
lines  of  least  resistance,  but  as  it  matured  it 
became  firmly  rooted,  and  the  buffets  of 
conflicting  circumstances  have  only  proved 
beneficial.  It  is  now  hardy  and  weather- 
proof. As  we  have  seen,  the  Government 
began  by  encouraging  missionary  efforts. 
It  remained  for  a  missionary  to  be  the  prime 
factor  in  rousing  the  Governinent  to  a  full 
sense  of  its  responsibility  in  tlie  matter  of 
taking  a  lead  in  the  education  of  the  Colony. 
Dr.  James  Legge,  of  Aberdeen,  the  celebrated 
Sinologue,  Senior  Missionary  of  the  London 
Missionary  Society,  was  at  the  time  chair- 
man of  the  Government  Educational  Board, 
and  he  was  successful  in  inducing  the 
Government  to  agree  to  the  foundation  of 
the  Government  Central  School  in  Gough 
Street,  and  to  the  appointment  of  Mr.  (later 
Dr.)  Frederick  Stewart,  also  of  Aberdeen 
University,  to  be  the  first  headmaster,  com- 
bined with  which  office  were  the  additional 
duties  of  Inspector  of  Schools.  Mr.  Stewart 
arrived  in  1862.  He  had  many  difficulties  to 
cope  with,  prominent  amongst  them  being 
the  indifference  of  the  Chinese  of  those  days 
to  the  advantages  of  Western  education.  In 
a  few  years,  however,  he  had  various  Govern- 
ment schools  established  in  sundry  villages 
of  the  island  and  at  Kowloon,  in  addition  to 
two  more  important  schools — Governinent 
Schools  at  Wantsai  and  Saiyingpuii.  As  soon 
as  Dr.  Legge  saw  Mr.  Stewart  firmly  seated 
in  the  saddle,  he  generously  recommended 
to  the  Government  the  complete  emancipa- 
tion of  the  former  from  the  Educ.itioiial 
Board,  and  this  was  immediately  granted. 
For  nineteen  years  Dr.  Stewart  remained 
Inspector  of  Schools,  during  which  time  the 
number  of  Government  and  Grant-in-aid 
Schools  swelled  considerably,  and  tlie  increase 
in  school  attendance  and  the  extension  of 
proficiency  in  English  were  thoroughly  satis- 
factory. Attacks  on  the  educational  system 
were   made   during  the   Governorship  of  Sir 

J.  Pope-Hennessy.  Dr.  Stewart  first  begged 
to  be  relieved  of  the  onerous  duties  of 
Inspector  of  Schools,  Dr.  Eitel  being  at 
once  appointed  to  the  vacancy.  In  1881, 
Dr.  Stewart  successfully  made  application 
for  the  post  of  Police  Magistrate.  He 
subsequently  became  Registrar -General, 
Acting  Colonial  Secretary,  and,  at  the  time  of 
his  death,  in  1889,  was  Colonial  Secret.iry. 
Tlie  Cliinese  evinced  their  high  appreciation 
of  Dr.  Stewart's  services  by  founding  a 
scholarship  at  Queen's  College  in  his  memory. 
A  large  coloured  window  in  a  transept  of 
St.  John's  Cathedral  permanently  records  the 
sentiments  of  the  general  public. 

Dr.  Eitel  was  Inspector  of  Schools  from 
187910  1897.  Education  continued  to  flourish 
during  his  tenure  of  oflice,  the  chief  features 
of  which  were  the  impetus  given  to  female 
education,  the  removal  of  religious  disabilities 
in  schools,  and  the  reduction  in  the  number 
of  school  days  annually  necessary  for  the 
Governinent  grant.  The  arrival  of  Sir  George 
Bowen  in  1883  was  signalised  by  .a^Jwft 
of  educational  ardour.  Scholarships  were 
granted  giving  free  education  at  the  Central 
School  to  boys  from  the  Government  District 
Schools,  and  an  annual  Government  scholar- 
ship of  £200  a  year  for  four  years  was 
founded  to  enable  Hongkong  boys  to  proceed 
to  England  for  the  further  study  required 
for  a  professional  career.  To  the  enterpris- 
ing courage  of  Mr.  C.  J.  Bateman  was  due 
the  starting  of  the  Cambridge  Local  Exami- 
nations in  Hongkong.  A  year  or  two  later 
Hongkong  was  made  a  centre  for  the  Oxford 
Locals,  with  Mr.  Wright  as  local  secretary, 
Oxford  proving  more  amenable  than  Cam- 
bridge in  granting  concessions  to  Hongkong 
on  account  of  its  gre,it  distance  from  England. 
The  Chinese  College  of  Medicine  was  in- 
augurated, and  proved  an  unqualified  success. 
With  the  exhibition  of  so  much  educational 
energy,  a  friendly  spirit  of  rivalry  was  excited 
amongst  the  schools  of  the  Colony  that 
continues  to  the  present  day  with  very 
beneficial  results.  School  sports,  which  pre- 
viously had  been  confined  to  individual 
schools,  were  re-organised  and  amalgamated 
into  one  annual  function  known  as  tlie  Hong- 
kong Schools'  Sports.  Dr.  Eitel  spent  con- 
siderable time  and  energy  in  the  formation 
of  a  cadet  corps  in  connection  with  all  the 
leading  schools.  One  combined  and  rather 
imposing  general  parade  was  held  on  the 
cricket  ground,  but,  like  most  new  ideas  in 
Hongkong,  it  was  doomed  to  early  extinction. 
To  the  great  grief  of  all  the  headmasters 
concerned  Dr.  Eitel  succeeded  during  Sir 
William  Robinson's  regime  in  inducing  the 
Governinent  to  abolish  the  Government 
scholarship  to  England,  and  the  local  free 
scholarships  founded  ten  years  previously. 
The  latter  alone  have  been  restored. 

On  the  retirement  of  Dr.  Eitel  in  1897,  the 
Hon.  Mr.  A.  W.  Brewin  (now  Registrar- 
General)  was  for  a  brief  period  Inspector  of 
Schools.  He  was  followed  by  Mr.  E.  A. 
Irving,  the  present  inspector,  in  1901.  The 
past  six  years  have  shown  a  great  stimulus  in 
education,  especially  during  the  short  time 
that  Sir  Matthew  Nathan  ruled  the  Colony. 
In  fact,  it  would  appear  just  to  say  that  of 
the  three  Governors  who  most  bestirred 
themselves  about  educational  matters — .Sir  J. 
Pope-Hennessy,  Sir  George  Bowen,  and  Sir 
Matthew  Nathan — the  efforts  of  the  last  are  the 
most  likely  to  provide  permanent  benefit  to 
the  Colony.  The  school  study  of  hygiene  was, 
it  is  true,  made  part  of  imperial  policy  by  the 
Secretary  of  State  for  the  Colonies,  but  it  is 
no  less  true  that  its  zealous  adoption  in  Hong- 
kong was  due  to  the  late  Governor,  while  the 
institution  of  the  Evening  Continuation  Classes 


was  His  Excellency's  own  idea.  These  classes 
have  proved  so  successful  that  they  have 
recently  been  re-christened  "  Hongkong 
Technical  College,"  and  made  a  sub-depart- 
ment of  the  Inspectorate  of  Schools,  with  an 
Advisory  Committee,  the  chairman  of  which, 
the  Hon.  Mr.  A.  W.  Brewin,  has  done  yeoman 
service  during  the  past  "eighteen  months. 
Besides  being  an  active  member  of  the  League 
of  the  Empire,  connected  with  whose  agency 
is  visual  instruction  by  lectures  and  magic 
lantern  exhibitions  on  the  subject  of  the 
British  Empire,  the  Inspector  of  Schools, 
Mr.  Irving,  has  been  particularly  successful  in 
promoting  in  the  Government  District  Schools 
the  improvement  of  English  conversation  by 
the  Chinese,  and  in  urging  throughout  the 
Colony  the  acceptance  of  vernacular  instruc- 
tion on  a  Western,  as  contrasted  with  a 
Chinese,   system. 


A  brief  reference  must  now  be  made  to  the 
various  Hongkong  educational  establishments 
not  alluded  to  above.  Queen's  College  will 
be  dealt  with  separately  below.  Of  the  oldest, 
St.  Paul's  College,  the  Diocesan  School,  St. 
Joseph's  College,  the  Italian  Convent,  L'Asile  de 
la  Sainte  Enfance,  the  Berlin  and  Basel,  and 
the  Baxter  Girls'  Missions  at  once  claim  atten- 
tion. The  work  of  the  London  Mission  in 
early  times  has  already  been  referred  to, 
and  .still  briskly  flourishes.  St.  Paul's  College, 
originallyi  intended  for  a  missionary  training 
school,  has  reverted  to  its  purpose,-after  various 

side  attempts  at  educating  the  British  popula- 
tion. The  Diocesan  School,  at  first  a  mixed 
school,  devoted  itself  to  the  exclusive  education 
of  boys  some  twenty  years  ago.  Its  school 
building  has  been  considerably  enlarged,  and 
its  educational  successes  have  been  conspicu- 
ous. The  Koinan  Catholic  School  of  St. 
Saviour's  migrated  to  St.  Joseph's  in  about 
1880.  A  new  storey  has  recently  been  added 
to  the  building,  in  itself  evidence  of  the  success 
which  marks  the  generous  unpaid  zeal  of  the 
Christian  Brothers,  who,  in  a  truly  catholic 
spirit,  admit  Jews,  Turks,  Heretics,  and  Infidels 
to  the  benefit  of  their  high-cl;iss  education. 
The  Italian  Convent,  I.'Asile  de  la  Sainte 
Enfance,  Berlin,  Basel  and  Baxter  Missions, 
are  some  of  the  oldest  institutions  for  girls  ; 
the  first  two  mentioned  proving,  also,  of 
educational  service  to  the  community  at  large, 
and  the  last  having  risen  from  an  enrolment  of 
eleven  in  1883  to  its  present  number  of  sixty. 
Amongst  more  recently  started  schools  we 
must  note  the  Belilios  Public  School  for  Girls, 
the  Diocesan  School  for  Girls,  EllisKadoorie 
School  (now  called  Hongkong  College),  St. 
Stephen's  College  for  the  sons  of  the  better- 
class  of  Chinese,  and,  at  Kowloon,  the  Home 
for  Girls  and  a  Blind  School.  Outside  the 
Education  Department  are  a  number  of  private 
schools  where  a  good  education  is  provided 
in  English  and  Portuguese  In  this  category 
are  also  the  Kaifong  schools,  promoted  by  the 
native  gentry,  for  the  study  of  vernacular  by 
the  poorer  classes  ;  and  schools  for  the  study 
of  English,  endowed  by  the  liberality  of 
gentlemen  like  Messrs.  Ho  Kom-tong  and  the 
late  Chan  He-wan.  To  the  names  of  these 
gentlemen  as  public  benefactors  should  be 
added  those  of  the  late  Mr.  E.  R.  Belilios,  Mr. 

Ellis  Kadoorie,  and  Mr.  Ho  Tung,  who  have 
built  schools  referred  to  passim  above. 

Hongkong  is  a  centre  for  the  London 
University  Matriculation,  the  Oxford  Local 
Examinations,  and  the  Royal  College  of 
Music,  and,  on  leaving  the  Colony,  its 
students  have  distinguished  themselves  in 
England  and  the  United  States  of  America. 
It  may,  therefore,  be  admitted  that,  however 
stii  generis  Hongkong  may  have  been  thirty 
years  ago,  it  can  now  lay  claim  to  have 
entered  the  educational  comity  of  nations. 

The  following  table  of  statistics  shows  the 
steady  growth  of  educational  progress  in  the 
Colony,  remarkable  in  the  case  of  female 
education,  which  was,  at  first,  naturally  op- 
posed to  Chinese  ideas  : — 

Xo.  of 







of  Girls. 


























QUEEN'S  COLLEGE.— Like  the  Royal  Col- 
lege at  Mauritius  and  the  Harrison  College 
at  Barbados,  Queen's  College,  Hongkong,  is 
an  entirely  separate  Government  department, 
independent  of  the  Inspectorate  of  Schools. 
Its  history,  therefore,  demands  individual 

When  Dr.  Stewart  in  1862  opened  the 
Government  Central  School  in  Gough  Street, 
that  district,  though  in  close  proximity  to  the 
Queen's  Road,  was  semi-rural,  being  occupied 
by  villa    residences,   interspersed    with    trees 



and  bamboo  groves.  The  sile  was  admir- 
ably adapted  to  the  purpose,  beiiij;  equi- 
distant from  the  two  extremities,  cast  and 
west,  of  ihc  city  of  Victoria,  to  supply  whose 
educational  needs  was  its  object.  A  building 
in  the  shape  of  a  letter  H  was  erected,  afford- 
ing accommodation  for  about  350  boys.  The 
central  bar  was  a  sort  of  hall,  in  which 
rows  of  benches  rose  one  above  another,  tier 
upon  tier.  Two  classes  were  taught  here, 
and  three  in  each  of  the  adjoining  wings. 
Screens  were  impossible,  so  that  instruction, 
under  the  conditions,  suffered  considerable 

There  was  at  first  some  difticulty  in  in- 
ducing Chinese  to  see  the  benefit  accruing 
from  Western  studies.  Fees,  of  course,  were 
quite  out  of  the  question,  and  a  few  years 
later  the  charge  of  fifty  cents  a  month  was 
not  made  without  much  apprehension. 
However,  in  four  years  222  boys  were  on 
the  annual  roll.  In  1876  this  number  had 
risen  to  577.  It  became  necessary  to  use 
the  four  basement  rooms  of  the  headmaster's 
and  second  master's  quarters  as  class-rooms, 
and  the  need  for  erecting  a  much  larger 
building  providing  a  separate  room  for  each 
class  became  apparent. 

Though  only  reaching  the  borders  of  what 
is  understood  by  Secondary  Education,  the 
Central  School  turned  out  an  immense  num- 
ber of  well-educated  pupils  of  all  nationalities, 
as  can  be  testified  by  many  Chinese,  English, 
Indian,  Parsee,  and  Portuguese  gentlemen 
now  in  the  Colony  upwards  of  forty-tive 
years  of  age.  In  1877  an  attack  was  made 
on  the  work  done  at  the  Central  School  in 
a    pamphlet,   popularly  ascribed    to  the    pen 

of  the  late  Mr.  J.  J.  Francis,  Q.C.,  and  entitled 
"  Does  the  Central  School  fulfil  its  raisoii 
d'Ctn  .' "  A  commission  was  appointed  by 
Sir  John  Pope-Henncssy  to  inquire  into  the 
possibility  of  providing  a  better  system,  and 
to  consider  whether  the  erection  of  five 
Government  schools  under  European  head- 
masters, one  being  a  collegiate  establishment, 
would  not  prove  more  beneficial  to  the  needs 
of  the  Colony  than  one  new  large  building. 
The  report  was  published  in  1882,  the  com- 
missioners disapproving  of  His  Excellency's 
scheme,  which  later  experience,  however, 
would  seem  to  have  shown  highly  com- 
mendable. The  Government  thereupon  re- 
solved to  build  what  is  now  known  as 
Queen's  College,  the  foundation  of  which 
was  laid  by  Sir  George  Bo  wen  in  1884. 

In  1881  Dr.  Stewart,  at  his  own  request, 
was  transferred  to  the  post  of  Police  Magis- 
trate, and  in  November  of  the  same  year  the 
present  headmaster,  Mr.  (Dr.  in  1891)  G.  H. 
Bateson  Wright,  was  appointed  by  Earl 
Kimberley.  Immediately  on  his  arrival  in 
January,  1882,  Mr.  Wright  held  the  annual 
examination  of  the  Central  School,  and, 
thougli  not  in  a  position  to  write  a  report  on 
a  year's  work  with  which  he  had  no  personal 
acquaintance,  he  stated  in  a  speech  to  Sir 
John  Pope-Hennessy  at  the  prize  distribution 
that  he  was  much  struck  with  the  attainments 
in  the  English  language  of  the  Chinese  boys, 
and  that  the  results  of  the  examination 
reflected  great  credit  on  the  management  of 
the  school  and  the  labours  of  the  masters. 

The  following  changes  were  immediately 
effected.  A  half-yearly  examination  was  in- 
stituted and  has  licen  maintained   ever   since. 

to  secure  the  efliciency  of  the  work  in  the 
first  half-year  and  to  minimise  the  evils  of 
cramming  in  the  second  half.  The  power 
to  administer  corporal  piniishment  was  re- 
stricted to  the  headmaster,  and  all  forms  of 
assault  were  strictly  proliibited.  The  study 
of  grammar  and  geography  was  extended  to 
two  lower  classes,  and  algebra,  geometry, 
and  mensuration  were  restored  to  the  curri- 
culum. In  the  preparation  of  examination 
questions  every  care  was  taken  to  obviate  the 
possiliilily  of  answers  that  were  simply  feats 
of  memory  without  any  evidence  of  the  exer- 
cise of  intelligent  effort.  The  consequence 
was  that  for  tlie  next  eight  years,  while  the 
headmaster  (in  so  small  a  school)  was  able 
to  take  an  active  part  in  tuition,  the  Inspector 
of  Schools,  who  held  the  office  of  Annual 
Independent  Examiner,  in  his  reports  pub- 
lished in  the  Goveriimcnt  Gazette,  spoke  in 
the  most  complimentary  terms  of  the  work 
done  at  the  Central  School.  In  1884  Walter 
Bosman  was  elected  the  First  Government 
Scholar,  and  proceeded  to  England,  where 
he  had  a  brilliant  career  at  the  Crystal  Palace 
Engineering  Institute.  He  has  since  been  in 
the  Government  service  at  Natal  as  Director 
of  Public  Works  at  Eshowe  and  Durban. 
The  thanks  of  the  Imperial  Government  were 
accorded  to  him  for  delimiting  the  Portuguese 
frontier,  and  a  couple  of  years  ago  he  was 
aide-de-camp  to  the  Colonel  in  charge  of  the 
expedition  to  suppress  the  rising  in  Natal. 

In  July,  1889,  the  premier  Government 
institution  migrated  from  the  old  Central 
School  to  Queen's  College,  erected  on  an 
open  spot,  insulated  by  four  roads,  a  little 
higher  up  the  hill.      In  January,  1889,  there 



were  438  boys  on  the  roll  at  the  Central 
School  ;  in  July  and  September  of  the  same 
year  there  were  at  Queen's  College  510  and 
7g6  respectively.  By  this  sudden  practical 
doubling  of  the  number  of  students,  the  vast 
majority  of  whom  were  naturally  admitted  to 
the  bottom  classes,  one  would  have  thought 
it  self-evident  that  the  work  of  the  next  three 
or  four  years  would  be  exceptionally  arduous, 
and  that  the  steady  progress  of  the  previous 
eight  years  must,  as  a  matter  of  course,  be 
retarded.  Sir  William  Robinson,  however, 
after  a  residence  in  the  Colony  of  six  months, 
caused  considerable  astonishment,  and  in  some 
quarters  indignation,  by  the  public  announce- 
ment at  the  Queen's  College  Prize  Distribution 
in  January,  1892,  that  Queen's  College  was  a 
failure.  This  dictum,  which  would  have  been 
the  ruin  of  a  private  school,  did  not  affect 
the  popularity  of  Queen's  College  with  the 
Chinese.  It  is,  indeed,  very  instructive  to 
note  that  during  the  very  six  years  that  the 
college  was  suffering  from  the  gubernatorial 
frown,  Chinese  masters  and  pupils  were 
urgently  required  at  the  Imperial  Tientsin 
University,  where  their  excellent  proficiency 
in  English  secured  them  a  hearty  welcome 
and  rapid  promotion.  Of  these  sixty  young 
men,  at  least  four  are  now  Taoutais,  Wen 
Tsung-yao  is  Secretary  to  the  Viceroy  at 
Canton,  Dr.  Chan  Kam-to  is  in  the  Finance 
Bureau  at  Peking,  and  Wong  Fan  and  Leung 
Lan-fan  are  on  Railways  and  Telegraph  Ser- 
vice respectively.  Verily,  it  may  be  said  of 
Queen's  College,  as  of  the  prophet,  that  it  is 
not  without  honour  save  in  its  own  country. 

In  1894  the  constitution  of  the  college  was 
changed  by  the  appointment  of  a  governing 
body,  whose  first  act  in  1895  was  to  abolish 
the  vernacular  school,  restoring  it,  however, 
nine  years  later.  In  1896  independent 
examiners  were  nominated  by  the  governing 
body  to  hold  the  winter  examination  and 
report  on  the  college.  With  only  two 
exceptions  this  practice  was  continued 
annually  till  1903,  when  the  governing  body 
resolved  that  an  annual  inspection  in  July 
and  report  by  the  independent  examiners 
would  be  of  greater  service  than  the  exam- 
ination of  a  thousand  boys  in  January,  the  con- 
duct of  which  was  left  in  1904  and  onwards 
(as  prior  to  1896)  to  the  control  of  the  head- 
master. A  very  wide  gulf  sunders  the  con- 
ditions of  these  two  examinations.  In 
January  every  boy  is  examined,  and  the 
whole  year's  work  is  under  review  ;  in  July 
the  boys  are  tested  in  new  work  upon 
which  they  have  been  engaged  for  only  four 
months,  and  about  20  per  cent,  are  taken  by 
the  sample  method. 

Queen's  College  is  fortunate  in  the  posses- 
sion of  an  excellent  staff.  Of  the  English 
staff,  apart  from  the  headtnaster,  there  are 
three  trained  certificaled  masters,  the  re- 
mainder are  graduates  of  universities — three 
from  Cambridge,  two  from  Trinity  College, 
Dublin,  one  from  Oxford,  and  one  from 
Aberdeen.  The  senior  Chinese  masters  leave 
nothing  to  be  desired,  and  most  of  the 
junior  are  satisfactory.  The  native  masters 
are  trained  under  the  charge  of  a  normal 
master.  Twenty  years  ago,  when  the  salary 
was  only  $4  a  month,  the  head  boys  of  the 
school  were  eager  to  be  monitors,  now  that 
they  receive  $20  rising  to  $35  a  month  great 
difficulty  is  experienced  in  finding  suitable 
boys  to  be  articled  pupil  teachers,  though  by 
this  course  of  training  their  market  value  is 
considerably  enhanced  on  account  of  their 
greater  proficiency  in  English. 

The  Oxford  Local  Examinations,  which  have 
been  held  at  Hongkong  as  a  centre  for  twenty 
years,  during  which  time  1,400  candidates, 
boys   and   girls,    have    been    examined,    have 

proved  of  inestimable  value.  Besides  pro- 
viding an  impartial  test  of  the  educational 
work  done  in  the  Colony,  unmarrcd  by  local 
bias  on  either  side,  they  have  been  of  great 
service  to  Hongkong  boys  in  procuring  for 
them  admission  to  English  and  American 
schools  and  universities,  and  in  obtaining 
exemption  from  professional  preliminary  ex- 
aminations. Queen's  College  has  always  had 
a  difficulty  to  cope  with  in  presenting  can- 
didates. 'The  majority  of  these  boys  after 
promotion  at  the  commencement  of  the 
school  year  have  in  March  to  begin  to  pre- 
pare for  the  examination  in  July.  They  are, 
therefore,  practically  examined  upon  their 
knowledge  gained  in  ordinary  school  routine, 
and  very  little  on  the  special  requirements  of 
the  locals.  In  spite  of  this  drawback,  how- 
ever, they  have  done  very  creditably.  Third 
Class  Junior  Honours  were  obtained  in  1907, 
and  distinctions  as  follow  :— 1895,  Senior 
Mathematics  and  Preliminary  History  ;  1898, 
Junior  English  ;  1899,  Senior  English. 

In  an  ambitious  upward  course  Queen's 
College  is  hindered  by  the  following  con- 
siderations. It  is  a  day-school,  so  that  all 
attempts  to  teach  English  conversation  are 
necessarily  confined  to  school  hours,  after 
which  all  the  boys  immediately  revert  to 
Chinese  thought  and  expression,  and  no 
supervision  can  be  given  to  preparation  of 
work.  Again,  fully  one-third  of  the  boys 
change  annually,  and  this  has  always  been 
the  case  from  time  immemorial.  Four 
hundred  boys  leaving  and  four  hundred  new 
boys  being  admitted  annually  is  a  very  serious 
obstacle  in  the  way  of  obtaining  a  large  and 
efficient  upper  school.  In  this  connection  it 
is  to  be  observed  that  there  is  no  external 
system  for  feeding  the  upper  classes  of 
Queen's  College  such  as  exists  in  any 
large  town  in  England,  for  the  half-dozen 
boys  from  the  Goverinnent  district  schools 
are  lost  sight  of  when  the  number  of  seats 
available  (420)  is  borne  in  mind. 

The  following  table  serves  to  illustrate  the 


(Group  uf  Scholars.) 


slow  but  steady  progress  of  Queen's  College. 
"  The  day  of  small  things  "  is  past.  Gradually 
tlie  number  of  subjects  in  the  curriculum  has 
increased,  and  the  increase  in  the  number  of 
scholars  taking  those  subjects  is  enormous. 
Queen's  College  has  justified  the  high 
reputation  it  enjoys  in  the  neighbouring  vast 
Empire  of  China,  and,  with  due  encourage- 
ment, its  future  prospects  are  practically 

Total    number  of    boys  examined  in  each 

1881       1885      1889      11107 

George  Bache  Wright,  of  the  Peninsular  and 
Oriental  Steam  Navigation  Company's  London 
oflice,  and  grandson  of  Augustus  Wright, 
storekeeper  of  the  magazine,  Priddy's  Hard, 
Gosport,  during  the  Crimean  War,  Dr.  Wright 
was  born  in  1853.  He  was  educated  at 
Queen's  College,  Oxford,  where  he  graduated 
B.A.,  with  second-class  Theological  Honours, 
in  June,  1875.  He  gained  the  Denyer  and 
Johnson      Scholarship      and     the      Kennicott 

English  to  Chinese.  . 





Chinese  to  English... 

30 1 








1, 08  s 



































General  Intelligence 

























(Oxoa.). — Seated  quietly  at  his  desk,  or  pre- 
siding over  his  classes,  the  gentleman  who, 
for  upwards  of  twenty-six  years,  has  been 
the  headmaster  of  Queen's  College,  has, 
perhaps,  done  more  than  any  of  his  con- 
temporaries towards  the  formation  of  that 
sterling  character  which  so  distinguishes 
the  educated  Chinese  of  Hongkong.  The 
histories  of  many  of  the  Colony's  greatest 
men  may  be  read  in  her  stones  and  thorough- 
fares, in  her  docks  and  wharves,  in  the 
innumerable  outward  and  tangible  evidences 
of  her  commercial  prosperity  ;  but  the  history 
of  Dr.  George  Henry  Bateson  Wright  is 
writ  even  more  legibly  upon  the  lengthen- 
ing human  scroll  issuing  from  Hongkong's 
leading  academy.   The  second  son  of  the  late 


Hebrew  Scholarship  in  1876,  and,  in  the 
following  year,  the  Syriac  Prize  and  the 
Pusey  and  Elerton  Scholarship.  He  was 
ordained  at  Worcester  a  Deacon  (Gospel)  in 
1877,  and  became  Curate  of  Ladbroke, 
Warwickshire.  In  the  following  year  he 
was  admitted  to  tlie  priesthood,  again  head- 
ing the  list  of  candidates,  and  subsequently 
held  the  curacies  of  Christ  Church,  Bradford, 
and  St.  Peter's,  Bournemouth.  Kor  a  time 
he   was  a   private    tutor    at    Oxford,   and    in 


1881  he  was  appointed  headmaster  of 
Queen's  College.  He  proceeded  to  the 
degree  of  B.D.  in  February,  1891,  and  by 
grace  of  Convocation  was  allowed  to  take 
the  degree  of  D.D.  in  May  of  the  same 
year,  when  he  was  only  thirty-eight  years 
of  age.  In  1884  he  published  a  work  entitled 
"A  Critical  Edition  of  the  Book  of  Job," 
whilst  in  1895  he  publislied  "  Was  Israel  ever 
in  Egypt?"  Dr.  Wright  is  married  and  lives 
at  "  Ladbroke,"  No.  9,  Conduit  Koad.  His 
recreation  lies  in  his  work. 


well-known  institution  is  conducted  by  the 
Brothers  of  the  Christian  Schools,  and  is  under 
the  patronage  of  the  Kight  Kev.  Domenico 
Pozzoni,  D.D.,  Vicar  Apostolic  of  Hongkong. 
The  work  of  the  Brothers  is  too  well  known 
to  need  any  comment  here  ;  suffice  it  to  say 
that  their  name  is  familiar  in  every  country, 
and  at  present  they  control  over  two  thousand 
large  educational  establishments,  where  well- 
nigh  four  hundred  thousand  pupils  are  being 
equipped  for  the  great  struggle  of  life. 

When  the  Brothers  came  to  Hongkong 
thirty  years  ago,  they  took  charge  of  a  small 
scliool  in  Caiiie  Road  where  they  had  but 
seventy  pupils.  The  number  steadily  increased, 
and  in  two  years  they  had  one  of  the  most 
flourishing  schools  in  the  Colony.  To  accom- 
modate the  ever-increasing  number  of  boarders 
and  day  scholars  more  room  was  required, 
and  in  1881  the  foundation  of  the  present 
building  was  laid  by  Sir  John  Pope-Hennessy, 
then  Governor  of  Hongkong.  In  1898  it  was 
found  necessary  to  add  a  third  storey  for  the 
accommodation  of  the  boarders,  and  three  years 
afterwards  the  building  was  still  further 
enlarged  by  the  addition  of  two  wings. 

To-day  the  school  is  one  of  the  most  up-to- 
date  educational  establishments  in  the  Far  East. 
The  building,  surrounded  by  trees  and  pleasant 
patches  of  green,  is  delightfully  situated  on  a 
height  which  commands  an  extensive  view 
of  the  city  and  harbour  of  Victoria.  Ample 
accommodation  is  provided  for  five  hundred 
scholars,  and  in  the  boarding  department  there 
is  room  for  eighty.  The  dormitory,  which 
occupies  more  than  half  the  third  storey,  is 
very  well  lighted  and  ventilated.  It  is 
surrounded  by  verandahs  which  greatly  en- 
hance the  comfort  of  the  place  both  in  summer 
and  in  winter.  Adjoining  the  dormitory  are 
private  rooms  for  students  who  wish  to  devote 
more  time  to  their  studies.  On  the  second 
floor  is  the  boarders'  study  hall — a  spacious 
apartment,  capable  of  affording  sitting 
accommodation  for  over  120,  and  in  which  are 
held  public  meetings  on  certain  occasions 
during  the  year.  It  is  lighted  by  numerous 
electric  lamps,  and  the  walls  are  freely  hung 
with  maps  and  pictures.  There  is  a  handsome 
stage  at  one  end  of  the  hall,  where  the  students 
have  an  opportunity  of  developing  their 
debating  powers.  The  majority  of  the  class- 
rooms are  on  the  ground  floor,  and  can 
accommodate  forty  pupils  each.  They  are 
furnished  with  all  teaching  requisites  and  have 
a  very  cheerful  appearance.  On  the  third 
storey  are  three  class-rooms  specially  set  apart 
for  Chinese  boys,  and  these  are  also  equipped 
with  the  necessary  appliances  for  the  instruc- 
tion of  the  pupils. 

The  aim  of  the  institution  is  to  give  Catholic 
youths  and  others,  without  distinction  of  creed 
or  persuasion,  a  thorough  moral,  intellectual, 
and  physical  education.  The  staff  consists  of 
twelve  thoroughly  trained  European  masters, 
who  have  devoted  their  lives  to  the  work. 
Tliere  are  also  two  competent  Chinese 
teachers  to  give  a  regular  course  of  instruc- 
tion to  Chinese  boys  in  their  own  language. 


When  these  boys  leave  scliool  they  will  have 
the  advantage  of  knowing  both  English  and 
Chinese.  To  facilitate  the  imparting  of 
instruction,  and  to  enable  the  pupils  to  derive 
full  benefit  from  it,  the  Chinese  boys  of  the 
lower  standards  are  separated  from  the 
others,  and  receive  instruction  suited  to  their 
capacity.  In  the  higher  standards,  the  boys 
are  prepared  for  the  O.xford  Local  Examina- 
tion, in  addition  to  receiving  a  sound 
commercial   training. 

Shorthand  and  typewriting  are  taught  with 
great  success,  and  several  of  the  students  have 
already  obtained  first-class  certificates  in  these 
subjects.  Book-keeping,  commercial  geo- 
graphy, commercial  arithmetic,  and  corre- 
spondence also  occupy  a  prominent  place  in 
the  school  syllabus.  In  all  the  classes  great 
importance  is  attached  to  the  teaching  of 
English.  It  is  the  only  language  tolerated 
both  on  the  playground  and  in  the  classroom, 
except  in  the  lower  standards  of  the  Chinese 
department.  High  marks  are  generally 
obtained  by  the  boys  of  the  college  at  the 
Oxford  Examination  for  this  most  important 
subject.  The  school  curriculum  also  includes 
religious  instruction,  French,  arithmetic, 
algebra,  geometry,  history,  and  hygiene. 
In  addition  the  boys  receive  a  special  course 
ill  freehand,  model,  geometrical,  and  archi- 
tectural drawing,  from  a  thoroughly  competent 
master,  and  the  school  has  always  enjoyed  a 
high  reputation  for  the  success  it  has  achieved 
in  the  teaching  of  this  branch  of  education. 

The  physical  training  of  the  pupils  receives 
due  attention.  A  regular  course  of  physical 
drill  is  given  by  a  sergeant  specially  appointed 
by  the  Government  for  that  purpose.  On 
certain  occasions  during  the  year  the  boys 
are  called  upon  to  perform  some  of  these 
exercises  on  the  stage,  and  the  skill  and 
exactitude  with  which  they  go  through  them 
elicits  the  hearty  applause  of  the  onlookers. 
A  keen  interest  is  taken  in  out-door  games, 
and  in  the  shield  competition  every  year  the 
school  holds  a  high  place.  A  football  and 
cricket  club  has  been  established  in  the 
college  with  a  view  to  encouraging  these 
games,  the  teachers  recognising  that  "all 
work  and  no  play  maketh  a  dull  boy." 
When  unable  to  pursue  their  accustomed 
out-door  amusements,  owing  to  bad  weather, 
the  pupils  retire  to  the  club-room,  where  the 
time  may  be  passed  pleasantly  at  a  game  of 
billiards  or  chess,  or  in  the  perusal  of  in- 
teresting literature. 

Hundreds  of  young  men  educated  in  the 
college  have  attained  honourable  and  lucra- 
tive positions  in  different  parts  of  the  world 
by  the  application  of  tliat  knowledge  and  of 
those  principles  of  right  and  honesty  which 
were  instilled  into  them  during  their  early 

ST.  PAUL'S  COLLEGE.  — This  institution, 
situated  in  the  Lower  Albert  Road,  Hongkong, 
was  founded  in  1843  by  the  first  Colonial 
Chaplain  of  the  Colony,  with  the  object  of 
providing  men  as  native  teachers  and  prea- 
chers. It  is  now  the  Training  College  of 
the  Church  Missionary  Society's  South  China 
Mission,  and  comprises  two  departments — 
one  for  boys  and  the  other  for  men.  In 
that  for  boys  the  sons  of  Christian  parents 
are  received  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  and,  after 
three  years  training,  if  they  are  found  suit- 
able, they  pass  into  the  day  or  boarding 
schools  of  the  mission  as  schoolmasters,  under 
the  supervision  of  English  or  Chinese  clergy. 
In  the  student  class,  under  a  separate  organi- 
sation, men  not  under  the  age  of  twenty  are 
trained  as  native  preachers  and  catechists. 
This  department  was  commenced  in  1899  by 

the  Kev.  C.  Bennett,  at  Shiu-Hing,  and  later 
in  the  same  year  the  students  were  moved 
to  Canton.  In  igoo  it  was  found  that  Hong- 
kong would  be  a  more  suitable  centre,  and 
the  college  was  ultimately  transferred  to  its 
present  premises,  placed  at  its  disposal  by 
the  late  Bishop  Hoare.  Recently  there  has 
been  established  in  connection  with  the 
college  a  preparatory  school  at  Kowloon, 
where  an  old  official  yamen  is  held  under 
the  Colonial  Government  on  a  repairing 

The  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  is  hon. 
visitor  to  the  college,  and  the  Bishop  of 
Victoria  is  the  warden.  The  Sub-warden 
and  Principal  is  the  Rev.  G.  A.  Bunbury, 
M.A.,  who  is  loyally  assisted  in  the  work  by 
a  Chinese  graduate.     There  are  four  men  in 

the  student  class,  twenty  boys  in  the  training 
college,  and  about  fifty  boarders  and  day- 
boys in  the  Kowloon  preparatory  school. 
The  curriculum  embraces  the  essential  sub- 
jects, the  aim  of  the  college  being  directed 
rather  towards  thoroughness  of  teaching  than 
towards  variety.  The  Chinese  language  is, 
at  present,  the  medium  of  instruction. 

SOCIETY. — This  society,  whose  work  extends 
through  Hongkong,  Canton,  and  Shanghai, 
was  formed  at  the  suggestion  of  the  well- 
known  merchant  whose  name  it  bears.  Its 
chief  object  is  to  overcome  the  difficulty  felt 
by   the   Chinese   poor    of    obtaining  a  sound 

MR.   H.  N.  MODY. 


education  on  Western  lines,  and  at  the  same 
time  to  see  that  the  Chinese  language  itself 
is  taught.  Six  schools  have  been  opened — 
one  in  Hiingkong,  two  in  Canton,  and  lliree 
in  Shanghai — having,  in  all,  over  a  thousand 
pupils.  The  work  is  carried  on  by  English 
masters,  assisted  by  a  competent  staff  of  Anglo- 
Chinese  teachers,  and  the  curriculum  embraces 
a  wide  range  of  subjects,  from  rudimentary 
cons<>nantal  sounds  to  higher  and  commercial 
arithmetic,  map-drawing,  history,  and  trans- 
lation. The  Hongkong  school  is  situated  in 
the  neighlxiurhood  of  the  Government  Civil 

spector of  Schools,  Hongkong,  was  born  in 
1870,  and  .it  the  age  of  twenty-one  joined 
the  I'erak  Civil  Service  as  a  junior  officer. 
Whilst  in  the  Malay  States  he  qualified  in 
law,  and  acquired  a  knowledge  of  Malay, 
Hakka,  and  Cantonese,  and  tilled  various 
appoinlmenis  in  Perak  and  Selangor  in  the 
Mines  Departments  and  Chinese  Protectorate. 
He  arrived  in  Hongkong  in  April,  1901,  as 
Inspector  of  Schools,  and  has  held  that  olilice 
ever  since,  except  on  two  occasions  when  he 
acted  as  Registrar-General  and  Member  of 
the  Legislative  Council.  He  resides  at 
'•  Kinta,"  the  Peak. 

to  establish  a  university  in  Hongkong 
assumed  a  tangible  form  in  March,  1908, 
when  Mr.  Mody,  a  local  gentleman  well- 
known  for  his  public  benefactions,  promised 
$150,000  for  the  purpose  of  erecting  the 
necessary  buildings,  on  condition  that  a  site 
and  an  endowment  fund  were  provided. 
The  idea  of  a  local  university  was  first 
mooted  in  the   China  Mail   some   few   years 

previously.  It  was  suggested  by  this  journal 
that  the  nucleus  of  the  university  should  be 
the  Medical  College  and  the  Technical  Insti- 
tute, that  the  endowment  fund  should  be  raised 
by  the  public,  and  that  a  grant  of  land 
should  be  made  by  the  Government.  At  the 
time  of  writing,  this  scheme  is  under  the 
consideration  of  the  local  Legislature,  and  it 
is  very  probable  that  a  site  at  West  Point, 
on  the  Bonham  Ro,id  level,  will  be  granted. 

MR.  H.  N.  MODY,  whose  muniliccnce  is  re- 
ferred to  in  the  foregoing  paragraph,  comes 
of  a  well-known  Parsee  family,  is  one  of  the 
oldest  residents,  and  one  of  the  most  striking 
personalities  in  financial  circles,  in  Hongkong. 
It  is  more  than  forty-seven  years  since  he 
came  to  the  Colony  to  enter  the  service  of 
a  firm  of  Hindoo  bankers  and  opium  mer- 
chants. With  them  he  remained  for  three 
years  before  launching  his  own  opium  busi- 
ness, which  rapidly  grew  to  large  dimensions. 
With  the  advent  of  the  subni.irine  cable, 
however,  Mr.  Mody  realised  that  the  halcyon 
days  of  the  operations  in  opium  were  gone, 
so  he  turned  his  attention  to  dealing  in 
stocks  and  shares  and  to  exchange  brokerage. 
Refusing  to  recognise  the  existence  of  such 
a  word  as  "  impossible  "  he  soon  came  to  the 
front,  and  for  years  lie  has  played  the  leading 
part  on  the  local  stock  exchange,  carrying 
through  manv  transactions  of  considerable 
magnitude.  More  than  once  he  lost  his  all, 
for  in  his  aireer  he  has  had  difiiculties  to 
overcome  and  obstacles  to  surmount,  but 
with  fine  courage  and  estimable  self-con- 
fidence he  has  braved  the  storms  and  sleered 
his  barque  to  safety.  Always  possessed  of 
a  marvellous  memory  and  a  wonderful  fund 
of  energy  and  zeal,  even  now,  at  an  age 
when  most  business  men  are  content  to  rest 

on  their  laurels,  his  activity  is  proverbial. 
He  has  built  up  an  extensive  business  in 
exchange  brokerage,  having  acquired  the 
control  of  the  hulk  of  the  scttleniciils  m;idc 
by  many  important  Indian  lirnis  in  the 
Colony,  and,  with  the  large  fortune  amassed 
by  these  means,  he  lias  materially  assisted 
in  the  development  of  the  island.  With  his 
partner,  Sir  Paul  Chater,  C.M.G.,  Mr.  Mody 
is  connected  with  most  of  the  important 
industrial  concerns,  and  was  closely  associ- 
ated with  Mr.  A.  H.  Rennie  in  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Hongkong  Milling  Company,  Ltd., 
in  which  promising  enterprise  he  holds  a  large 
number  of  shares.  Numerous  and  varied  as 
are  Mr.  Mody's  business  interests,  however, 
he  still  finds  time  to  take  a  prominent  part 
in  social  life.  Many  charitable  institutions 
have  benefited  considerably  by  his  muni- 
ficence, and  though  he  carries  on  his  good 
work  in  a  quiet  unostentatious  manner,  his 
benevolence  and  public  spirit  are  gratefully 
recognised  by  the  community.  The  Colony 
will  soon  be  einiched  by  a  magnificent 
statue  of  H.R.H.  the  Princess  of  Wales,  a 
gift  from  Mr.  Mody,  which  is  now  being 
executed  in  England.  Mr.  Mody  also  takes 
great  interest  in  sport,  and  for  many  years 
lias  been  a  staunch  supporter  of  the  Hong- 
kong Jockey  Club,  at  whose  amiual  race 
meeting  his  colours  arc  always  to  the  fore. 
On  several  occasions  he  has  won  the  local 
Derby  as  well  as  other  important  races. 
Mr.  Mody  brings  to  the  turf  that  integrity 
and  steadfastness  of  purpose  which  have 
served  him  so  well  in  business,  and  the 
enthusiastic  manner  in  which  his  many 
victories  have  been  acclaimed  testifies  un- 
mistakably to  the  high  place  he  occupies  in 
the  public  esteem.  His  hospitality,  too,  is 
renowned  and,  among  all  nationalities,  he  is 
recognised  as  a  prince  of  good  fellows. 

^'^^^^"^  <^^=^ 


By  the  Hon.  Mr.  W.  Chatham,  C.M.G.,  Direaor  of  Public  Works. 

N  the  first  year  of  the  Colony's 
foundation  a  land  officer  was 
appointed  to  administer  Crown 
lands,  collect  the  revenue 
derivable  from  them,  and 
discharge  the  functions  now 
performed  by  the  Director  of 
Public  Works.  The  officer  to  whom  these 
numerous  responsibilities  were  entrusted  was 
very  frequently  changed  during  the  first  year 
or  two.  On  January  3,  1843,  Mr.  A.  T. 
Gordon  was  gazetted  Surveyor-General,  but 
this  was  merely  a  change  of  title,  for  his 
duties  were  the  same  as  those  of  his  prede- 
cessors. The  Land  Office  was  established  as 
an  independent  department  in  January,  1883. 
The  title  of  Surveyor-General  continued  in 
use  until  1892,  when  it  was  changed  to  that 
of   Director  of  Public  Works. 

Roads. — Roads,  of  course,  were  among  the 
earliest  works  undertaken  for  the  development 
of  the  Colony,  and,  according  to  the  records 
available,  the  first  road  to  be  constructed 
was  one  from  Wongneithung  to  Shaukiwan, 
which  was  made  in  the  year  tiiat  the  Colony 
was  taken  over,  namely  1841.  That  was 
followed  by  roads  from  Shaukiwan  to  Tytam 
in  1845,  from  Victoria  to  Aberdeen  in  1846, 
and  from  Aberdeen  to  Stanley  in  1848.  The 
system  has  gradually  developed,  until  now 
there  are  on  the  island  of  Hongkong  95  miles 
of  roads.  Of  those  inside  tlie  city  5  miles 
are  roads  of  75  feet  in  width.  Similarly  in 
Kowloon,  road-making  was  commenced  soon 
after  the  territory  was  acquired,  the  first 
sections  of  Robinson  and  Macdonnell  Roads 
being  constructed  in  1865,  five  years  after 
the  Peninsula  was  taken  over.  A  halt  seems 
to  have  been  called  lor  some  considerable 
period  after  this,  and  it  was  not  until  about 
1892  that  any  extensive  construction  of  roads 
was  undertaken  in  Kowloon.  Since  then, 
road-making  has  been  a